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Canada Permanent Mortgage Corporation 

Established 1855 Toronto Street, TORONTO 

President W. G. Gooderham First Vice-President W. D. Matthews 

Second Vice-President George W. Monk 

Joint General Managers R. S. Hudson. John Massey 

Superintendent of Branches and Secretary.. George H. Smith 

Paid-up Capital $6,000,000.00 

Reserve Fund (earned) 4,250,000.00 

Investments 31,826,618.37 


Every facility is afforded Depositors. Deposits of one dollar and upwards are 
welcomed. Interest at 


per annum is credited and compounded twice a year. 


We have special facilities for carefully attending to the accounts of Societies and 
Associations of every kind, as well as the accounts of individuals and all 
custodians of trust moneys. 


For sums of one hundred dollars and upwards we issue Debentures bearing a 
special rate of interest for which coupons payable half-yearly are attached. They 
may be made payable in one or more years, as desired. They are a 


We shall be pleased to forward a specimen Debenture, copy of Annual Report aid 
full information to any whose address we receive. 


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The Central Canada 
Loan and Savings Company 


Capital (Subscribed) 
Capital (Paid-up) 
Reserve Fund 


Interest allowed at 3M % on Savings Accounts. 
4 % Debentures issued in the amounts of $ 1 00 and upwards. 

President: E. R. WOOD. 
Vice-president : G. A. MORROW. Mannger : W. S. HODGENS. 







Sun.. 3 10 17 24 31 
Mon. 4 11 18 25 
Tues. S 12 19 26 
Wed. 6 13 20 27 
Thur. 7 14 21 28 
Fri. 1 8 15 22 29 
Sat. 2 9 16 23 30 


. 7 14 21 28 
1 8 15 22 
2 9 16 23 
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2 9 16 23 30 
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Sun. 2 9 16 23-30 
Mon, 3 10 17 24 31 
Tues. 4 11 18 25 .. 
Wed. 5 12 19 26 ,-. 
Thur. 6 13 ^tf% .. 
Fri. 7.-.14-2*i6 ~ 
Sat. 1 8 15 22 2T . . 


. 6 13 20 27 
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2 9 16 23 30 
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5 12 19 26 .. 


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4 11 18 25 .. 
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6 13 20 27 .. 
7 14 21 28 .. 


Sun. . 5 12 19 26 
Mon. . 6 13 20 37 
Tues. . 7 14 21 28 
Wed. 1 8 15 22 29 
Thur. 2 9 16 23 30 
Fri. 3 10 17 24 .. 
Sat. 4 11 18 25 .. 


3 10 17 24 31 
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New Year s Day Jan. 1st 

Epiphany Jan. 6th 

Septuagesima Sunday, Jan. 31st 
Sexagesima Sunday, . .Feb. 7th 
Quinquagesima Sunday 
(St. Valentine s Day) Feb. 14th 

Shrove Tuesday Feb. 16th 

Ash Wednesday Feb. 17th 

Quadragesima (1st Sunday in 

Lent) Feb. 21st 

St. David s Day March 1st 

St. Patrick s Day.. March 17th 
Annunciation (Lady Day) 

March 25th 

Palm Sunday March 28th 

Good Friday April 2nd 

Easter iSunday April 4th 

Low Sunday April llth 

St. George s Day.... April 23rd 
Accession of King George V. 

May 6th 

Rogation Sunday May 9th 

Ascension Day (Holy Thurs 
day) May 13th 

Whit Sunday May 23rd 

Victoria Day May 24th 

Queen Mary s Birthday, 

May 26th 

Trinity Sunday May 30th 

Corpus Christi June 3rd 

King George s Birthday 

June 3rd 

Prince of Wales Birthday 

June 23rd 

St. John Baptist s (Midsummer 

Day) June 24th 

St. Peter and St. Paul s Day 

June 29th 

Dominion Day July 1st 

Labor Day Sept. 6th 

Michaelmasi Day Sept. 29th 

All Saints Day Nov. 1st 

1st Sunday in Advent, Nov. 28th 

St. Andrew s Day Nov. 30,th 

Queen Alexandra s Birthday 

Dec. 1st 

Conception Day Dec. 8th 

St. Thomas Day Dec. 21st 

Christmas Day Dec. 25th 


The Canadian Woman s Annual 


Social Service Directory 

Edited by 



" Our loved Dominion bless 
With peace and happiness 

From shore to shore; 
And let our Empire be 
United, loyal, free, 
True to herself and Thee, 
For evermore." 




Printed by 



Copyright. Canada, 1915 
by E. P.. A. E. and E. C. Weaver, 


ur flrtlpr 







As the name implies, this book is planned for Canadian 
women and social workers, both men and women. 

The modern woman is seeking (for her own sake and that 
of others) to realize and to adapt herself to, or to better, actual 
conditions. Social workers desire information as to what 
others are doing. But many people are too busy with pro 
fessional, domestic or other duties, or are too deep in certain 
lines of social work to collect general information for them 
selves. So one chief aim of this Annual is to show actual con 
ditions, affecting poor and rich, employed and employer, the 
baby of the slums, the professional woman, the wife, who 
brings wealth to her husband, the girl-toiler, who to-day, in 
the factories, plays so large a part in the creation of wealth. 

A considerable portion of the book deals with the interests 
of women in literature, art and the professions; but women, 
as the conservors of life, the natural guardians of the young, 
the creators of the home, are attracted so strongly to various 
forms of humanitarian work that we make no apology for 
devoting so much of the Woman s Annual to social questions. 

It may seem to some that this year of warfare, when the 
fires of suffering within, and the dread pressure of unrelent 
ing hate without, are re-shaping the nations on lines as yet 
undiscernible, is no time for insistence on the eyery-day, time- 
worn problems of life. But the present confusion has not 
obliterated the old evils. It does appear, however, to have 
evoked a spirit of deeper earnestness, of readier self-forget- 
fulness, of broader sympathy, which may do much to bring 
about " social justice," and remedy some of the worst defects 
of our boasted civilization. 

Our purpose has been to suggest the backgrounds of Cana 
dian life the country, the people, the government to give 
information as to the more important lines of women s work, 
women s associations, and social agencies, to aid those seek 
ing sources of information or desirous to co-operate with 
other workers. We have endeavoured to group the facts 
presented, believing that this method would add to the interest 
and value of the book. In certain instances our divisions 
may seem somewhat arbitrary, but they are intended to ibe 
suggestive, rather than exclusive. For instance, many organ- 


izations, besides those mentioned in Section XVIII, are 
" socializing agencies." 

At every turn, limitations of space have caused difficulty. 
We regfet some overcrowding of our pages and that we have 
been obliged to leave untouched for this year two or three 
subjects we had planned to include and to discard much valu 
able material we had actually collected. The number of pages 
allotted to particular subjects is by no means commensurate 
with our sense of their importance. In fact, we have merely 
given addresses, in some instances, where an attempt to deal 
with a subject in a line or two might have proved misleading. 
On the other hand, we have found it necessary to add two 
short sections not in our original programme. 

We regret that we cannot here thank individually each 
one of the many busy people who have spent time and trouble 
in supplying us with up-to-date information on their own 
particular lines, or in giving kind help in other ways; but we 
desire to acknowledge most cordially our great debt of grati 
tude for much assistance most courteously given. 

One further word of explanation. Of the editors, one has 
been at work for some years in the field of Canadian History 
and has approached the study of present-day problems from 
the standpoint of past conditions; and another has had five 
years experience of Social Work. 

Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, but we 
shall be sincerely grateful to any one calling attention to 
errors, so that they may be corrected in future issues. 

We are now sending out this little book on its first ad 
venture, hoping that it may find a welcome and prove of real 


Dec., 1914. 


Calendar. Public Holidays and Festivals ii 


Postal Notes Railway Notes Customs Prohibited Goods Tables 

for the Housekeeper . 1 


Area Population Ages Distribution of Women Origins of People 
Immigration Statistics Deportations Child Immigrants 
Girl Immigrants Travellers Aid Work Protection of Immi 
grants Homes and Hostels. ....... 11 


King and Royal Family Governor-General and Family Lieutenant- 
Governors and Wives Dominion and Provincial Legislatures 
Dominion Cabinet Ministers and Wives Canadian Women of 
Title Precedence for Canada Patriotic Societies. ... 34 


What the Council is How Composed National Council Officers- 
Local Councils, Presidents and Secretaries Fifth Quinquennial. 56 


Franchise Notes on Laws Land Grants Associations, Suffrage, 
Opposed to Suffrage Conservative, Liberal, Political Study. 


The Home Widows Pensions Marriage Statistics Notes on Laws, 
Marriage, Divorce, Desertion, Property Rights Cost of Living 
Co-operation Markets Housewives Leagues, etc. . .86 


Departments of Neglected Children Juvenile Offenders Children s 
Protection Acts Aid Societies Probation Officers Infant Mor 
tality Pure Milk Day Nurseries Infants and Children s 
Homes HO 


Systems Authorities School Attendance Consolidated Schools 
Normal Schools Teachers Institutes Domestic Science 
Technical Schools Special Classes Universities and Colleges 
University Associations and Clubs Incorporated Schools. . 132 


Women in Professions Registration of Nurses Associations 
Women in Business Notes on Factories Acts; (See also Appen 
dix D.) Child Labor Shops Acts Factories Inspectors 
Employment Agencies Employments of Women Wages 
Welfare Work Unions Boarding-Houses for Girls. . 158 


Books of Ypar bv Women Women s Press Club Editors Periodi 
cals Libraries Travelling Libraries Library Work Story 
Hour Training of Librarians Institutes Copyright Literary 
and Historical Societies, etc. 195 


Royal Canadian Academy of Arts Women Exhibitors at Art Ex 
hibitions of Year Women s Art Association Art Education 
Mnpiofil Education Colleges and Conservatories of Music 
Canadian Women In Music Choirs Canadian Actresses. 218 



Rural Depopulation A Rural Survey Education for Rural Life 
School Gardens, Clubs, etc. Women s Institutes Agriculture 
for Women. 226 


Commission of Conservation Town-Planning Social Surveys 
Civic Improvement Associations Housing Slums Traffic and 
Safety Parks 235 


Public Health Committee Boards of Health Hospitals and Train 
ing Schools Social Service in Hospitals Nursing Missions 
Anti-tuberculosis Campaign and Sanatoria, etc. Medical In 
spection of Schools Feeble-Minded "Victorian Order of 
Nurses St. John Ambulance Association and Brigade . . 244 


Active Sports Alpine Club Golf, Curling and Rifle Clubs Recrea 
tion and Settlements Supervised Playgrounds Boys Clubs 265 


Notes on Liquor Laws W.C.T.U. Social Evil Purity Education 
Laws for Protection of Girls White Slave Traffic Social 
Service Councils Homes and Hospitals ..... 268 


Crime Statistics Penitentiaries, etc. Police Women Industrial 

Farms Parole System Prisoners Aids . . . . . 278 


Settlements Canadian Welfare League Social Work of Business 

Organizations Organization of Charity Notes and Addresses. 283 


Calgary, McGill, Manitoba, Toronto Universities .... 291 


Statistics of Denominations Baptists Church of England Congre 
gational Union Jewish Societies Methodists Presbyterians 
Roman Catholics Salvation Army and Others Daughters of 
the King; G.F.S.; Y.W.C.A.: King s Daughters Interde 
nominational Missions . 296 


Conference of Charities and Correction Social Service Congress 
Peace and Arbitration Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 
Other Societies, not classified 309 


Note Patriotic Work National Service Committee Red Cross 

Society, etc . . .315 

Appendix A. Peace Centenary. 

B. Average Heights and Weiehts of Normal Children. 

C. Some Addresses of Social Service Organizations in Great 

Britain and the United States. 

D. Supplementary Information on Employment Laws. 
General Index. 

of Persons who hnro supplied Special Tn formation, 





Postal Rates First Class Matter. 

Post Cards. For Canada, Mexico and the United States, 
1 cent each. For Great Britain, Newfoundland, and all Postal 
Union countries, 2 cents each. Reply Cards for Canada and 
U.S., 2 Cents each. The British Post Office will recognize as 
entitled to return to this country the reply halves of Canadian 
Domestic Reply Post Cards upon which the additional 1-cent 
postage stamps required have been affixed. 

Letters. Canada and the United States, 2 cents per oz.; 
United Kingdom, Newfoundland and British possessions and 
Protectorates, 2 cents per oz. or fraction thereof. Postal 
Union countries, 5 cents per oz., and 3 cents each extra oz. 

Letters mailed at any office to be delivered at or from the 
same office, 1 cent per oz. 

Letters addressed to places in Canada must be at least par 
tially prepaid, and those addressed to Mexico and the United 
States must be prepaid at least a full rate (2 cents). Other 
wise they will be sent to the Dead Letter Office. 

A Special Delivery Service of Letters within the limits of 
Letter Carrier Delivery has been arranged for between the 
hours of 7 a.m. and 10 p.m. daily, Sunday excepted. These 
letters must bear a Special Delivery Stamp, value 10 cents, 
in addition to the regular postage. This regulation covers 
the delivery of registered letters as well as ordinary. Upon 
receipt of these letters at the Post Office they will be delivered 
by special messenger as promptly as practicable. Special 
Delivery Letters may be posted for the following offices: In 
Ontario Chatham, Toronto, Hamilton, London, Brantford, 
Brockville, Kingston, Niagara Falls, Owen Sound, Ottawa, 
Peterboro , Guelph, Berlin, Belleville, Gait, Sault Ste. Marie, 


Stratford, St. Catharines, Sarnia, St. Thomas, Port Arthur, 
Port William and Windsor. In Quebec Hull, Montreal, Sher- 
brooke, St. Hyacinthe, Trois Rivieres and Quebec. In New 
Brunswick St. John, Moncton and Fredericton. In Nova 
Scotia Halifax, Sydney and Amherst. In Prince Edward 
Island Charlottetown. In Manitoba Winnipeg and Bran 
don. In Alberta Calgary, Edmonton, Strathcona, Lethbridge 
and Medicine Hat. In British Columbia Vancouver, Victoria 
and New Westminster. In Saskatchewan Regina, Saskatoon, 
Moose Jaw and Prince Albert. 

Legal Documents and Commercial Papers, and all other 
matter either wholly or partly in writing (except the matter 
specially mentioned under Third Class), are liable to letter 
rate of postage, 2 cents per oz., when posted for delivery in 

These papers may be sent to Great Britain, Newfoundland, 
United States and all foreign countries at 5 cents for the 
first 10 ounces and 1 cent for each additional 2 ounces. 
Must be sent in covers open at the ends so as to be easy of 

Second Class Matter. 

Transient Newspapers and Periodicals for any place in 
Canada, Mexico or United States, 1 cent per 4 oz. 

Third Class Matter. 

Matter Partly or Wholly in Print and Miscellaneous Matter 
including books, pamphlets, circulars, calendars, drawings, 
Christmas cards, photographs, etc., when addressed to Canada, 
Mexico, United States, Newfoundland and all other Postal 
Union countries, the rate is 1 cent for each two ounces or 
fraction thereof. Limit of weight in Canada 5 Ibs., but a 
single book 10 Ibs. Limit to United States 4 Ibs. 6 oz., and 
to United Kingdom 5 Ibs. For other Postal Union countries 
4 Ibs. 6 oz. The general limit of size in Canada is 30 inches 
in length <by 12 inches in width or depth; packets will be 
accepted, however, up to 3 feet 6 inches in length provided 
that the combined length and girth do not exceed 6 feet. 

On Book and Newspaper Manuscript, Printer s Copy and 
Printer s Proof Sheets, when posted for delivery in Canada 
pr tjie United States, the rate is 1 cent for each 2 oz., or 


fraction thereof. Limit of weight in Canada 5 Ibs., to United 
States 4 Ibs. 6 oz. 

Manuscript when not accompanied by proof sheets ad 
dressed to Great Britain and all foreign countries with the 
exception of the United States and Mexico, must be prepaid 
as commercial papers. 

Manuscript when accompanied by proof sheets relating 
thereto, may pass to Great Britain and all foreign countries 
at the rate of 1 cent for each 2 oz., or fraction thereof. Limit 
of weight to Great Britain 5 Ibs. ; to other countries 4 Ibs. 6 oz. 

All such matter must be put up in such a way as to admit 
of the contents being easily examined. 

Bona fide patterns and samples of merchandise, not exceed 
ing 12 oz. in weight, and not of salable Yalue, may be sent t6 
any place in Canada at 1 cent for each 2 oz., or fraction 
thereof. Must be put up so as to admit of inspection. 

Fourth Class Matter. 

On all articles of merchandise mailed for delivery in the 
United States the rate is one cent per oz. or fraction thereof. 
Limit of weight, 4 Ibs. 6 oz.; limit of size, 30 inches in length 
by one foot in width or depth. 

Money letters should always be registered. In case of the 
loss in the Postal Service of a registered article posted in 
Canada for delivery in Canada, the addressee, or, at the 
request of the addressee, the sender, is entitled to an indem 
nity, which in no case shall exceed twenty-ifive dollars, or the 
actual value of the lost registered article when the same is 
less than twenty-five dollars, provided no other compensa 
tion or reimbursement has been made therefor. 

Letters containing Gold, Silver, Jewellery, or anything 
liable to customs duties cannot be forwarded by post beyond 
the Dominion. Such articles when addressed to the United 
States must be sent forward as Fourth Class matter. To all 
other foreign countries (excepting those to which their entry 
is prohibited) these articles must be forwarded by Parcel 

Regulations for Parcel Post within the Dominion. Articles 
of mail matter acceptable at Parcel Post rates include farm 


and factory products, merchandise of all descriptions such 
as dry goods, groceries, hardware, confectionery, stationery 
(including blank books, etc.), seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, 
bedding plants, scions or grafts and all other matter not 
included in the first class, and not excluded from the mails 
by the general prohibitory regulations with respect to objec 
tionable matter. 

Parcels containing intoxicating liquors or explosives are 
expressly prohibited. 

Rates of postage: (a) Five cents for the first pound and 
1 cent for each additional pound or fraction thereof, up to 
four pounds,, and 2 cents for each subsequent pound up to 
eleven pounds within a radius of twenty miles from the 
place of mailing, irrespective of Provincial boundaries. 

(b) Ten cents for the first pound and 4 cents for each 
subsequent pound or fraction thereof, for all points in the 
Province in which a package is posted, outside of the twenty- 
mile radius. 

(c) Ten cents for the first pound and 6 cents for each 
additional pound or fraction thereof, for all points outside the 
Province in which a parcel is posted, and beyond the twenty- 
mile radius, with an additional charge of 2 cents a pound 
for each Province that has to be crossed to the destination 
of the. parcel, not including the Province in which it is to be 
delivered, up to a maximum of 12 cents a pound. 

The three Provinces, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and 
Prince Edward Island, are to be considered as one zone. 

An additional charge to meet the extra cost of transporta 
tion will be made on parcels addressed to or posted at offices 
in certain outlying districts when such parcels have to be 
conveyed more than 100 miles by a continuous stage service. 

The charge on any parcel shall not be greater than 1 cent 
an ounce. 

The limit of weight for a Parcel Post packet is eleven 
pounds, and the general limit of size is thirty inches in length 
by one foot in width or depth, but parcels will be accepted 
up to 3 ft. 6 in. in length, provided that the combined length 
and girth do not exceed six feet. 

Parcel Post to United Kingdom. Rate, 12 cents per pound. 


Limit of weight, 11 pounds. Limit of size: length (except 
in case of such articles as umbrellas or golf clubs) not to 
exceed 30 inches, by 12 inches in width or depth. Combined 
length and girth not to exceed 6 feet. A customs declara 
tion of contents and value must be made out before parcel 
is mailed at Post Office. 

Post Office Sayings Banks are established at many places 
throughout the Dominion. Sums of $1.00 or any multiple of 
$1.00 can be deposited, but the maximum sum which may be 
received from any one depositor in any year, ending the 
31st March, is $1,500, and the total sum which may be 
received to the credit of any depositor is $5,000. Interest, 
three per cent. 

Money Orders. The rate of commission on money orders 
payable in Canada, Newfoundland, the United States and 
most of the West Indian Islands is 5 cents on sums up to $10; 
10 cents up to $30; 15 cents up to $50; 20 cents up to $60; 
25 cents up to $100. The rate of commission on money 
orders payable in the United Kingdom, the British posses 
sions, etc, is 5 cents on sums up to $5; lo cents up to $10; 
20 cents up to $20, etc., so rising 10 cents for every ten 
dollars till it reaches $1 for sums over $90 and under $100. 

Postal Notes, which are exceedingly useful for remitting 
small sums, are sold and paid at more than 10,000 Post Offices 
in Canada, and can be made payable at any Post Office in the 
United States transacting Money Order business. The rates 
are 1 cent for notes from 20 to 40 cents, 2 cents for notes 
up to $2.50, 3 cents for notes up to $5.00, and 5 cents for notes 
up to $10.00. 

(Express Orders. The Canadian and Dominion Express 
Companies also issue Money Orders. Rates $5 and under, 
3 cents; $10 and under, 6 cents; $30 and under, 10 cents; 
$5*0 and under, 15 cents.) 

Matter which Cannot be Sent by Mail includes explosives, 
dangerous or destructive substances or liquids, articles sub 
ject to speedy decay, glass (except properly packed spectacles 
and microscopic slides), immoral and obscene books, pictures 
or other publications, postcards and envelopes (containing 
letters) bearing words of a libellous or offensive character, 


and letters or circulars relating to fraudulent schemes or 

. (Neither may lottery tickets or lottery literature be sent 
by express. The same prohibition extends to dangerous sub 
stances such as explosives, fireworks, etc.) 

Kural Mail Delivery." The Post Office Department under 
takes the delivery and collection of mail matter to and from 
persons residing in rural districts along and contiguous to 
well-defined main thoroughfares upon receipt of a properly 
signed petition for such service from not fewer than fifty 
per cent, of the eligible residents of each of the rural dis 
tricts traversed by such main thoroughfares. 

" Petition forms may be obtained upon application to the 
Post Office Inspectors or the Post Office Department, Rural 
Mail Delivery Branch, Ottawa. 

"Any person living on or contiguous to a rural mail route 
and not within the corporate limits of any city, town or 
village, or not within one-quarter of a mile of the post office 
of any village, not incorporated or the boundaries or limits 
of which are not defined, who desires his mail deposited by 
the rural mail courier in a box authorized by the Department 
at a given point on the line of the route, may take ad 
vantage of the opportunity afforded. 

" Such person shall provide and erect a box known as the 
King Edward mail box on the roadside, located in such 
manner as to be reached by the courier without dismounting 
from his vehicle or horse. This box, the cost of which with 
necessary fittings is $4.50, can only be obtained from the 
Post Office Department of Canada on application to the In 
spector of Post Offices of the locality in which the proposed 
route is situated." 


Children, accompanied, under 5 years of age are carried 
free on railways; under 12 at half fares. 

Baggage Allowance. 150 Ibs. on adult s ticket, 75 Ibs. on 
children s ticket. Liability in >case of loss or damage limited, 
respectively, to $100 and $50, but passengers may, at the 
time of checking, insure baggage to a greater amount. 


No piece of baggage over 250 Ibs. will be checked. 

Bicycles and baby carriages may be checked, but a small 
charge is made for carrying them. 

Storage on Baggage. Storage charged on each piece of 
baggage, either inbound or outbound, checked or not checked, 
remaining at stations over twenty-four hours as follows: 
First twenty-four hours, free; second twenty-four hours or 
fraction thereof, twenty-five cents, and for each succeeding 
day or fraction thereof ten cents per day. But baggage 
received at any ihour Saturday will be stored free until the 
same hour Monday following. This exception applies to all 
legal holidays. 

It is unlawful to carry dangerous articles such as matches 
or gunpowder in baggage. 

In the sleeping cars the rate for upper berth is four-fifths 
that of the rate for lower berths. 

Accommodation in Parlor and Standard Sleeping Cars is 
sold only to passengers holding first-class tickets, but 
accommodation in " Tourist " sleepers is sold to holders 
either of first-class or of second-class tickets. 


The British Tariff. Duties are imposed on some few 
classes of goods imported into the British Isles, with the 
object of raising a revenue. Amongst the dutiable goods 
are the following: Tea, coffee, cocoa, sugar, wine, spirits, 
tobacco, cigarettes and playing cards. 

The Canadian Tariff has a double purpose: the raising of 
a revenue, on one hand, and " the protection of home indus 
tries," especially the manufacturing industries, on the other. 
On many classes of imported goods the rates of duty vary, 
according to where the articles in question were produced 
or manufactured. These rates are set forth in the Customs 
Tariff in three columns as follows: (1) The "British Pre 
ferential tariff," (2) the " Intermediate Tariff," (3) the " Gen 
eral Tariff." The lowest rates shown, when there is any 
difference, in column (1) apply to the United Kingdom and 
to those of the British possessions, which give a reciprocal 
preference to the products of Canada. Practically this in 
cludes almost the whole of the Empire, except Australia. 


The Intermediate Tariff applies to the produce or manufac 
tures of certain British or foreign countries "in considera 
tion of benefits satisfactory to the Governor in Council." 
France, Japan, and several other foreign countries have trade 
arrangements with the Dominion. 

A considerable number of materials, either raw or 
partially manufactured, such as unset diamonds, chemicals 
and drugs for dyeing, cloth for bookbinders, yarns for 
weaving, and machines or portions of machines, may be im 
ported duty free by manufacturers; but most finished goods, 
to be worn by men, women" or children, or to be used in the 
household are dutiable. From the long list of such goods 
it is possible only to mention the rate of duty in a few in 
stances especially interesting to the housewife. The figures 
given are for the " British Preferential " and the " General " 
tariffs, omitting the " intermediate " rates. 

On furniture, sewing machines, pianos and organs, table 
cloths, quilts, sheets and towels, dolls and toys, the duty is 
from 20 to 30 .per cent, ad valorem; on wall-paper and woollen 
blankets, it is 22% to 35; on carpets (of various kinds), 17% 
to 35; on china, porcelain, and white graniteware, 15 to 27%, 
and on glass tableware 20 to 32%. On fresh meats the duty 
per pound is 2 to 3 cents; butter, 3 to 4 cents; lard, 1% to 
2 cents; cheese, 2 to 3 cents. On potatoes the duty is 12% 
to 20 cents the bushel; on eggs, 2 to 3 cents per dozen; 
on common soap, 65 cents to $1, and on rolled oats 40 to 60 
cents the hundred pounds; wheat flour, 40 to 60 cents per 

On needles and pins, fur coats and muffs, the duty is from 
20 to 30 per cent.; ready-made clothing, 30 to 35; woollen 
dress goods, 15 to 25; boots and shoes, 17% to 25; ribbons, 
gloves, mitts, umbrellas and parasols, 22% to 35 per cent. 

War Taxes. At the extra session of Parliament, which was 
called together in August, 1914, on account of the outbreak 
of war in Europe, the customs and excise duties were in 
creased upon certain commodities to provide for special war 
expenditure. Additional duties were levied upon coffee, 
sugar, spirits and tobacco. From these a very considerable 
increase of revenue was expected. The duties were increased 


also upon a number of articles of minor importance, such 
as cocoa, condensed milk, sweetened biscuits, preserved 
fruits, jams and jellies, Certain patent medicines, etc. Gen 
erally the changes were made to date from August 21st, 1914, 
but with regard to ale, beer, and spirituous liquors from 
August 7th. 

On the free list is tea (when imported direct from the 
country of growth and production or purchased in bond in 
the United Kingdom), also certain fruits, such as bananas, 
pineapples, oranges, lemons and grapefruit. Books of many 
descriptions come in free, including Bibles and religious 
books, works on the application of science to industry, books 
(not printed or reprinted in Canada) used as text-books in 
schools or universities, or specially imported for the use of 
mechanics institutes, public libraries, art associations, etc.; 
government publications, reports of scientific, literary, bene 
volent or religious societies; embossed books and cards for 
the blind, books for the instruction of the blind, deaf and 
dumb, newspapers and unbound magazines. 

On the free list also are scientific instruments (not for 
sale), dental and surgical instruments, artificial limbs, life 
boats and life-saving apparatus, collections of antiquities, 
etc., for museums, medals and prize trophies, paintings valued 
at twenty dollars or over, paintings or sculptures by Cana 
dian artists residing temporarily abroad for purposes of study, 
presents from friends abroad (in cases when the duty would 
not exceed 50 cents), and settlers effects. 

Prohibited Goods, Paintings, drawings, books, or other 
printed matter of a treasonable, seditious, immoral or in 
decent character; posters and handbills depicting scenes of 
crime or violence; reprints of Canadian copyrighted works, 
or British copyrighted works -which have been copyrighted 
in Canada, base or counterfeit coin, oleomargarine or other 
substitutes for butter, adulterated tea, goods manufactured 
by prison labor, stolen goods these are amongst the things 
which may not be imported into Canada. The prohibited list 
was amended in 1914 by adding the following (of special 
interest to women) : Aigrettes, egret plumes, or so-called 
osprey plumes, and the feathers, quills, heads, wings, tails, 



skins, or parts of skins of wild birds either raw or manu 
factured; but this provision shall not come -into effect until 
1st January, 1915, and shall not apply to: (a) the feathers or 
plumes of ostriches; (b) the plumage of the English pheasant 
and the Indian peacock; (c) the plumage of wild birds 
ordinarily used as articles of diet; (d) the -plumage of birds 
imported alive, nor to (e) specimens imported under 
regulations of the Minister of Customs for any natural history 
or other museum or for educational purposes. 

The Dumping Duty. There are provisions in the Customs 
Tariff for the levy of an extra or dumping duty on goods (of 
a class made in Canada) when these are sold to the importer 
at a price " less than the fair market value of the same 
article when sold for home consumption in the usual and 
ordinary course in the country whence exported to Canada." 
(Clause 6.) 

The Combines Clause. Another interesting feature of the 
Customs Tariff (1907) is Clause 12, which provides that, 
wherever, as a result of a judgment of the Supreme Court or 
other courts of Canada, " it appears to the satisfaction of the 
Governor in Council that with regard to any article of com 
merce there exists any conspiracy, combination, agreement 
or arrangement " amongst manufacturers or dealers " to un 
duly promote " their own advantage " at the expense of the 
consumers, the Governor in Council may admit the article 
free of duty, or so reduce the duty thereon as to give the 
public the benefit of reasonable competition in the article." 
Furthermore, the Governor in Council may empower a judge 
to enquire in a summary way into any conspiracy or com 
bine alleged to exist, and the said judge may compel the 
attendance of witnesses and examine them under oath. 

Table of British and Canadian 
Money (as used by the 
postal authorities.) 

12 sh 




3 poi 



1 penny . . 


6 shillings 






1 shilling. 









2 shillings 







43 83 

3 " 








4 " 





1 pound. . 




5 " 





2 pounds. 




Avoirdupois Weight. 

16 Drams 1 Ounce 

16 Ounces 1 Pound 

14 Pounds 1 Stone 

25 Pounds ... .1 Quarter (Can.) 
28 Pounds ...1 Quarter (Eng.) 

4 Quarters 1 Hundredw t 

20 Hundredw t ^ 

2000 Ibs., Can U Ton. 

2240 Ibs., Eng- J 

190 Ibs. = 1 barrel flour. 

200 Ibs. = 1 bbl. beef or pork. 

280 Ibs. == 1 barrel salt. 

Dry Measure. 

2 Pints . 1 Quart 

4 Quarts 1 Gallon 

2 Gallons 1 Peck 

4 Pecks 1 Bushel 

When certain commodities 
are sold, by the bushel, in con 
siderable quantities, a fixed 
standard of weight is used to 
represent the bushel, but this 
varies according to the article. 
For instance: 

1 bushel oats = 34 Ibs. 

1 bushel onions . 50 Ibs. 
1 bushel wheat = 60 Ibs. 

The bushel of beets, beans, 
carrots, parsnips, peas, turnips 

and potatoes also weighs 60 

A barrel of apples should 
contain 96 quarts. 

Long- Measure. 
12 Lines 1 Inch 

4 Inches 1 Hand 

12 Inches 1 Foot 

3 Feet 1 Yard 

5J Yards 1 Rod or Pole 

6 Feet 1 Fathom 

40 Rods 1 Furlong 

8 Furlongs 1 Mile 

3 Miles 1 League 

Square or Land Measure. 
144 Sq. Inches 1 Sq. Foot 

9 Sq. Feet 1 Sq. Yard 

301 Yards 1 Square Rod 

40 Poles 1 Rood 

4 Roods 1 Acre 

640 Acres 1 Sq. Mile 

Solid or Cubic Measure 

1728 Cubic Inches, 1 Cubic Foot 

27 Cubic Feet, 1 Cubic Yard 

24| Cubic Feet. 1 Solid Perch 

mason s work. 

12| Cubic Feet, 1 Solid Perch 


128 Cubic Feet, 1 Cord fire 

Note. An "Act to Amend the Weights and Measures Act" 
was passed this year, April, 1914. But, as it deals with the 
Metric System, and not that in common use, its chief interest 
to the general public is that it is a step in bringing Canada 
into line with other nations. It enacts that "the basic units of 
the metric system shall be the International Metre and the 
International Kilogramme confirmed in the year 18S9 by the 
first International Conference of Weights and Measures* and 
deposited at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures." 


Area of the Dominion, 3,603,910 square miles, land; 125,755 
square miles, water; total, 3,729,665 square miles. To put 
it another way, Canada is larger than the United States, in 
cluding Alaska, and nearly as large as Europe. The dis 
tance from Halifax, N.S., to Vancouver, B.C., is 3,662 miles, 
whilst across the Atlantic from Halifax to Liverpool is only 
2,825 miles. 

Area of the Pnmnces (beginning with the largest and 
going down to the smallest): Quebec, 706,834 square miles; 


Ontario, 407,262; British Columbia, 355,855; Alberta, 255,- 
285; Manitoba, 251,832; Saskatchewan, 251,700; New Bruns 
wick, 27,985; Nova Scotia, 21,428, and Prince Edward Island, 
2,184. The Yukon District contains 207,076 square miles, 
and the Northwest Territories 1,242,224, or almost one-third 
of the whole area of Canada. 

Population. According to the last decennial census, taken 
in 1911, the population of the Dominion was 7,206,643. 
Arranged by population, instead of area, the order of the 
Provinces is as follows: Ontario, 2,523,274; Quebec, 2,003,- 
232; Saskatchewan, 492,432; Nova Scotia, 492,338; Manitoba, 
455,614; British Columbia, 392,480; Alberta, 374,663; New 
Brunswick, 351,839; Prince Edward Island, 93,728; North 
west Territories, 18,481; Yukon, 8,512. 

Density. Arranged by density of population to the square 
mile the order is as follows: Prince Edward Island, 42.91; 
Nova Scotia, 22.98; New Brunswick, 12.61; Ontario, 9.67; 
Manitoba, 6.18; Quebec, 5.69; Saskatchewan, 1.95; Alberta, 
1.47; British Columbia, 1.09; the Yukon, .041; and the North 
west Territories, .009, or less than 1 person to a hundred 
square miles. 

Kural and Urban Population. It is a significant fact that 
the urban population of Canada has for years been increasing 
much faster than the rural. In 1911 the rural population was 
3,925,502; the urban, 3,281,141, whilst in 1901 the rural pop 
ulation was 3,349,516; the urban, 2,021,799. Increase in rural 
population in ten years, 17.16 per cent.; of urban, 62.25 per 

(For further information as to rural depopulation, see 
Section XII., " Agriculture and Country Life.") 


" The largest proportion per 1,000 of persons under ten 
years is found in the Province of Quebec with 273.508, as 
compared with 271.456 in 1901, when it also held the premier 
position. The lowest proportion is found in British Columbia 
with 166.345, followed by Ontario with 200.316 per 1,000; 
these two Provinces occupied the same relative positions in 
1901, the former having 169.374, and the latter 208.393 per 
1,000. The Provinces which show a betterment at this age 


are Nova Socia, New Brunswick and Quebec. The greatest 
falling off is shown by Manitoba, which dropped from 270.094 
to 248.677, and by Prince Edward Island, which has fallen 
from 232.086 to 214.450 per 1,000. The Western Provinces are 
the regions of young men and women, as is shown by the 
large percentage of the population between the ages of 20 
and 45. It is an interesting fact that the highest proportion 
for this age period is to be found in British Columbia, and 
that as we come eastward the proportion assumes a con 
stantly decreasing figure. 

" The Provinces showing the largest proportion over 70 
years of age are Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick and Ontario, with 52.9, 46.6, 38.1 and 34.7, respec 
tively, per 1,000, while those showing the lowest are Alberta, 
Saskatchewan, British Columbia and Manitoba, with 8.2, 8.8, 
12.3 and 13.3 per 1,000 respectively. That Canada is pre 
eminently a country of young people is evidenced by the fact 
that 812.9 persons in every 1,000 of the population of known 
age are under 45 years." (Bulletin XVIII., Fifth Census of 

Canada, p. 2.) 


" The influence of immigration on the relative standing of 
the sexes is shown by the fact that in 1911 there were nearly 
113 men to every 100 women, as compared with 105 to 100 
in 1901. For the population under 15 years of age the pro 
portion of males to females is fairly level, with the former 
having but a slight advantage. In the population between 
the ages of 20 and 45 this influence is strikingly shown the 
aggregate for this period giving 124 males to 100 females. At 
the age of 70 the ratio of males to females assumes again its 
normal proportions. From 80 years of age and upwards the 
female population exhibits a greater tenacity of life than do 
the males." (Ibid., p. 3.) 

In 1911 the total number of males in Canada was 3,821,995, 
and of females 3,384,648 a difference of 437,347 between the 

Distribution of Women. According to the census reports 
for 1911 (than which later statistics are not available), the 
sexes are most nearly balanced in Prince Edward Island, 


though even there males are slightly in excess. The order 
of the Provinces, arranged as to increasing excess of males, 
was as follows: 

Prince Edward Island males, 47,069; females, 46,659. 
Quebec males, 1,011,502; females, 991,730. Nova Scotia- 
males, 251,019; females, 241,319. New Brunswick males, 
179,867; females, 172,022. Ontario males, 1,299,290; females, 
1,223,984. Manitoba males, 250,056; females, 205,558. Sas 
katchewan males, 291,730; females, 200,702. Alberta- 
males, 223,989; females, 150,674. British Columbia males, 
251,619; females, 140,861. The Yukon males, 6,508; females, 

In British Columbia, it will be noted, there were more than 
17 men to every 10 women. The difference, in the east and 
west, in the proportions of the sexes is strikingly seen when 
a comparison is made between the two seaboard Provinces 
of Nova Scotia and British Columbia. These had in 1911 
nearly the same male population (the difference being 600 
men in favor of the Western Province), but Nova Scotia had 
over 100,000 more women and girls. 

The comparisons above, however, do not give the whole 
story. If we compare rural and urban districts, it appears 
that in the eastern parts of the Dominion there tends in many 
of the cities to be an excess of women over men. For in 
stance, While in Ontario generally the male sex preponderated 
by 75,306, Rev. John MacDougall, author of " Rural Life in 
Canada," says: "The excess of men over women in Ontario s 
rural population was 85,900. In the cities there were 102 
women to 100 men; in the country 116 men to 100 women. 
Women are even more dissatisfied with farm life than men." 

In the Census Bulletin, referred to above, (p. 7), is a table 
showing what percentage of the population in cities and 
towns of 15,000 and over was female. Prom this it appears 
that the percentage of females in the total population of 
Montreal was 50.04; Toronto, 50.48; Winnipeg, 45.30; Van 
couver, 40.01; Ottawa, 51.99; Hamilton, 48.54; Quebec, 53.82; 
Halifax, 51.88; London, 52.70; Calgary, 39.22; St. John, 52.37; 
Victoria, 39.71; Regina, 34.57; Edmonton, 44.04; Brantford, 
48.50; Kingston, 53.83; Maisonneuve, 48.64; Peterborough, 


51.77; Hull, 49.81; Windsor, 50.01; Sydney, 44.69; Glace Bay, 
46.45; Fort William, 39.51; Sherbrooke, 50.83; Berlin, 51.41; 
Guelph, 51.18. 

Of all the places mentioned, Windsor came nearest to an 
exact balance, the females, as may be discovered from another 
page, being but 5 in excess of the males. In Montreal the 
discrepancy amounted to 412 females in excess, but in Toronto 
it was 3,650; in Ottawa, 3,475, and in Quebec, 6,032. In the 
following cities there was an excess of men: Hamilton, 
2,387; Sydney, 1,803; Vancouver, 20,053, and Regina, 9,321. In 
the West, however, practically all cities and towns have an 
excess of men. 

Origins of the People. " Persons of British origin con 
stituted 54.07 per cent, of the total population in 1911, as 
against 57.03 per cent, in 1901. The proportion of the English 
to the total population increased from 23.47 to 25.30 per cent, 
in the ten years, whilst the Irish fell from 18.40 to 14.58, and 
the Scotch from 14.90 to 13.85 per cent. The population of 
French origin was 28.51 of the total in 1911, as against 30.71 
per cent, in 1901; the Germans 5.46 per cent, in 1911, as 
against 5.78 in 1901. The Austro-Hungarians, comprising 
Austrians, Bukovinians, Galicians, Hungarians and Ruthen- 
ians, which were .34 per cent, of the total population in 1901, 
increased to 1.79 per cent, in 1911. Japanese, Chinese and 
Hindus made up 2.13 per cent, of the people in 1911, as against 
1.20 per cent, in 1901." (Bulletin XIII., Fifth Census, p. 1.) 

Proportions of Native-born, British-born, and Foreign-born. 
" Of the total population of Canada in 1911, 78 per cent, 
were born within the Dominion and 22 per cent, were immi 
grants; of the latter 11.6 per cent, were of British nativity 
and 10.4 per cent, were of alien birth. The per cent, of 
Canadian-born by Provinces was 43.3 per cent, in British 
Columbia, 43.1 per cent, in Alberta, 50.5 per cent, in Sas 
katchewan, and 58.1 per cent, in Manitoba. In Eastern 
Canada the proportion of natives was larger, being over 90 
per cent, in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces and 79 per 
cent, in Ontario. 

"The foreign-born numbered 752,732 in 1911, as against 
278,449 in 1901, being a net gain of 170.33 per cent, in ten 


years. The population of European birthplace resident in 
Canada increased by 279,392, or 222.54 per cent., -while those 
of American nativity increased by 175,781, or 137.44 per cent, 
in the decade. The Oriental born, exclusive of Hindus, who 
are classed as born in British possessions, increased by 
17,366, or 73.65 per cent. 

The Canadian-born are 96 per cent, of the population of 
Quebec, over 80 per cent, in St. John, Halifax, Ottawa and 
Montreal, but less than 62 per cent, in Toronto. In the 
Western cities (having a population of over 20,000) the per 
centage of Canadian-born ranges from 40.95 per cent, in 
Victoria to 50.10 per cent, in Edmonton. 

" Natives of the British Islands constitute 35.31 per cent, 
of the population of Victoria and 33.80 per cent, of Calgary. 
In the other cities of the West belonging to this class the 
proportion runs from 25.80 per cent, in Regina to 30.57 per 
cent, in Vancouver. 

" The foreign born are over 20 per cent, of the population 
of Winnipeg, Vancouver, Calgary, Victoria, Regina and Ed 
monton, and less than ten per cent, in the remainder of the 
cities " referred to above. (Bulletin XIV., Fifth Census.) 


Canada s immigration problem may be said to be three 
fold, resolving itself into the questions: (1) How are desir 
able immigrants to be obtained? (2) How are undesirable 
immigrants to be kept out? (3) How are the newcomers to 
be made the best of? 

The Obtaining- of Immigrants has been carried on for some 
years very successfully with regard to numbers, as may be 
seen by a glance at the table below. The methods followed 
have been: (1) Vigorous advertising in the countries from 
which settlers were desired, through the newspapers, by free 
distribution of pamphlets, etc., by travelling and other exhibits 
of Canadian products, and by the establishment of regular 
agencies for making Canada known; (2) the payment of a 
bonus to steamship booking agents on agriculturists and 
domestics induced to come to Canada. 




MARCH 31, 1914. 


U. S. A. 



Calendar year 1897 





" 1898 





" 1899 





First six months of 1900 





Fiscal year 1900-1901 






























Fiscal period (9 mos.)1906-1907 
Fiscal year 1907-1908 






























1913-1914 . 





It will be noted from the above table that the tide of 
immigration reached high-water mark in the fiscal year 1912- 
13, and the probability is that, owing to the war and other 
causes, this will remain the record year for some time to 
come. The great falling off in immigration may be seen by 
comparing the figures for the first four months of the current 
fiscal year (April to July, inclusive) with those for the same 
months of last year. It works out as follows :- 

April-July, 1914. British, 32,312; from U.S.A., 34,930; other 
countries, 38,389; total, 105,631. 

April-July, 1913. British, 99,114; from U.S.A., 54,040; other 
countries, 97,7-54; total, 250,906. 

For the four months, therefore, the decrease of arrivals in 
the current year was 58 per cent., or, in other words, there 
were 145,275 fewer immigrants than during the same period 
of the previous year. 

Immigration of Foreigners. 1913-14 was the record year 
for for.eign immigration, but details of nationalities, etc., are 
not yet available. For the previous year the non-English- 


speaking peoples entering Canada were classified by the immi 
gration authorities as: Austro-Hungarian, Belgian, Bul 
garian, Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, 
Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Polish, Persian, Roumanian, 
Russian N.E.S. (or not elsewhere specified), Finnish, Douk- 
hobor, Spanish, Swiss, Servian, Danish, Icelandic, Swedish, 
Norwegian, Turkish N.E.S., Armenian, Egyptian, Syrian, 
Arabian, Maltese, etc. 

Of the nationalities in this formidable list, 17 were repre 
sented by more than one thousand individuals each, includ 
ing eight groups represented by over 4,000 each. The three 
largest groups were the Italians, 16,601; Russians (N.E.S.) , 
18,623, and Austro-Hungarians, 21,875. 

Destination of Immigrants. Of the immigration of 1912-13 
207,439, or considerably more than half the total, went to 
Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime Provinces. Of these On 
tario received 122,798, or almost exactly as many as those 
received by Quebec and British Columbia together, the two 
Provinces next in order for number of immigrants arriving. 

The Sifting of Immigrants. 

"Every immigrant seeking to land in Canada at ocean 
ports is examined by medical and civil officers, and those 
seeking admission from the United States are examined 
by immigration officers stationed on the highways of 
travel on the International Boundary. Those rejected are 
summarily returned to the country from which they came. 

" The immigration regulations require that immigrants 
arriving between the first day of March and the thirty- 
first day of October shall have in actual and personal 
possession at time of arrival money belonging to themselves 
to the amount of at least $25 in addition to ticket to destina 
tion in Canada. If arriving between the first of November and 
the last day of February the amount of landing money re 
quired is $50. Asiatics (except Chinese and Japanese) are 
required to have $200 at time of arrival. Chinese pay a head- 
tax of $500, and Japanese immigration is restricted by an 
agreement between the Governments of Japan and of Canada. 

" Certain persons are exempt from the money regulation, 
the classes being as follows: (i) immigrants going to assured 


employment at farm work, (ii) female immigrants going to 
employment as domestic servants, (iii) immigrants (whether 
male or female) going to a relative as follows: (a) wife going 
to husband, (b) child going to parent, (c) brother or sister 
going to brother, (d) minor going to married or independent 
sister, (e) parent going to son or daughter, providing always 
that the relative in Canada is in a position to receive and 
care for the immigrant. 

" The exemption from money regulation does not apply to 
immigrants belonging to any Asiatic race. 

" The Canadian Immigration Act absolutely prohibits the 
landing in Canada of (i) idiots, imbeciles, feeble-minded per 
sons, epileptics, insane persons, and persons who have been 
insane within five years previous; (ii) persons afflicted with 
any loathsome disease or with a disease which is contagious 
or infectious, or which may become dangerous to the public 
health; (iii) immigrants who are dumb, blind or otherwise 
physically defective, unless they belong to a family accom 
panying which gives satisfactory security or are going to 
relatives in Canada who give security or unless they have 
sufficient money, occupation, trade or employment to guar 
antee that they will not become a public charge; (iv) persons 
coming into Canada for any immoral purpose, and prostitutes 
and persons living on the avails of prostitution; (v) pro 
fessional beggars, vagrants or persons likely to become a 
public charge. 

" The Canadian Immigration Act provides for the deporta 
tion of undesirable immigrants within three years from the 
date of their landing in Canada." 

Transportation companies which have brought rejected or 
deported persons are obliged to return them to the place 
whence they came free of cost to the Canadian Government. 

Chinese. " A head tax of $50 upon each person of Chinese 
origin, not belonging to the exempt classes, was first imposed 
in 1885. In 1901 the tax was increased to $100, and in 1904 to 
$500. Generally speaking, the exempt classes were, and are, 
merchants, their wives and children; consular officers, their 
families and suites; teachers and men of science." 

In 1912-13, 7,445 Chinese were admitted, of whom 367 were 


exempt from the head tax. Of the whole number, 85 were 
women and 331 children. 

Immigrants Ecjected. During 1912-13, 3,559 immigrants, 
seeking admission to Canada at ocean ports were held for 
inspection, and 756 were rejected. In addition, 17,439 persons 
seeking admission from the United States were rejected. 
Total rejections for the year were 18,195. Amongst those 
denied entrance at ocean ports (Quebec, Halifax, St. John, 
North Sydney, Vancouver, Victoria, New York, Portland and 
Boston), 325 were rejected on account of disease, including 
eye diseases, 103; insanity, 24; feeble-mindedness, 20; epi 
lepsy, 7; 204 were rejected for lack of funds; 56, as likely 
to become public charges; 63, as stowaways; 15, for immor 
ality; 4, for criminality; 45, on account of indirect passage. 

Rejections at the United States boundary were: 10,091, 
lack of funds; 187, likely to become public charges; 98, 
stowaways; 612, vagrancy; 252, violation of Immigration 
Act; 55, avoiding port; 167, physical defects; 26, insanity; 
35, bad character and criminality; 143, prostitution. 

Included in the total rejections at the United States bound 
ary were 457 persons, and, at ocean ports, 28 persons accom 
panying friends refused admission. The number of rejec 
tions at ocean ports was lower than in any of the three 
preceding years, owing probably to greater care in the selec 
tion of emigrants in their own countries. 

Deportations. During 1912-13, 1,281 persons (including 16 
accompanying friends) were deported. This was the largest 
number on record for any year but 1908-9. The chief causes 
were: having become public charge, 392; vagrancy, 107; 
criminality, 334; procuring, 5; prostitution, 15; immorality, 
38; insanity, 220; physical defects or disease, 150. Of this 
latter group, the disease which accounted for most deporta 
tions was tuberculosis 61. 

With regard to foreigners, Dr. Bryce, Chief Medical Officer 
of the Dominion Immigration Department, remarks in his 
report for 1912-13: "I have in previous reports drawn atten 
tion to the remarkably few deportations in the several nation 
alities from which we draw our largest proportion of farm 
and railway labor. Thus in 21,875 Slavic Austrians, which 


term includes Galicians, Bukowinians, Hungarians, Slovacs, 
etc., there were but 54 deportations from all causes, or 1 in 
405; of 16,601 Italians, there were but 17 deported, or 1 in 
976; while of 18,623 Russians, only 29 were deported, or 1 
in 642. Further, of 4,616 Bulgarians, only 2 were deported." 
On the other hand, of 2,755 French, 26 were deported, or 1 in 
106; and of 246 Swiss, there were 12 deported, or 1 in 20; 
and of 2,477 Swedes, there were 20 deported. Several years 
ago it had been noticed in these statistics, that for the few 
Danish immigrants, an excessive number had been deported 
of the criminal class. From the small total, it is apparent 
that neither France, Switzerland nor Sweden is a country 
where any active emigration propaganda at present exists; 
and it is very probable that the large number of these deports 
are of a class who have left their own country for some 
criminal or at least unsocial reason, which is well worth more 
minute enquiry." Dr. Bryce suggests, on the other hand, 
that, in a large total immigration, " inducements of a financial 
nature become possible, and opportunities exist for the estab 
lishment of a system whereby the criminal, immoral and 
vagrant class from across the ocean can be transferred to 
Canada as has been to the United States, through agencies 
which trade in vice and immorality," and urges the great 
necessity of seeing " that the known criminal and the publicly 
immoral, as well as those mentally and physically undesirable 
in other respects, are prevented from taking passage, or if 
en voyage, that their antecedents and actions be investigated; 
and finally that an accurate inventory of certain individuals 
going to known questionable destinations be kept and that 
an intimate co-operation be established between immigration 
officials and official and other recognized philanthropic and 
social agencies in at least the larger centres where immi 
grants go." 

Assimilation of Immigrants. The present check to the vol 
ume of immigration will at least give increased chances for 
the better assimilation of the numerous immigrants of 
the last few years. This great national problem is often 
approached in a spirit altogether too unsympathetic to the 
new-comer and the foreigner. The fact is, as Miss E. B. 


Neufeld (Head Worker of the Central Neighborhood House, 
Toronto) suggested at the " Canadian Conference of Chari 
ties and Correction," held at Winnipeg, September, 1913, 
" there is a good deal we can learn here from our foreign 
friends. Our culture has not kept pace with our industrial 
development. . . . The European immigrant who comes 
to us with a tremendous love of music and wonderful appre 
ciation of beautiful colors and a knowledge of fine literature 
can give this country some of his love for these artistic 
things if we only permit ourselves to accept the gift of Europe 
and put it as one of the ingredients into the melting-pot. 
We have the opportunity in Canada of producing the highest 
type of citizenship and the finest nation, if we eliminate the 
worst from all nations and make an effort to bring together 
and assimilate the best that the different countries send us." 

Miss Neufeld urged " the formulation of a domestic policy 
of assimilation upon the lines of " Education, Distribution 
and Protection." " It is certainly important," she said, " that 
the people who arrive in this country receive protection 
from our Government against people who are anxious to 
exploit them in many ways. The lack of knowledge of our 
language makes it very hard for the foreigner to protect him 
self, often even against his own countryman." 

Another speaker, Mr. W. W. Lee (Immigration Secretary, 
Y.M.C.A., National Council, Montreal), referring to the terrible 
conditions under which the immigrant often has to live for 
the first years of his sojourn in the Dominion, said: "It is 
a statement beyond argument that the standards of living in 
the countries from which this immigration is largely drawn 
are far below our standards. Added to this is the fact that 
among those who come there are three times as many males 
as females, with the accompanying inference that a large 
proportion of them have families to support in the home land. 
In consequence they are under the economic necessity of 
reducing their personal living expenses to the lowest possible 
minimum. Yet another incentive to this reduction of ex 
penses is found in the employment of so many immigrants in 
seasonal occupations, with the attendant necessity of mak 
ing provision for the periods of unemployment. 


" There are two types of boarding houses found among these 
men. One is known as the stag boarding-house, where from 
ten to twenty men will rent a room or shack, depute one of 
their number to do the cooking, and share the cost of food 
between them. The other, known as the family boarding 
house, is generally conducted by a man who has been here 
several years and who has his wife with him. In this board 
ing-house the boarders generally pay a fixed sum for lodging, 
washing and cooking, which is done by the wife of the board 
ing boss." In both types, it may be added, the overcrowding 
and discomfort is frequently appalling. As Mr. J. S. Woods- 
worth, author of " The Stranger Within Our Gates," has said, 
often the foreigner sees " only the worst side of Canadian 
life," and for him churches and schools practically " do not 
exist." (See also Section XIII.) 

Reunion of Families. According to the Census Report in 
1911 there were 1,331,852 married men in Canada, and only 
1,251,438 married women, that is, 80,414 married men were 
living in this country, temporarily or permanently, without 
their wives. With a view to aiding industrious and honest 
workers from the United Kingdom to bring out their families, 
the " Imperial Home Reunion Association " was formed at 
Winnipeg in October, 1910, and in three years, by means of a 
plan of loans, bearing interest, it reunited " 593 wives and 
1,834 children to their husbands and fathers here; 1,234 of 
these children being under the age of twelve and 600 over 
twelve years of age." In 1913 transportation was arranged 
for 836 persons, including " 183 wives, 233 children over 
twelve years of age, and 420 children under twelve years of 
age, and of the wives and children 268 came to Winnipeg 
from Scotland, 523 from England, and 45 from Ireland." 
Besides the advantage to the families concerned, it was esti 
mated that large sums of money were spent in the city, 
which had formerly been sent out of the country to the wives 
left behind. 

Imperial Home Reunion Associations have been estab 
lished at Winnipeg (see above), Toronto, Montreal, Calgary, 
Vancouver , Edmonton, Hamilton, Brandon, Peterborough, 
Gait, Ottawa, Prince Albert, Regina, Lethbridge, Victoria, 


Moose Jaw, Red Deer, Yorkton, New Westminster, St. John, 
London, Guelph, and other places. 

Child Immigration. In 1912-13, 2,642 children were brought 
to Canada, by the following agencies: Dr. Barnardo s Homes, 
Toronto, Peterborough and Winnipeg; Miss Macpherson s 
Home, Stratford; Mr. J. W. C. Fegan, Toronto; National 
Children s Home and Orphanage, Hamilton; Reverend Rob 
ert Wallace, Marchmont Home, Belleville; Mr. Quarrier, 
Fairknowe Home, Brockville; The Misses Smyley, Hes- 
peler; Mrs. Birt s Home, Knowlton; The Catholic Emi 
gration Association, Ottawa; Church of England Waifs 
and Strays Society, Sherbrooke; Church of England W T aifs 
and Strays Society, Niagara-on-the-Lake ; Mr. Middlemore s 
Home, Halifax; Salvation Army Emigration Agency, To 
ronto; The Children s Aid Society of London, England; 
Self-Help Emigration Society, and East End Emigration 
Fund. For these children no less than 33,493 applica 
tions (some no doubt, duplicates) were received at the 
homes from persons desirous of adopting or engaging 
children to work. From this it is evident that they are 
generally welcome, though their coming is regarded in some 
quarters with anxiety, "on account of the great danger of 
unfortunate heredity," and the National Council of Women 
in the spring of 1913 passed a resolution, advising that Gov 
ernment should be asked to have scientific tests made to 
ensure the exclusion of a certain proportion " amongst these 
young immigrants " who may be mentally or morally 

In this connection the statement made some little time ago 
by Mr. A. B. Owen, General Superintendent for Canada ol 
Dr. Barnardo s Homes, is of special interest. He said that 
out of 24,000 children sent to Canada, the actual failures, 
including a very few criminals, amounted to " less than half 
of one per cent." Moreover, he added that less than 2,000 
(if wives of farmers were included) out of the 24,000 hart 
left the land and taken up town employments. 

The immigration of children from the United Kingdom was 
begun in 1869. In the twelve years from 1900-01 to 1911-12, 
26,66? childrer n-ere ac ttled in Canada. 


Protection of Immigrant Children. The work is carried on 
under Government inspection. Mr. C. Bogue Smart, Chief In 
spector of British Immigrant Children and Receiving Homes at 
Ottawa, thus sums up the results of the work of inspection 
during 1912-13: 1,927 children were found in "very good and 
fair homes and situations," and 11 only " in unsatisfactory 
placings." " Only five were reported to be in a delicate and 
unsatisfactory state of health. In the matter of behaviour, 
with which is included character, it should be observed in 
all fairness that the juvenile immigrant has measured up 
quite to the standard of those of our Canadian boys and girls 
who like them have suffered from early neglect and privation. 
The reports show that 2,909 were well behaved and given a 
good and fair character, while 29 were reported otherwise. 
Everything taken into consideration, the British immigrant 

boy or girl in Canada is a striking refutation of the statement 
that evils of heredity cannot be overcome, and a living demon 
stration of the power of a changed environment for both body 
and mind." 

The Receiving and Distributing Homes are an essential 
feature of the plan of bringing these children into the Do 
minion. " Absolute control of the affairs of the children is 
vested in the representatives in Canada of the societies in 
Great Britain through whose efforts the children are sent 
out, thus placing them in loco parentis to their proteges 
during their term of supervision or until they attain their 
eighteenth birthday. It is to these sources application must 
be made for the services of the children, backed by a testi 
monial as to the character and fitness of the applicant to 
enter into the undertaking. The history, records and pro 
gress of the children in Canada are to be found at these 
headquarters," and " these institutions fulfil the require 
ments of both the Home and Federal Governments whose de 
sire is to safeguard the welfare of the children and to see that 
they are given a fair start in life." 

Provincial Legislation with regard to immigrant children 
varies considerably in the different Provinces, especially as 
to the age at which freedom from the control of the agency 


(which brought the child to the Province) is attained. For 
instance :- 

In Manitoba (R. S., 1902, cap. 21, s. 6) "Every society 
or agent shall maintain careful supervision over every child 
brought . . . into the Province by such society or 
agent, until such child shall attain the age of sixteen years; 
and it shall be the duty of such society or agent to cause 
a personal visit, by an agent specially appointed for that 
purpose, to be made to each such child at least once in 
every year, until the child shall have attained the said age." 

In Prince Edward Island (Laws of P. E. I., 1910, cap. 16, 
s. 3), "The committee or managers, or representative of such 
committee or managers, of any Charitable Institution, Refuge 
or Home engaged in settling children in this Province shall 
be deemed the legal guardian of all children settled in the 
Province by such Institution, Refuge or Home, and shall 
retain all the powers and privileges of a guardian in the 
case of males, until they attain the age of 21, and in the 
case of females, until they attain the age of 21, unless sooner 

In Ontario such immigrant children are under guardianship 
until eighteen years. 

Girl Immigrants. Another class of immigrants, deserving 
special protection and consideration is that of the girls who 
come to this country to act as domestic servants. During 
1912-13 there arrived in Canada 23,872 of these young women, 
20,910 entering via ocean ports, and 2,962 from the United 
States. During the ten years ending March 31st, 1913, 99,686 
domestics crossed the ocean to Canada. For the first six 
years of this period, the number of domestics from the United 
States was almost negligible, but from 1909 onward the 
increase was so steady and marked that it raised the total 
for the decade to 8,073. On the other hand, there is a con 
siderable emigration to the United States to be taken into 

Female domestic servants being amongst the people whom 
the Canadian Immigration Department advises to come to 
Canada, are exempted, if coming to assured employment, 
from the money regulations (see above), and there are a 


number of organizations which bring out to Canada girls 
deemed likely to prove efficient, in many cases advancing 
money for the fare. This the girl repays gradually, and (by 
the way) it is the opinion of an experienced immigration 
officer, Mr. Macdonell, of Toronto, that " the girls have more 
principle and pay up better than the men." 

Conducted Parties. Last spring, the Provincial Govern 
ment of Saskatchewan brought out a number of girls to 
Regina; and the Salvation Army and other philanthropic 
and business organizations have brought out, under careful 
supervision, many parties of young women to Canada. For 
instance, some three years ago the " Canadian Northern Rail 
way " established a " Women s Section " in connection with 
its British Office " under the personal direction of two Cana 
dian ladies of wide Canadian and British experience." " These 
ladies," says Mr. R. L. Fairbairn, General Passenger Agent of 
the Company, " alternate in spending several months of every 
year visiting girls sent forward and securing up-to-date 
information on the domestic problem in Canada. 

" In many cases the advice offered by this strictly Canadian 
agency is a means of preventing a great deal of un 
necessary expenditure on the part of the intending emi 
grants, many of whom have in some mysterious manner 
arrived at the conclusion that Canada is a land totally devoid 
of any facilities for acquiring suitable clothing. For instance, 
one young girl, before coming to our office for advice, invested 
in no less than seven hats. 

" The task of selecting, encouraging and assisting the desir 
able and of dissuading the undesirable is a somewhat formid 
able one. Applicants are not refused on account of lack of trav 
elling funds, or for any reason other than lack of efficiency. 
Every precaution is taken to avoid the acceptance of unsuit 
able or inefficient applicants. We insist on at least two 
ability references from present employers, one character ref 
erence, and an up-to-date medical certificate, together with 
photograph, from each girl whom we accept and for whom 
we agree to arrange a situation. After acceptance the girls 
are organized into parties which leave England on the Royal 
Line of steamships under the care of our ships matrons, 


whose duties involve the protection of women and girls 
during the ocean voyage. They are met at the port of landing 
by our Travelling Representative, who conducts them to 
their destination, and they are guaranteed employment on 
their arrival at destination by our Immigration Department 
in Canada." 

Girls Travelling- Alone. Notwithstanding the organization 
of many such " personally conducted parties," numbers of 
girls come, alone, to Canada. The Dominion Immigration 
Department, in its official publications, urgently warns these 
immigrants to apply for advice and information only to 
responsible officials and to accredited agents of societies 
" interested in the welfare of young women," but, despite all 
precautions, it is difficult for the Government or any society 
to safeguard an inexperienced young girl, alone in a strange 
country; and even in our Canadian cities the agents of com 
mercialized and organized vice are on the watch to deceive 
and entrap such innocent prey. 

Miss Ratte, of Toronto, is of opinion that girls should not 
be permitted to come here alone, or that, if they are allowed 
to come, they should be obliged to report to some responsible 

Travellers Aids. Under present conditions there is a large 
field for the work of the Travellers Aids, maintained by the 
several Churches, the " Women s Christian Temperance 
Union," the " Young Women s Christian Association," etc. 

The need, the methods and the field of Travellers Aid work 
were thus sketched by Miss Ellison Roberts, working at 
Toronto under the W.C.T.U., in her Report for 1912-13. 

" In the unexpected emergencies of travel girls are often 
in great moral danger. They lose their tickets; their money 
runs short; they are defrauded or overcharged; they have 
wrong addresses or none at all; they miss connections and 
must remain over in the city; expenses have been more than 
they expected; their expected friends and relatives fail to 
meet them; they have difficulty with baggage or tickets; 
they are ignorant of our language; the hour may be late 
and the many changes necessary may prompt them to ask 
advice and guidance from chance passers-by and acquaint- 


ances of the journey. They are hungry and tired, and having 
insufficient funds to go to a better class hotel, know of no 
reputable, safe lodging-house. Very often they make dan 
gerous acquaintances on the journey. All these emergencies 
make easy openings for the unscrupulous. Travellers Aid 
workers safeguard these inexperienced or confused travellers, 
meeting them at train or boat to provide information, advice, 
guidance, protection and aid to all in need of assistance. 

" Travellers Aid work when necessary must deal with the 
reasons why persons leave home the false letters, adver 
tisements, offered positions, dangerous addresses, etc., etc., 
and protect them in all the complications of travel and on 
until they arrive at their destination, or are assisted to their 
own home, a respectable boarding-house or a responsible 
institution, and finally place their name with some respon 
sible organization which will continue the work to make the 
person a vital part of the community, working throughout 
without regard to age, race, color, creed, or class. 

" Travellers Aid work to be effective must touch every 
city, town and rural community in the Dominion. If we pro 
tect girls in Canada only to have them fall victims as they 
travel on through terminal points, in crossing other cities or 
at their destination, the evil is only deferred. There must be 
widespread and universal co-operation. Hitherto this has 
been possible mainly in the cities and towns. The problem of 
the rural community where one or two girls may leave each 
year has been most serious. However, with the promised 
co-operation of the Women s Institutes and other rural organ 
izations much of this will be solved. 

" The magnitude of the work has made plain the necessity 
of closer co-operation between all local organizations doing 
any part of Travellers Aid work." 

The British Consul and Social Service. In connection with 
the safeguarding of persons passing from one country to 
another, Mr. J. Joyce Broderick, formerly Acting Vice-Consul- 
General of the British Empire at New York, when addressing 
the " Women s Canadian Club " of Toronto, explained that 
much use might be made, in the interests of social welfare 
work, of that widespread, extraordinarily well-informed and 


highly privileged agency, the consular service. It is not, per 
haps, generally realized that through the consuls the might 
of the whole British Empire may be invoked for the protection 
of its meanest citizen. It is true that consuls have been 
described as " the antennae of commerce," and that, to a 
large extent, their work has been to feel the way for the mer 
chant and to supply him with that exact and minute informa 
tion necessary for successful trade with a foreign land. 
To accomplish this task the consular service is ever on the 
alert for information of all kinds and has gradually attained 
privileges which no private person can boast. Amongst these 
is freedom from arrest and from the obligation to attend as 
witnesses in any court. But, though the position of the 
consuls has been won in the interests of commerce, their 
stores of accurate knowledge and power to compel attention 
may be used (as suggested above) for other purposes. For 
instance, at the appeal of a young immigrant, in doubt as 
to the character of a situation offered her as servant, the 
consul at New York instituted inquiries, with the result that 
the girl was saved from falling into a trap. On another 
occasion, warning was received at the same British con 
sulate that two persons of bad antecedents were on the point 
of landing with a girl whom they had adopted from an 
orphanage. They were detained, and were forced, though 
only by use of every power at the disposal of the consul, to 
give up the child, who was ultimately returned safely to 

The British consulate is not an insular institution. It is 
at the service of British subjects everywhere, and Canadian 
women or social workers, in need of information bearing on 
the welfare of any human being, may feel just as free to 
write to any British consul, in any part of the world, as if 
they were great manufacturers seeking to extend the market 
for their goods. 

Welfare Work for the IVewly Arrived. Among the agencies 
which concern themselves with the welfare of the immigrant, 
as well as that of the longer settled inhabitant of this coun 
try, are: (a) The religious bodies. (For some account of 
what they are doing specially for the new-comers, see Section 


XX.) Ob) The schools. (See Section VIII.) (c) Voluntary 
associations for improving conditions in Canada. These 
agencies can do little without coming in contact with the 
many-sided immigration problem, and any attempt to trace 
out what needs to be done for the immigrants, British and 
foreign, and what is being done for them, involves questions 
of politics and law, employment and wages, sanitation and 
housing, recreation and playgrounds, etc., etc. Obviously it is 
impossible to give cross-references to our mention (inadequate 
as we feel it to be) of all the various agencies occupied with 
these matters. The fact is that immigration problems are of 
the very warp and woof of our national life, and the whole 
future of Canada depends on her solution of them. We have 
by no means done with them, though there may seem a mo 
ment s breathing-space. We have to reckon with immigration 
past and immigration future. 

At the National Conference on Town-planning, held at 
Toronto in May, 1914, Mr. Thomas Adams t representing the 
Local Government Board of London, England, put in an earn 
est plea on behalf of " the young and healthy men and 
women " whom Canada was taking from the Motherland. 
" Do not be content," he said, " with seeing that they are 
healthy when they enter your ports. Let them keep their 
healthy bodies and develop the souls which God has given 

Government Immigration Agents. 

Nova Scotia. W. L. Barnstead, Halifax, N.S. 

New Brunswick. J. V. Lantalum, St. John, N.B. 

Ontario. Acting agent, Thos. Wilson, Toronto. 

Quebec. J. P. Stafford, Quebec; John Hoolahan, Montreal. 
There are also a number of Canadian Government employment 
agents, especially in that part of Quebec known as the East 
ern Townships. Steamship booking agents have their names 
and addresses. 

Western Provinces. J. Bruce Walker, Commissioner of 
Immigration, Winnipeg, Man. 

Dominion Government Immigration Hostel, opp. Union 
Station, Toronto, for men and women (twenty-four hours 
free lodging). 


British Women s Emigration Association. Sends girls by 
Cunard S.S. and those of Mackay Bros, of Edinburgh to the 
Women s Welcome Hostel, Toronto. (See below.) 

Colonial Intelligence League for Educated Women, Lon 
don, Eng. Brings out women to settle on land. Has a 
ranch at Vernon, B.C. 

Church Army. Canadian Office, 125 Simcoe St., Toronto. 
Agent, Capt. Geo. E. Blake. Occasionally brings out women 
with their husbands to farms. 

Hebrew Immigration Aid Society, 54 Elizabeth St. and 77 
Louisa St., Toronto. 

" I.O.D.E." Settlers Welcome Committee, Industrial Bureau, 

Members of the " National Council of Women " also are 
always ready to befriend immigrants. 

Homes and Hostels for Immigrant Girls. 
(As given by Department of Interior.) 

Girls Home of Welcome, Austin St., Winnipeg. Estab 
lished 1896. Pres., Mrs. Wm. Clark, 261 Colony St.; Sec., 
Mrs. W. A. Matheson, 41 Donald St. Object, " Primarily to 
welcome women and girls who come to our city as immi 
grants," and also to provide a temporary shelter for girls out 
of employment, or those desiring a short period of rest. 
Registry office attached. This is the home to which the 
National Immigration Society sends its girls and women in 

Women s Domestic Guild of Canada, 71 Drummo^nd St., 
and Women s Canadian Employment Bureau, 95 Union Ave., 
Montreal, bring parties of domestic servants from the British 
Isles and place them in situations from the above addresses. 

The Andrews Home, 46 Belmont Park, Montreal. Home 
established by the Bishop of Montreal for the object of assist 
ing and guiding to employment English immigrants. It is 
managed by a House Committee under the direction of a 
corporation composed of gentlemen of the city. Home is for 
both sexes. 

Women s National Immigration Society, 87 Osborne St., 
Montreal. Pres., H. V. Meredith, 526 Pine Ave. W., Montreal; 
Sec., Mrs. E. W. N. Stewart. " To receive and protect newly- 


arrived immigrant women irrespective of nationality or creed, 
and when necessary give assistance in obtaining employment." 

The Salvation Army Immigration Department, Toronto, 
Ontario, brings out parties of domestic servants and places 
them through their various agencies throughout the entire 
Dominion. Under Army management Montreal: Cathcart 
Lodge," 24 Cathcart St. Toronto: " Rosedale Lodge," 916 
Yonge St. Winnipeg 1 : "Balmoral Lodge," 272 Mountain Ave. 
Vancouver: "Mount Pleasant;" 75 Seventh Ave. East. Lodges 
for women are also being opened in Halifax, Regina and Sas 
katoon. The Army also operates hotels for men and women 
in St. John, Halifax, Quebec, Toronto and Vancouver. 

Women s Welcome Hostel, 52 St. Alban s St., Toronto. 
Pres., Mrs. Kerr, " Rathnally," Sec., Miss M. Agnes Fitz- 
gibbon, 52 St. Alban s St. " To meet, house and protect new 
comers, girls and women, coming to Canada to earn their 
living in household work, governesses, etc., and provide a 
home to which these may return when they require help to 
find work, to secure that employers may have some guaran 
tee " of the respectability and capability of the employees. 
Also Women s Welcome Hostel, Halifax; King s Daughters 
Hostel, St. John, N.B.; Union Nationale Francaise, 71 Avenue 
Viger, Montreal, P.Q.; Women s Hostel and Travellers Aid, 
380 King Edward Ave., Ottawa; Women s Home of Welcome, 
Regina; Calgary Women s Hostel, 120 4th Ave. W., Calgary. 

Home for Immigrant Girls, St. John, N.B. Pres., Mrs. 
James Dever, 5 Prince William St., St. John. 

Catholic Immigration Home, Lagauchetiere St., Montreal. 

St. Philip IVeri Hostel, Sherbourne St., Toronto. " Opened 
in May, 1913, by the Catholic Church Extension Society, and 
placed under the management of the Women s Auxiliary." 
Pres., Miss Hoskin, St. Joseph s Convent. A " self-support 
ing, comfortable, homelike and safe boarding-house for busi 
ness girls," and a " temporary home for Catholic immigrant 
girls. Also an employment bureau for girls." 

Women s Catholic Welcome League, Winnipeg. Pres., 
Mrs. F. W. Russell, 176 Donald St. " Settlers Welcome," Win 

(See also " Homes for Girls," Section IX.) 




His Majesty George V, by the Grace of God, of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British 
Dominions beyond the seas, King, Defender of the Faith, 
Emperor of India; born June 3rd, 1865, at Marlborough House, 
London, England. He is the second son of King Edward VII, 
whom he succeeded on May 6th, 1910, the elder son, Prince 
Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence, having died before his 
father. George V (then Duke of York), was married on 
July 6th, 1893, to H.R.H. Princess Victoria Mary of Teck. 

Queen Mary (known in her girlhood as "Princess May"), 
was born at Kensington Palace, May 26th, 1867. Only 
daughter of the late Duke of Teck, and the popular " Princess 
Mary of Cambridge," she is the first English-born Queen- 
Consort for over two hundred years. 

The Children of the King and Queen are: Edward, Prince 
of Wales, born June 23rd, 1894; Albert, born December 14th, 
1895; Victoria, born April 25th, 1897; Henry, born March 31st, 
1900; George, born December 20th, 1902, and John, born July 
12th, 1905. 

The Queen Mother. Alexandra, daughter of Christian IX, 
King of Denmark, was born at Copenhagen, December 1st, 
1844, and was married to the late King Edward VII (then 
Prince of Wales), at Windsor, March 10th, 1863. 

The Sisters of the King are: Princess Louise, Dowager 
Duchess of Fife, born February 20th, 1867; married July 27th, 
1889, to Alexander William George, Duke of Fife; of her 
two daughters, Alexandra and Maud, the elder became 
Duchess of Fife on the death of her father, and on October 
l 5th, 1913, married Prince Arthur of Connaught. Princess 
Victoria was born July 6th, 1868. Princess Maud, Queen of 
Norway, was born November 26th, 1869; married 22nd July, 
1896, Charles, second son of the Crown Prince of Denmark, 
chosen King of Norway, November, 1905, and has one son, 


Queen Victoria s Surviving 1 Children are H.R.H. the Duke 
of Connaught (See below under "Governor-General") ; H.R.H. 
Princess Helena, who married Prince Frederick Christian of 
Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg ; H.R.H. Prin 
cess Louise, Dowager Duchess of Argyll, who in 1878 came to 
Canada with her husband (then Marquis of Lome), upon his 
appointment as Governor-General; and H.R.H. Princess 
Beatrice. She married Prince Henry of Battenberg, and her 
only daughter is now Queen Victoria of Spain, having mar 
ried King Alphonso in 1906. 

Royal Annuities. Following a custom which has obtained 
since the accession of George the Third, Queen Victoria, King 
Edward VII, and our present sovereign, George V, surren 
dered their life-interests in the Crown Lands (excepting 
the Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster), in return for a fixed 
provision for their personal and household expenses, and of 
annuities for certain members of the Royal Family. Under 
this arrangement Queen Alexandra receives an annuity of 
70,000, and should Queen Mary survive the King she will 
receive the same amount annually. The Duke of Connaught 
receives from this source 25,000 the year. The Prince of 
Wales receives the revenues from the Duchy of Cornwall, 
valued at 60,000 the year. Should he marry, an allowance 
of 10,000 will be made to the Princess of Wales, and should 
she survive her husband, this annuity will be increased to 
30,000. The allowance to each of the surviving daughters 
of Queen Victoria, and King Edward, and to the widowed 
Duchesses of Edinburgh and Albany, is 6,000 a year. The 
same allowance will be made to Princess Mary when she 
comes of age, whilst her brothers, with the exception of the 
Prince of Wales, will receive an annuity of 10,000 on com 
ing of age, and 5,000 additional if they marry. The nation 
is, however, the gainer in this arrangement, as the income 
from the Crown Lands is now greater than the sum appro 
priated for the King s Civil List. 

The Governor- General is appointed by the Imperial Gov 
ernment. Field Marshal His Royal Highness the Duke of 
Connaught and Strathearn was appointed in October, 1911. 


His baptismal name is Arthur William Patrick. He is the 
third son and seventh child of Queen Victoria, and was born 
at Buckingham Palace, London, on May 1st, 1850. By pro 
fession he is a soldier, and served in Canada with the Can 
adian Volunteer Militia during the Red River Expedition and 
the Fenian Raid of 1870. 

The Duchess of Connaught. Princess Louise Margaret, 
daughter of the late Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia, was 
born July 25th, 1860, and was married to the Duke of Con- 
naught on March 13th, 1879. The Duchess is a member of 
the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert, a Lady of the Im 
perial Order of the Crown of India, and a Lady of Justice of 
the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. 

Their Children. Prince Arthur, married to Alexandra, 
Duchess of Fife; Princess Margaret, married to Gustavus 
Adolphus, Crown Prince of Sweden; and Princess Patricia. 

The official residence of the Governor-General is Govern 
ment House (commonly called Rideau Hall), at Ottawa. 

The Governor- General Designate. H.R.H. Prince Alex 
ander of Teck (brother of Queen Mary) was selected as 
Governor-General of Canada in succession to H.R.H. the Duke 
of Connaught, and it was expected that he would come to 
Canada in the autumn of 1914. Owing to the outbreak of the 
war, however, the change of Governors was deferred, and 
Prince Alexander of Teck went with his regiment to the 


His Honour Geo. Hedley Mrs. Bulyea (Annie Blanche, 

Vicars Bulyea, Esq., Lieu- d. R. T. Babbit, Registrar, 

tenant-Governor of Alberta. Queens Co., .N.B.). 

His Honour Thomas W. Pat- Mrs. Paterson (Emma E., d. 

erson, Esq., Lt.-Governor of Hon. Geo. Riley, Senator). 

British Columbia. 

His Honour Sir Douglas Colin Lady Cameron (Margaret, d. 

Cameron, K.C.M.G., Lt.-Gov- Wm. Ferguson, Vankleek 

ernor of Manitoba. Hill, Ont.). 

His Honour Josiah Wood, Mrs. Wood (Laura S., d. 

D.C.L., LL.D., Lt.-Governor Thompson Freeman, Sack- 

of New Brunswick. ville, N.B.). 

His Honour James Drum- Mrs. McGregor (Miss Roberta 

mond McGregor, Lt.-Gover- Ridley, Peterborough, Ont.) 

nor of Nova Scotia. 


His Honour Lt.-Col. John Mrs. Hendrie (Lena (Maude, 
Strathearn Hendrie, Lt.- d. P. R. Henderson, Kings- 
Governor of Ontario. ton, Ont.). 

His Honour Benjamin Rogers, Mrs. Rogers (Annie M., d. 

Esq., Lt.-Governor of Prince James Hunter, Kelmahu- 

Edward Island. maig, Alberton, P.B.I.) 

His Honour George William Mrs. Brown (Anna Gardner, 

Brown, Esq., Lt.-Governor d. James Barr, Norwich, 

of Saskatchewan. Ont.). 

His Honour Sir Francois Lady Langelier ((Marie Louise, 

Chas. S. Langelier, Lt.-Gov- d. Frederic Braiin, Ottawa), 
ernor of Quebec. 


In the King s Name. Both the Dominion and Provincial 
Governments are carried on in the King s name; and bills 
passed by the Legislatures must receive the royal assent 
(given through his representative, the Governor or Lieuten- 
ant-Governor) before they can become law. 

The Dominion Parliament consists of the Sovereign, " the 
Upper House, styled the Senate, and the House of Commons." 
The Senate consists at present of 87 members, appointed for 
life by the Governor-General, but to be eligible for appoint 
ment a man must be of the full age of thirty years, a natural- 
born or naturalized British subject, a resident in the Pro 
vince for which he is appointed, and have certain property 

In the House of Commons, Quebec has " the fixed number 
of 65 members"; while to each of the other Provinces is 
assigned a number of members bearing the same proportion to 
its population as 65 bears to the number of the population of 
Quebec, " as ascertained at each decennial census." The 
number of members in the present House of Commons is 221, 
and is based on the 1901 census. The House of Commons is 
elected for five years, but may be dissolved sooner. " The 
qualification of voters for the House of Commons varies in 
the different provinces, being fixed by the Provincial Legis 
latures, but it is either manhood suffrage one man, one vote 
or the property qualification is very light." (See "Atlas 
of Canada.") 

The Provincial Legislatures of Quebec and Nova Scotia 
each consist of a Legislative Council (of which the members 


are appointed for life by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council), 
and an elected Assembly. Each of the other provinces has 
only a single chamber, of which the members are elected. 

Powers of the Parliament. In general terms, the Do 
minion Parliament has power " to make laws for the peace, 
order and good government of Canada," in relation to all 
matters " not assigned exclusively to the legislatures of the 
provinces," and " for greater certainty," a number of matters 
are specially enumerated as being within the jurisdiction of 
the central government. Chief of these are: Public debt and 
property; trade and commerce; taxation (any system) and 
the borrowing of money on the public credit; postal service; 
the census and statistics; militia, military and naval service 
and defence; the fixing of and providing for the salaries for 
Government officers; beacons, lighthouses, etc.; navigation 
and shipping; fisheries; quarantine and marine hospitals; 
currency and banking; weights and measures; interest; legal 
tender; bankruptcy, and the general financial and commercial 
system; patents and copyrights; Indians and reserves for 
Indians; naturalization; marriage and divorce; the criminal 
law and penitentiaries; the territories not within the bound 
aries of any (province, and the establishment of new pro 

The Provincial Legislatures have exclusive powers of 
legislation with regard to the amendment of the provincial 
constitutions (except as to the lieutenant-governor) ; direct 
taxation and borrowing of money on the provincial credit for 
provincial purposes; provincial officials; management and 
sale of provincial public lands and forests; regulation of 
asylums, hospitals, charities, reformatories and jails; muni 
cipal institutions; shop, tavern and other licenses; solemniza 
tion of marriage; property and civil rights; constitution and 
maintenance of provincial courts of civil and criminal juris 
diction; the appointment of magistrates and justices of the 
peace; education, with certain exceptions as to the separate 
schools of religious minorities; and, generally, local works 
and matters of a merely private nature in a province. 

With regard to immigration and agriculture, both Do 
minion and provincial parliaments may legislate, but in case 



of conflicting legislation the Dominion Act overrules the 

Unlike the Federal system of the United States, all matters 
not assigned exclusively to the Provincial Legislatures come 
under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government. 

The British North America Act was passed by the Imperial 
Parliament in 1867, to settle the constitution of the Dominion, 
upon the lines of a scheme evolved by the statesmen of the 
four provinces which first entered into Confederation. 


Right Hon. Sir Robert Laird 
Borden, G.C.M.G., Premier 
and Pres. of Privy Council. 

Hon. Sir George Eulas Poster, 
G.C.M.G., Minister of Trade 
and Commerce. 

Hon. Robert Rogers, Minister 
of Public Works. 

Hon. Francis Cochrane, Min 
ister of Railways and 

Hon. Wm. T. White, B.A., 
Minister of Finance. 

Hon. T. Chase Casgrain, Post 

Hon. John D. Hazen, B.A., 
B.C.L., Minister of Marine 
and Fisheries. 

Hon. Chas. J. Doherty, K.C.. 
LL.D., D.C.L., Minister of 

Hon. Samuel Hughes, Minis 
ter of Militia and Defence. 

Hon. W. J. Roche, M.D., 
LL.D., Minister of Interior. 

Hon. Thomas W. Crothers, 
K.C.,B.A., Minister of Labor. 

Hon. Pierre Edouard Blondin, 
Minister of Inland Revenue. 

Hon. J. D. Reid, M.D., Min 
ister of Customs. 

Hon. Martin Burrell, Minister 
of Agriculture. 

Lady Borden (Laura, d. T. H. 
Bond, Halifax, N.lS.). 

Lady Foster (Addle, d. Mil 
ton Davies, Hamilton, Ont.). 

Mrs. Rogers (Aurelia Regina, 
d. Chas. N. Widmeyer, Co. 
Grey, Ont.). 

Mrs. Cochrane ( Miss Alice 
Levina Dunlap). 

Mrs. White (Miss Silver- 
thorne, Jarvis, Ont.). 

Mrs. Casgrain (Marie Louise, 
d. Alex. LeMoine, Quebec). 

Mrs. Hazen (Ada, d. James 
Tibbitts, Fredericton, N.B.). 

Mrs. Doherty (Catherine Lucy, 
d. Edmund Barnard, K.C., 

Mrs. Hughes (iMJary E., d. H. 
W. Burk, ex-M.P.). 

Mrs. Roche (Annie E., d. Wil 
liam Cook, Toronto). 

Mrs. Crothers (iMiss Mary E. 
Burns, ,St. Thomas, Ont.). 

Mrs. Reid (Miss Ephie Labatt, 
Hamilton, Ont.). 

Mrs. Burrell (d. late Joseph 
Armstrong, General Super 
intendent Gt. Western Rly., 



Hon. Louis Coderre, K.C., Sec 
retary of State. 

Hon. A. Meighen, B.A., Solici 

Hon. Geo. H. Perley, B.A., 
Without portfolio. 

Hon. A. E. Kemp, Without 

Hon. James A. Lougheed, K.C., 
Without portfolio. 

Col. Hon. Auguste Charles 
Philippe Landry, Speaker of 
the Dominion Senate. 

Hon. Thomas S. Sproule, 
Speaker Dom. House of 

Mrs. Coderre ((Mile. Marie 
Anne ;Ste. Marie, Montreal). 

Mrs. Meighen (Isabel, d. Chas. 
Cox, Granby, Que.). 

Mrs. Kemp (Miss Wilson, 

Mrs. Lougheed (Belle C., d. 
Wm. L. Hardisty, Chief Fac 
tor, H. B. Co.). 

Mrs. Landry (Marie Clara 
Amelie, d. Hon. Elis6e 
Dionne, M.L.C.). 

Mrs. Sproule (Mary Alice, d. 
W. K. Flesher, ex-M.P.). 

Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Leader Lady Laurier (Zoe, d. G. N. 
of Opposition. R. Lafontaine, Montreal). 

Hon. A. L. Sifton, Premier of Mrs. Sifton (Miss Mary H. 


Hon. Sir Richard McBride, 
Premier of British Colum 

Hon. Sir R. P. Roblin, K.C.- 
M.G., Premier of Manitoba. 

Hon. G. H. Murray, Premier 
of Nova Scotia. 

Hon. Wm. H. Hearst, Premier 
of Ontario. 

Deering, Cobourg, Ont.) 

Lady MdBride (Margaret, d. 
Neil McGillivray, New West 
minster, B.C.). 

Lady Roblin (Miss Adelaide 

Mrs. Murray (Grace E., d. 
John B. Moore, North Syd 
ney, N.S.). 

Mrs. Hearst (Isabella Jane, 
d. John Dunkin, Simcoe, 

Mrs. Matheson. 

Hon. J. A. Matheson, Premier 

of Prince Edward Island. 

Sir Lomer Gouin, Premier of Lady Gouin (Alice, d. Auguste 

Quebec. Amos, Montreal). 

Hon. Walter Scott, Premier of Mrs. Scott (Jessie Florence, d. 

Saskatchewan. E. B. Reed, Regina, Sask.). 

Baronesses in Own Eight. Susan Agnes, 1st Baroness; d. 
Hon. T. J. Bernard, wife of Sir John A. Macdonald, G.C.B. 

Margaret Charlotte, Baroness Strathcona and Mount Royal, 
m. to Robert Jared Bliss Howard, F.R.C.S. 


By Marriage. Violet Gertrude Chichester, Marchioness of 
Donegal, wife of George Augustus Hamilton Chichester, 5th 
Marquis of Donegal. 

Maria Elizabeth, Countess of Ashburnham, wife of Thomas, 
Earl of Ashburnham. 

Baroness Aylmer, wife of Sir Matthew Aylmer, Bart., Baron 

Baroness Mount Stephen, wife of Sir George Stephen, Baron 
Mount Stephen. 

Baroness de Blaquiere, wife of William, Baron de BlaquiSre. 

Baroness de Longueuil, wife of Reginald d Iberville Charles 
Grant, 8th Baron (title granted by Louis XIV of France). 

Lady Johnson, wife of Sir Edward Gordon Johnson, Bart. 

Lady Mander, wife of Sir Charles Mander, Bart. 

Lady Osier, wife of Sir Wm. Osier, Bart., M.D. 

Lady Robinson, wife of Sir John Beverley Robinson, Bart. 

Lady Rose, widow of Sir Charles Day Rose. 

Lady Rose, wife of Sir Cyril Stanley Rose, Bart. 


Lady Archambault Wife of Sir Horace Archambault, K.B. 

Aikins Sir James A. IM. Aikins. 

" Aitken " Sir William Maxwell Aitken. 

Allan Sir Hugh Montagu Allan. 

" Angers " iSir Auguste Real Angers. 

" Aylesworth " Sir Allen Bristol Aylesworth, 


Beck Sir Adam Beck. 

Barker Sir Frederick E. Barker,D.C.L. 

" Benson Major-Gen. Sir Frederick Wil 

liam Benson, K.C.B. 

" Borden " Sir Frederick William Borden, 


Bowell " Sir Mackenzie Bowell, K.C.M.G. 

Boyd Sir John Alexander Boyd, 


Crease Widow of Sir Henry Pering Pellew 


Davidson Wife of Sir. Chas. P. Davidson. 

Davies Lt-Col. Sir Louis Henry 

De Boucherville.. " Sir Charles de Boucherville, 


Drummond Widow of Sir G. A. Drummond, K.C. 

Dubuc Wife of Sir Joseph Dubuc, LL.D. 

Egan ISir Henry Egan, K.B. 

Falconbridge ... " Sir Glenholme Falconbridge. 


Lady Fitzpatrick Wife of Sir Charles Fitzpatrick, K.C. 

Fleming " Sir Sandford Fleming, K.C. 

Forget Sir Rodolphe Forget. 

Garneau " Sir Jean George Garneau. 

Gibson Sir John Morison Gibson, 


Girouard " (Sir Edouard Percy Cranwill 

iGirouard, K.C.M.G. 

Graham " .Sir Hugh Graham. 

Grant " Sir James Alexander Grant, 


Kingston Widow of Sir William Hales Kingston, 


Howland " Sir James Bethune Howland, 


Jette" Wife of Sir Louis Amable Jette ( ex- 
Lieu t.^Governor) . 

Jones " Sir Lyman Melvin Jones. 

Kirkpatrick Widow of iSir G. A. Kirkpatrick, K.C. 

Lacoste Wife of Sir Alexandre Lacoste. 

Macdonald " Sir Hugh John Macdonald, 


Mackenzie " Sir William Mackenzie. 

Mann Sir Donald Mann. 

McMillan " Sir Daniel Hunter McMillan, 


Meredith " Sir William Meredith. 

Moss Widow of Sir Charles Moss. 

Mulock Wife of iSir William Mulock. 

Parker " Sir Gilbert Parker. 

Pellatt " Sir Henry M. Pellatt. 

Pelletier Widow of Sir Chas. Alphonse Pelletier, 


Pope Wife of -Sir Joseph Pope, K.CM.G. 

Roddick " Sir Thos. George Roddick, 


Ross Widow of Sir George Ross. 

Routhier Wife of Sir Adolphe Basil Routhier. 

;Shaughnessy ... " Sir Thomas Shaughnessy, 


Sullivan " Sir William Wilfred Sullivan. 

Tait " iSir Melbourne M. Tait. 

Taylor " Sir Frederick Williams Taylor. 

Taylor " Sir Thomas Wardlaw Taylor. 


Lady Townshend Wife of Sir Charles Townsliend. 

Van Home " iSir William Cornelius Van 


Walker Sir Byron E. Walker. 

Weatherbee " Sir Robert Linton Weatherbee. 

" Whitney Widow of Sir J. P. Whitney, K.C.M.G. 

Whyte Wife of Sir William Whyte. 

Williams " Sir John Hanbury Williams. 

" Willison " Sir John S. Willison. 

Worthington " Sir Edward S. Worthington, 

M.D., M.V.O. 


1. The Governor-General or Officer Administering the Gov 


2. The Senior Officer Commanding His Majesty s Troops 

within the Dominion, if of the rank of a General, and 
the Officer Commanding His Majesty s Naval Forces on 
the British North America Station, if of the rank of 
Admiral. Their own relative rank to be determined by 
the King s Regulations on the subject. 

3. The Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario. 

4. The Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec. 

5. The Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia. 

6. The Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick. 

7. The Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba. 

8. The Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia. 

9. The Lieutenant-Governor of Prince Edward Island. 

10. The Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West Territories. 

11. Archbishops and Bishops, according to seniority. 

12. Members of the Cabinet, according to seniority. 

13. The Speaker of the Senate. 

14. The Chief Justice of Canada. 

15. The Chief Judges of the Courts of Law and Equity, ac 

cording to seniority. 

16. Members of the Privy Council, not of the Cabinet. 

17. The Solicitor-General of Canada. 

18. General Officers of His Majesty s Army, serving in the 

Dominion, and Officers of the rank of Admiral in the 
Royal Navy, serving on the B.N.A. Station, not being in 
the chief command. The relative rank of such officers 
to be determined by the King s Regulations. 


19. The Officer Commanding His Majesty s Troops in the 

Dominion, if of the rank of Colonel or inferior rank, 
and the Officer Commanding His Majesty s Naval 
Forces on the British North America Station, if of 
equivalent rank; their relative rank to be ascertained 
by the King s Regulations. 

20. Members of the Senate. 

21. Speaker of the House of Commons. 

22. Puisne Judges of the Supreme Court of Canada, according 

to seniority. 

23. Judge of the Exchequer Court of Canada. 

24. Puisne" Judges of the Courts of Law and Equity, according 

to seniority. 

25. Members of the House of Commons. 

26. Members of the Executive Council (Provincial) within 

their Province. 

27. Speaker of the Legislative Council, within his Province. 

28. Members of the Legislative Council, within their Province. 

29. Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, within his Province. 

30. Members of the Legislative Assembly, within their Pro 


31. Retired Judges of whatever Courts to take precedence 

next after the present Judges of their respective Courts. 


Under-Secretary of State. 
Department of the Secretary of State, 

12th June, 1913. 

Note on Precedence. There is in Canada no official Table 
of Precedence for Ladies. In general " the rank of married 
women is derived from and corresponds to that of their hus 
bands, but this rule admits of many exceptions." One is that 
" the official precedence of the husband is not communicable 
to the wife," yet " this has its own limitations," as in the 
case of a Lord Lieutenant of Ireland or a Lord Mayor, where 
the wife has semi-official duties to perform. 

In England there is a fixed precedence for ladies, begin 
ning with the Queen and ending with the wives of " gentle 
men of coat armour." The following quotation from Whit- 
aker s Almanac suggests some of its complexities: 


" Women take the same rank as their husbands or their 
eldest brothers; but the daughter of a Peer marrying a Com 
moner retains her title as Lady or Honourable. Daughters 
of Peers rank next after wives of their elder brothers and 
before their younger brothers wives. Daughters of Peers 
marrying Peers of a lower degree take the same order of 
precedency as that of their husbands; thus the daughter of a 
Duke marrying a Baron degrades to the rank of Baroness 
only, while her sisters married to Commoners retain their 
rank and take precedence of the Baroness." 

Possibly the following Table of Precedence from Debrett s 
Peerage, omitting the ranks of nobility and orders of knight 
hood not represented in Canada, may be of interest :- 

Baronesses; Wives of Eldest Sons of Barons; Daughters 
of Barons; Wives of Younger Sons of Barons; Daughters of 
Life Peers; Wives of Baronets, according to their husband s 
patents; Grand Cross of the Bath; Grand Cross of St. Michael 
and St. George; wives of Knights of Grand Cross of Victorian 
Order; of Knights Commanders of the Bath; of Knights Com 
manders of St. Michael and St. George ; of the Royal Victorian 
Order; Wives of Knights Bachelors; Wives of Companions of 
Royal Victorian Order; of Companions of the Bath; of St. 
Michael and St. George; Wives of Members of the Royal Vic 
torian Order (4th Class) ; Companions (female) of Imperial 
Service Order; Wives of Companions of Imperial Service 
Order; Wives of the Eldest Sons of Baronets; Daughters of 
Baronets; Wives of the Eldest Sons of Knights; Wives of 
Members of the Royal Victorian Order (5th Class) ; Daughters 
of Knights; Wives of the Younger Sons of Baronets; of the 
Younger Sons of Knights; Wives of Gentlemen of Coat 

"There are three Orders confined to Ladies: The Order 
of Victoria and Albert, the Crown of India, and the Royal Red 
Cross, but members are entitled to no special precedence." 


In classifying the associations below as " patriotic," it 
is not pretended that they exhaust the list of those having 
definitely patriotic aims; nor should it be assumed that the 


activities of those so listed are limited by any narrow view 
of patriotism. Most emphatically this is not the case. 

Mention of the special efforts of the War-time to further 
the interests of the Empire and the well-being of her de 
fenders; and to mitigate the miseries caused by the conflict- 
will be found chiefly in an additional section at the end of 
the book. 

Association of Canadian Clubs. Headquarters, Ottawa. 
Pres., Gerald H. Brown. Permanent Sec., H. Brie Parish. 
" A non-political and non-sectarian organization for keeping 
current subjects and latest developments before members." 

In affiliation therewith are the 

Women s Canadian Clubs. This is the aim of the Women s 
Canadian Club, as expressed by Mrs. P. N. G. Starr, Vice- 
President of the Toronto Club : " To promote patriotism and 
to obtain information on all subjects of interest to Canadians." 

The elasticity allowed by the very broad principles of 
the clubs gives great scope and prevents monotony. Miss 
Boulton, President of the Toronto Club (1912 and 1913), and 
her executive regretted that during their period of office 
this latitude had not been used to the full. She says, in the 
President s Annual Address: "No subject of a controversial 
nature has been presented this year, which the Executive 
regards as unfortunate, since the wide interest roused by 
any question which can be definitely treated from two points 
of view becomes very keen." 

The practice of the individual clubs varies greatly. Some 
clubs admit only those who are British subjects by birth or 
naturalization. In a discussion with regard to admitting for 
eigners to the club, at the Fourth Annual Conference of the 
Association of Canadian Clubs, Mr. Ewing said that in Mont 
real they asked no questions: " If Americans want to join we 
are very glad to have them." 

" Montreal and Ottawa Women s Canadian Clubs have a 
social side to their work, and Vancouver is starting a women s 
building where each women s organization may have rooms 
for social and other purposes." 

Some clubs meet for luncheon, with an occasional dinner 


to provide opportunity for the invitation of the gentlemen. 
Others prefer the less expensive method, in time and money, 
of afternoon meetings. 

In Winnipeg, and doubtless some other clubs, the interest 
has been greatly increased to the average busy woman, with 
a short memory, by the fact that she was informed of the 
achievements of the speaker on the post-card of notification. 
The audience realized the (often very great) privilege of 
hearing the speaker, and appreciated the praiseworthy efforts 
of the untiring executive. 

Those of us to whom the Canadian Club has afforded 
inspiration, are glad of all suggestions for extension; there 
fore we quote the following from Mr. McCullough: " For many 
years I have had in view the extension of the work among 
the universities. . . . The university student in too many 
cases . . . has been poring over books so much that he has 
not kept in touch with things and people." 

Mr. R. H. Smith, of Winnipeg, urged the claims of the 
workingmen: "While we are organizing college Canadian 
Clubs, there is another portion of the community the Club 
has not reached at all, the workingman. . . . When Dr. J. W. 
Robertson addressed the Winnipeg Canadian Club a number 
of the leading workmen from these (C.P.R.) shops were 
invited to be present, and they said afterwards they had a 
rather wrong idea in regard to the Canadian Club, and it 
was quite an eye-opener to find the discussions were such 
as they were." 

These two gentlemen had in mind a widening of the field. 
From Miss Boulton (quoted above) comes an appeal for 
increased use of the Clubs already in existence. Speaking of 
a resume of the Bills at that time before the Ontario Legis 
lature, given by a member of the Executive, she said: " I hope 
that a precedent has been established by this Club which in 
time may be followed by the whole Confederation of Men s 
and Women s Clubs. To devote one or two days every year 
to the discussion of the proposed legislation before our Pro 
vincial and Dominion Parliaments is surely not too much to 
ask of intelligent Canadian citizens, and I beg to be allowed 


to place on record in this my address as retiring President 
my earnest suggestion that a consideration of our proposed 
parliamentary legislation shall have a permanent place on 
our annual programmes." 

List of Women s Canadian Clubs. 

Belleville, Ont. Pres., Mrs. J. F. Wills, 38 Queen St.; Sec., 
Mrs. R. C. Blagrave. 

Berlin and Waterloo, Ont. Pres., Mrs. Frank Haight, 
Waterloo; Sec., Mrs. E. Pugsley, 73 Heim Ave., Berlin. 

Brandon, Man. Pres., Mrs. A. R. Irwin, 14th St.; Sec., 
Mrs. R. B. Gumming, 430 13th St. 

Calgary, Alta. Pres., Mrs. A. Melville Scott; Sec., Mrs. 
T. B. Moffat, 2421 15th St. W. 

Chatham, Ont. Pres., Mrs. Jas. Simon, 218 Wellington St.; 
Sec., Miss Jessie Houston, 249 Victoria Ave. 

Edmonton, Alta. Pres., Mrs. Ewing, 534 4th St.; Sec., 
Mrs. J. H. Riddell. 

Fort William, Ont. Pres., Mrs. J. A. Campbell, 366 N. 
Brodie St.; Sec., Mrs. W. R. Boyes. 

Hamilton, Ont. Pres., Mrs. C. R. McCulloch; Sec., Mrs. 
Harry Carpenter. 

London, Ont. Pres., Mis. F. P. Betts, 536 Queen s Ave.; 
Sec., Mrs. F. W. Hughes, 234 Queen s Ave. 

Montreal. Pres., Mrs. G. H. Duggan, 124 Mactavish St.; 
Sec., Miss Beatrice Caverhill, 365 Peel St. 

North Bay, Ont. Acting Pres., Mrs. Mclntyre; Sec., Mrs. 
B. S. Leak, 177 Worthington St. 

Orillia, Ont. Pres., Mrs. F. G. Evans; Sec., Mrs. A. B. 

Ottawa. Pres., Mrs W. T. Herridge, 293 Somerset St.; 
Sec., Mrs. W. J. Sykes, 321 Fairmount Ave. 

Quebec. Pres., Mrs. L. A. Cannon, 2 Ferland St.; Sec., 
Miss Marois, 51 St. Louis St. 

Revelstoke, B.C. Pres., Mrs. E. H. S. McLean, 16 1st St. 
W.; Sec., Miss Margaret N. Kennedy, 129 2nd St. W. 

St. John, N.B. Pres., Mrs. E. A. Smith, 47 Carleton St.; 
Sec., Mrs, M. Doherty. 

St. Stephen, N.B. Pres., Mrs. Geo. J. Clarke; Sec., Miss 
Victoria S. Vroom. 


Toronto. Pres., Mrs. Campbell Meyers, 72 Heath St.; Sec., 
Mrs. J. W. S. McCullough, 61 Beaty Ave. 

Vancouver. Pres., Mrs. J. J. Banfield, 644 Bute St.; Sec., 
Mrs. E. D. Scott, 395 14th Ave. W. 

Victoria, B.C. Sec., Mrs. J. Nicol. 

Winnipeg. Pres., Lady Aikins, "Riverbend"; Sec., Mrs. 
R. C. Osborne, 128 Yale Ave. 


Motto " One Flag 1 , One Throne, One Empire." 

("The Editors desire to acknowledge their great indebtedness 
to Mrs. Fetherstonhaugh, Hon. Secretary of the National Chapter 
of the I.O.D.B., for so kindly supplying the notes below on the 
history and organization of the Order; as also upon the allied 
associations, " The Daughters of the British Empire in the 
United States," "The Victoria League," and "Hands Across 
the Seas."] 

History. During the darkest days of the Boer war the 
Imperial Order, Daughters of the Empire, was born. This 
momentous event was the outcome of the inspiration of Mrs. 
Clark Murray, of Montreal, in February, 1900. In February, 
1901, the Provincial Auxiliary was formed, with Mrs. Nord- 
heimer as President. By request of the founder the head 
office was transferred to Toronto on October 1st, 1901, and a 
constitution was drawn up and adopted, and the present 
name accepted. 

The group of patriotic women who formed the first Execu 
tive Committee realized the importance of arousing the 
Imperial feeling in our Dominion, and their names will 

long be remembered in its history. Here they are: President, 
Mrs. Nordheimer; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. MacMahon, Mrs. J. S. 
Strathy, Mrs. J. I. Davidson; Secretary, Mrs. R. E. A. Laud; 
Treasurer, Mrs. John Bruce; Standard Bearer, Miss Bessie 

They first realized the importance of teaching to the chil 
dren the true meaning of the Imperial Idea, and for that end 
and in that spirit the Daughters of Empire have furthered 
and fostered every patriotic development throughout the 
length and breadth of this vast Dominion. 

The I.O.D.E. makes one claim, of which its members are 


justly very proud that it is the first woman s organization for 
Imperial work. 

Activities of the I.O.D.E. The first work undertaken was 
the finding, marking and caring for the graves of the soldiers 
who lost their lives in South Africa. This work was sug 
gested to the " Loyal Women s Guild " there, by the I.O.D.E., 
and was undertaken by the latter, whilst the Canadian Com 
mittee of the " South African Graves Fund " raised the money 
to pay for the work, and a further sum was collected for 
their perpetual upkeep, but the Dominion Government having 
provided for this outlay, the fund is still held in trust. 

Patriotic lectures were given, prizes were offered in the 
schools for essays on patriotic subjects, and medals were 
awarded for competitions in Australia, New Zealand and New 
foundland for essays on Canada, to further the interest and 
knowledge of the pupils of these countries in our country. 
" Made in Canada " exhibitions were held, and the members 
bound themselves to encourage the use of British-made goods. 

From its very first inception the Order has been inter 
ested in erecting memorials to recall patriotic events and the 
memory of soldiers who have died for the Empire. The list 
of these erected wholly or partly by the I.O.D.E. is far too 
long to give, but amongst them are: the beautiful bronze 
bust and drinking fountain unveiled some years ago in Brock- 
ville to the memory of Sir Isaac Brock by the chapter of that 
name; the fountain and beautiful bas-relief of King Edward 
VII in Vancouver, and the statue of Queen Victoria in Berlin. 

The chapters of Quebec and Montreal have been most 
diligent in assisting British immigrants, looking after those 
in ill-health, and welcoming all to their new home. Winni 
peg has also been most active in this way, and almost all the 
western chapters are endeavoring to help the Victoria League 
(an allied society) in welcoming and advising new settlers as 
they come to the West. 

Funds were sent to India to furnish a room in a Bombay 
school, with the object of forming a tie between the girls in 
that far-away part of our Empire with their sisters in Canada. 
Many famine children are also being educated by chapters 
in Canada with this praiseworthy object in view. 


The Order has been untiring in its efforts to assist in the 
ivention of tuberculosis. The work done in Hamilton, 
nnipeg and St. Catharines along these lines is known 
oughout Canada. The Laurentian Chapter built and 
lipped a hospital; and in Toronto, through the generosity 
Colonel and Mrs. Gooderham, a Preventorium has been 
ablished for children who have been exposed to this dread 
ite plague, and the Toronto chapters are interesting them- 
ves in the upkeep of this institution. 

Goderich has built and furnished the Alexandra Marine 
Spital, Moose Jaw has furnished a hospital, and chapters 
Quebec and other places have endowed beds in their own 
ies, also in the Canadian Hospital in India. One chapter 
;tored an old church; another planted an avenue of trees; 
ne have erected flagpoles on historic spots; others, espe- 
lly the military ones, have cared for veterans and assisted 
ititute soldiers and their families. 

The Order has always been most keen in the endeavor to 
ther the educational work in the Public Schools. The 
tnmittee for the linking of schools in Canada with other 
perial schools, for mutual interest and benefit, as well as 
ioyment, is one of the most active and efficient of the Order. 
ler work in the schools has been the distribution of the 
endid patriotic programmes; the presentation of flags to 
) schools, of colors to the Public and High School Cadets 
1 Boy Scouts, and of prizes for an essay on Heroism in 
nmemoration of the heroism of Sarah Maxwell (a Public 
100! teacher). Each year medals are awarded for essays 
patriotic subjects in the Public Schools throughout the 
minion, and the chapters give assistance in the celebration 


Empire Day. In the Northwest the chapters have pro- 
ed uniforms for the cadets. 

The Alexandra Gates in Toronto (the only lasting memorial 

the Dominion of the visit to Canada of their Majesties 

ag George and Queen Mary) were presented by the Toronto 

apters to the municipality; and last year the Howard Park 

tes were given in memory of Mr. Howard and opened by 

R..H. the Duke of Connaught. All the chapters have united 

collecting funds for a tenor bell for a chime of bells in 


memory of Nelson to be placed in Burnamthorpe Church, 

The Present Tear. The activities of the present year are 
unparalleled in the history of the Order. At the Annual 
Meeting (held early in May) it was decided to hold the next 
Annual Meeting in Halifax the only previous meeting held 
out of Toronto toeing that of 1913 in Winnipeg a most suc 
cessful and memorable one. 

Since then the war has come and since May over sixty 
chapters have been organized, more than in any previous 
year. The chapters have all worked or are all working for 
the Belgian Relief Fund, for the Red Cross Society, for the 
Canadian Hospital Ship Fund, for the Patriotic Fund, and 
for the provision of comforts for the soldiers. Either as 
chapters or as individuals all are doing their share in every 
way in this terrible time of conflict, each member with her 
eyes fixed on the grand old flag, with her heart full of the 
grand past history of the British Empire with all its heroic 
deeds and great traditions, each eager to do her part seri 
ously, interestedly and faithfully for the unity and preserva 
tion of our grand and unrivalled heritage, the British Empire. 

Organizing 1 . First the primary chapters are organized in 
small places all over this broad Dominion and in the cities. 
When a city has over three chapters a Municipal Chapter is 
formed comprising the officers of the primary chapters and 
not less than five nor more than ten councillors. The func 
tion of this chapter is to have jurisdiction over the primary 
chapters, to advise them in difficulties and suggest any aid 
in its power. Through the Municipal Chapter goes the Annual 
Report of the primary chapters and the annual fees. It man 
ages the organizing of new chapters and any combined work 
in the city. 

The Provincial Chapter has the same functions for the 
isolated chapters not in a city and for the municipal chap 
ters, and through it the appeals to the National Chapter are 

The National Chapter of Canada has the Head Office in 
Toronto and has now Imperial jurisdiction for the whole 
Order until the Imperial Chapter is formed in London, which 


it was hoped would have been accomplished in June, 1915, 
but the war will probably delay the formation of this long- 
looked-for and earnestly desired organization. There are now 
National Chapters of Canada, of Newfoundland, of Bermuda 
and the Bahamas. 

There are ProYincial Chapters in British Columbia, Sas 
katchewan, Manitoba and New Brunswick; Municipal Chap 
ters in Victoria, Vancouver, Edmonton, Regina, Calgary, Win 
nipeg, Hamilton, Toronto, Kingston, Montreal, Sherbrooke, 
London, Saskatoon, :St. Catharines, and 288 Primary Chapters 
throughout the length and breadth of Canada. 

The National Chapter. 

Officers, 1914-15. 

President Mrs Albert E. Gooderham, Deancroft, Toronto. 
Vice-President Lady Mackenzie, "Benvenuto," Toronto. 
Vice-President Mrs. E. F. B. Johnston, 119 St. George Street, 


Vice-President Mrs. James George, 36 Maple Avenue, Toronto. 
Vice-President Mrs. MacKenzie Alexander, 20 Elm Avenue, 

Hon. Secretary Mrs. Fetherstonhaugh, " Lynne Lodge," Lake 

Shore Road, Toronto. 

Hon. Treas. Mrs. John Bruce, 37 Bleecker St., Toronto. 
Hon. Org. Sec. Mrs. Murray Clarke, 70 Tranby Ave., Toronto. 
Standard Bearer Mrs. C. A. Henshaw, 1508 Robson Street, 

Vancouver, B.C. 
Secretary Mrs. Lucas Parke, Head Office National Chapter of 

Canada, 238 Bloor Street E., Toronto. 

In alliance with the I.O.D.E. are the following organiza 
tions : 

"Daughters of the British Empire" in the United States. 
These chapters were originally organized by a former 
Organizing Secretary, Miss Merritt, as a National Chapter of 
the I.O.D.E., but on account of the law governing the holding 
of property in the United States they are now a separate 
society, in alliance with the Order and working along the 
same lines. 

" The Victoria League," in England ; President, The Coun- 


tess of Jersey; Secretary, Miss Talbot; office, 2 Millba 
House, Westminster, London. 

This patriotic society has the much-prized and muc 
coveted honor of having, as its patrons Their Majesties t( 
King and Queen. It has a Hospitality Committee, organiz 
for the welcome of over-seas visitors to England, bringi 
them into personal touch with English men and women, a 
providing facilities for the pursuit of any especial interest 

The Settlers Welcome work is also undertaken by t 
League. The aim is to secure a friendly welcome to 
British settlers at the beginning of their life in their n> 
homes in the overseas Dominions. 

The League also gives lectures and picture-talks, und< 
takes work in the schools, presents flags, circulates patrio 
books, holds prize competitions, and tries in various ws< 
" to acquaint the rising generation with the outlying portic 
of the Empire." 

" The Bureau of Information is now in complete woi 
ing order, and a large mass of miscellaneous information I 
been collected. The League does not pretend to have rea 
filed in its Bureau the best answer to every conceivable qu< 
tion, but it does endeavor to find out for enquirers where tl 
answer may be obtained; and the High Commissioners a 
Agents-General, recognizing the utility of the Bureau, < 
placing framed notices about it in their reading-rooms." 

"Hands Across the Seas," Headquarters, Winnipeg; H< 
orary Organizing Secretary, Mr. Fred Ney. 

The object of this society is to exchange Canadian teach* 1 
with those of the other parts of the Empire and the Moth 
land; also to organize visits of teachers to the mother coun 
and thus to strengthen the bonds of Empire and bring 1 
people of Canada in closer touch and communion with 1 
Motherland through the medium of the greatest factor 
Empire the schoolroom. 

"The League of the Empire." Honorary Secretary, IV! 
Ord Marshall, Caxton Hall, Westminster, London, Engla 
General object, " the affiliation of the schools in different pa 
of the British Empire " by arranging for friendly intercou: 


and the exchange of descriptive letters between pupils; for 
exchange of school essays, illustrated, if desired; of ... 
Nature Study material, drawings and art work; of objects of 
interest for collections, and of articles for school magazines; 
also for exchange of information between teachers, regarding 
methods of work and conditions of life in different parts of 
the world. " The League of the Empire Monthly Record " is 
free to all members and schools paying the annual fee of five 

YancoiiYer. " League of Empire," Pres., Mrs. Helen Greg 
ory MacGill, M.A., Mus.Bac. 

Canadian Girl Guides. 

" Agnes Baden-Powell s." 
Headquarters office, 774^ Yonge Street, Toronto, Ontario. 

Dominion Council. Chief Commissioner, Lady Pellatt; 
Chairman, Mrs. F. H. Torrington; 1st. Vice-President, Mrs. 
Plumptre; 2nd Vice-President, Mrs. H. C. Parker; Treasurer, 
Mrs. P. L. Mason; Mrs. A. E. Gooderham, Mrs. R. Falconer, 
Mrs. H. D. Warren; General Secretary, Miss Edith M. Mairs, 

What the Girl Guides Are. Girl Guides promise on their 
honor: "to be loyal to God and the King; to help others at 
all times; to obey the Guide law." The motto is "Be Pre 
pared," and they are being prepared by their discipline and 
training to help themselves and other people. 

Their training includes: (1) Work for the Home Cookery, 
housekeeping, First Aid, home nursing, making clothes, care 
of children; (2) Physical Development Swedish drill, laws 
of health, saving life, out-door games; (3) Woodcraft Camp 
ing, natural history, map-reading, boating, swimming, cycling, 
signalling; (4) Discipline Obedience to those in authority, 
self-sacrifi Ce, sense of duty, self-reliance, good manners. For 
most of these subjects Girl Guides can earn badges. 

Any movement which has for its object the welfare of 
girls should be supported by everyone who has the best 
interests of our Empire at heart, for the prosperity of our 
country depends on the mothers of the future, who are the 
girls of to-day. 


The Guide Law. (1) A Guide s honor is to be trusted. 

(2) A Guide is loyal to the King, her country, her employers; 

(3) A Guide s duty is to do at least one kind action every day; 

(4) A Guide is a friend to all, no matter to what social class 
they may belong; (5) A Guide is courteous; (6) A Guide is a 
friend to animals; (7) A Guide obeys orders; (8) A Guide 
smiles under all circumstances; (9) A Guide is pure in 
thought, word and deed; (10) A Guide is thrifty. 

List of Companies of Girl Guides in Canada. Ontario- 
Brantford, Bradford, Belleville, Chatham, Durham, Hamilton, 
Hanover, Kingston, Massey, Newmarket, Niagara Falls, Owen 
Sound, Ottawa, Oshawa, Peterborough, Princeton, Ridgeway, 
St. Catharines, Sudbury, Toronto, Windsor; Quebec Sher- 
brooke, Montreal, Westmount; Nova Scotia Canso; New 
Brunswick Chipman, Grand Falls, Harvey, St. Stephen; 
Manitoba Brandon, Dauphin, Elm Creek, Portage-la-Prairie ; 
British Columbia Chilliwack, Jubilee Station, Nanaimo, Sar- 
dis, Trail, Vancouver, Victoria; Alberta Calgary, Cochrane, 
Edmonton; Saskatchewan Herbert, Heward, Moose Jaw, 
Prince Albert. 

Total membership in Dominion of Canada, 2,500 officers 
and Guides. Local committees in each of above named dis 


What It Is. Amongst the great voluntary associations of 
the Dominion, none is organized on broader, more compre 
hensive lines than the National Council of Women of Canada; 
which is itself a member of the yet more comprehensive Inter 
national Council of Women. 

The story of the organization of the International Council, 
and of the National Council of Women of Canada, was told 
by the President of the latter, Lady Edgar, at the Annual 
Meeting held at Vancouver in July, 1907. " It was in the 
United States," she said, " that the inspiration to form an 
international bond between the women workers of the world 
took shape, and it was determined to unite them in one grand 


corporation, pledging them to assist one another in all good 
movements for the benefit of humanity, especially those that 
have for their first object the bettering of the conditions of 
women and children. 

" The originator of the conception was Mrs. May Wright 
Sewell, and it was on her proposition that the late Susan B. 
Anthony called a meeting of representative women at Wash 
ington on the 31st March, 1888, to consider the question. This 
meeting was attended by delegates from the National Associa 
tions of Women of the United States, for there were in that 
country at that time national societies which dealt with many 
different subjects, such as temperance, purity, aid to the 
soldiers disabled by the Civil War, etc. It was determined 
then to amalgamate these bodies, and that is the way the 
first National Council was founded. Simultaneously with it, 
after consultation with friends in England and France, the 
Constitution of an International Council of Women was 

" The motto chosen by the first National Council of the 
United States . . . was Lead, Kindly Light, while the 
motto for the International was our own, the Golden Rule, 
Do unto others as you would that others should do unto 
you. The Constitution of the International was, first, that 
any National Council must be a Union of Associations, and, 
as far as possible, representatives of all great national inter 
ests among women; secondly, the National Councils repre 
senting the smaller, weaker nations of the world shall have 
precisely the same representation in the International as the 
National Councils representing the greater nations. . . . 

" It was next determined that there should be full meetings 
of the International Council every five years, and that these 
should be called Quinquennials. [See the very interesting 
article on page 66 on " The Fifth Quinquennial," kindly 
written for " The Canadian Woman s Annual," by one of 
Canada s nine delegates, Mrs. J. S. Dignam.] 

"The National Council of the United States had elected 
for their first President that grand and noble worker, Frances 
Willard, while they paid a compliment to Great Britain by 



electing for the first President of the International Mrs. Hem 
Fawcett. . . ,. 

" The first Quinquennial was held in May, 1893, at Chicag 
during the World s Fair, under the auspices of the Unite 
States National Council. At that time France was the on -I 
country which had formally declared itself an adherent 
the International; but women representatives had been i 
vited from all countries, and women from thirty-two differ 
nationalities accepted the invitation of the United States. 

" At this meeting the Countess of Aberdeen, . . . the 
in Canada, . - . . was elected President of the Internation 
Council, in succession to Mrs. Fawcett, and shortly after h 
arrival in Canada the National Council of Canada was orga: I 
ized. Of this, the Countess of Aberdeen consented to be tl i 
first President. Local Councils were at once formed in T j 
ronto, Hamilton, Montreal and Ottawa, while others soon fc 
lowed throughout Canada, until the great chain of Counci j 
was made, reaching from the Atlantic to the Pacific." Tl | 
policy of the National Council of Canada is thus outlined 
the preamble to its constitution :- 

" We, women of Canada, sincerely believing that the be 4 
good of our homes and nation will be advanced by our ow 
greater unity of thought, sympathy and purpose, and that i <j 
organized movement of women will best conserve the highe : 
good of the family and the State, do hereby band ourselV 4 
together to further the application of the Golden Rulo 
society, custom and law." 

" It is further explained in Article 2, that:- 

" This Council is organized in the interest of no one prop J 
ganda, and has no power over the organizations which co 
stitute it, beyond that of suggestion and sympathy; therefor J 
no Society voting to enter this Council shall render its* j 
liable to be interfered with in respect to its complete organ | 
unity, independence, or methods of work, or be committed 
any principle or method of any other Society, or to any act 
utterance of the Council itself, beyond compliance with 1. j 
terms of this Constitution." 

The twenty-one years of the Council s history have jusl 
fied its breadth of aim, for to-day it represents all Provide 


of the Dominion, counts in its ranks women of all shades of 
political opinion, and furnishes a common meeting-ground for 
workers of diverse faiths Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish. 

Its Objects. " The three main objects of the Council," ac 
cording to the Countess of Aberdeen, " are to prevent waste 
(through overlapping), to promote unity, to produce force." 

How It Is Composed. There are no Provincial Councils, 
but there are Provincial Vice-Presldents, who are expected 
to organized new Local Councils, wherever possible. 

" The Councils formed of Federations of Associations of 
Women, and Societies of Women nationally organized, pro 
vided that their Constitution be in harmony with the basis of 
the Constitution of the National Council, may become members 
of this National Council by their own vote, with the approval 
of the Executive Committee aforesaid. . . . 

" The President and five Delegates from each Local Coun 
cil, and the President and one Delegate from each nationally 
organized and federated Society, together with the General 
Officers and the Conveners of Standing Committees, shall alone 
have the right to vote at meetings of the National Council." 

Upon payment of certain fees, persons whose names are 
accepted by the Executive Committee may become Life or 
Annual Patrons, Life or Associate Members of the National 
or Local Councils, and may take part in the proceedings and 
discussions of the public meetings, but are not entitled to 
vote. In addition " any women representing nationally organ 
ized societies of women, which by reason of internal regula 
tions cannot affiliate, and which it is at the same time 
desirable to have represented, may be invited by the President 
and Executive to join the Executive Committee." (Consti 

There are now thirty-five Local Councils and nineteen 
nationally organied societies in federation with the National 

How It Is Financed. " Each nationally organized Society 
or authorized representative of an organized community, feder 
ating in the National Council, shall pay an annual fee of $2, 


and each Local Council shall pay an annual fee of $5, to the 
National Council." 

The fees of individual members and patrons are an addi 
tional source of revenue, and at the annual meeting held in 
Montreal in May, 1913, the President, Mrs. Torrington, referred 
to the splendid work of Miss Hill, of Toronto, in securing a 
long list of Patrons, Life Members, etc., with the result that 
the Treasurer was able to give a very cheering report. 

Note. The fee for Life Patrons of the International Coun 
cil of Women is $200; of the National Council, $100; of the 
Local Councils, $50; for Quinquennial Patrons of the Inter 
national Council, $25; Annual Patrons of the National Council, 
$10; of the Local Councils, $5. Life Members of the National 
Council pay $25, and of the Local Councils, $15, whilst indi 
vidual Annual Members pay $5 to the National and $1 to the 
Local Councils. 

The Local Councils are federations of "Associations of 
women interested in philanthropy, religion, education, litera 
ture, art, and social reform," affiliated with the National 
Council, and aiming " to serve as a medium of communication 
and a means of prosecuting any work of common interest." 

Membership. " Any society of women, the nature of whose 
work is satisfactory to the Executive Committee of a Local 
Council, may become a member of said Local Council by its 
own vote. 

" The women of any organization, composed of both men 
and women, may associate themselves by their own vote and 
join said Local Council. 

" Any women representing organized societies of women 
which by reason of internal regulations cannot affiliate . . . 
may be invited by the President and Executive to join the 

Fees. Each society affiliating, whether large or small, 
pays a certain uniform fee to the Local Council, the amount 
being fixed by each Local Council, and, like the National Coun 
cil, may find an additional resource in the fees of patrons and 
individual members. 

The President of a Local Council is, ex officio, a Vice- 


President of the National Council and a member of its 
Executive Committee. (For voting powers, see above.) 

What the Council Does. Explanations as to what the 
National Council and the affiliated Local Councils are doing 
may well seem unnecessary to many people, but " even yet " 
we have the President s authority for saying " the Council 
is little known or understood by those who have not been 
brought into contact with it." It has indeed so many lines 
of activity that it is difficult in the space at our disposal 
even to suggest them. 

One of the most important functions is educational. By 
means of its widespread membership, it is an excellent 
medium for the collection and dissemination of information, 
and has been used largely in the gathering of facts bearing 
on social conditions, especially those particularly affecting 
women and children. It investigates questions of employ 
ment, problems of housing, laws dealing with women and 
children. It trains public-spirited women in effective methods 
of rousing attention, orderly methods of managing organiza 
tions and public meetings, and also in the practice of pains 
taking accuracy. At the annual meeting of 1913, the President 
urged " the absolute necessity of being fully informed as to 
present conditions and present laws before we approach the 
Government, and also the absolute need of being accurate in 
the statements we make in support of our requests." 

The National Council is a fine example of the benefits of 
co-operation, rejoicing in and illustrating the principle that 
" union is strength." Furthermore, whilst there is no recog 
nized legal representation of women in our " representative 
government," it is perhaps to a larger extent than any other 
institution representative of the women of Canada, as a whole. 

It has been insistent in urging changes in many directions, 
making for the reform of so Cial conditions. At the annual 
meeting referred to above, the National Council adopted reso 
lutions in favor of " (1) Compulsory education for all chil 
dren between the ages of five and fourteen; (2) Trade and 
technical education for girls in Government institutions, all 
departments of which should be opened to both sexes; (3) 
Employment bureaus in close connection with the public 


schools; (4) The taking of a yearly school census; (5) The 
establishment of women s hostels and clubs for wage- 
earners; (6) The admission of women to the professional 
faculties of all universities and to the practice of all the learned 
professions; (7) Equal reward for equal work, regardless of 
sex; (8) Reasonable hours of work and good conditions for 
men and women wage-earners without discrimination between 
(he sexes." 

Not content with urging reforms, Local Councils have often 
ucceeded in demonstrating (on a small scale) the advantages 
of the particular change advocated. In several cities the Council 
has taken a leading part in establishing Pure Milk Depots. 
(See Section VII.) In Montreal, when the great Child-Welfare 
Exhibit was undertaken in 1912, " the Local Council was one of 
the four large composite associations which, united in the Child- 
Welfare Executive Committee, together with representatives of 
the several other bodies and guided by Dr. Anna Louise Strong 
and Miss Withersipoon, labored to bring the Exhibition to the 
success it achieved. Twenty of the Council s affiliated societies 
supplied material for scenes and exhibits. The Council as 
such designed and paid for one screen, and much earlier in the 
year made it possible for the Child- Welfare Executive to take 
the preliminary steps by a contribution of $500." 

At present the Toronto Local Council is engaged in an 
experiment with regard to a " Mothers Pension Fund," in the 
hope of its adoption by Government after a year s trial. 

To take at random a few other instances of the special 
work done recently by Local Councils: Those of Toronto, 
Winnipeg and Montreal have succeeded in obtaining the ap 
pointment of women factory inspectors, and Winnipeg has 
been instrumental in establishing a free " Employment Bureau 
for Women," and that of West Algoma used its influence 
successfully in bringing about the election of women school 
trustees in Fort William and Port Arthur. Vernon and 
Walkerville s Local Councils engaged in the building of 
hospitals; Renfrew s rehabilitated the public library, whilst 
that of Halifax stimulated the home and school garden move 
ment by supplying children with seeds. But we might add to 
the list indefinitely. 


The point is that the members of the National and Local 
Duncils, while thinking and planning, agitating and educat- 
g for great things, are, at least to some extent, accomplish- 
g those smaller things that can be done now. 

Executive Committee for 1914-1915. 

Hon.-Pres H.R.H. the Duchess of Connaught; Pres Mrs. 
orrington, 12 Pembroke St., Toronto; Advisory Pres. The 
ountess of Aberdeen, Vice-Regal Lodge, Dublin; Hon. Vice- 
res. The wives of the Lieutenant-Governors ; Elected Vice- 
res. Lady Taylor, Mrs. Robert Thomson, Lady Laurier, Mrs. 
I E. Sanford, Miss Derick, Mrs. F. T. Frost, Lady Borden; 
rovincial Vice-Pres. Miss Carmichael, New Glasgow, N.S.; 
[rs. D. McLellan, 254 Charlotte St., St. John, N.B.; Madame 
andurand, 548 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal, P.Q. ; Mrs. Adam 
hortt, 5 Marlborough Avenue, Ottawa, Ont.; Mrs. McEwen, 
Tullichewen/ Brandon, Man.; Mrs. O. C. Edwards, Macleod, 
Ita.; Mrs. Macaulay, 1274 Haro St., Vancouver, B.C. Ex- 
fficio Vice-Presidents (a) Presidents of Local Councils; (b) 
.epresentatives of nationally organized societies in federa- 
on. Hon. Treas. Mrs. George Watt, 65 Dufferin Ave., Brant- 
)rd, Ont.; Corr. Sec. Mrs. Willoughby Cummings, D.C.L., 78 
leasant Boulevard, Toronto; Hon. Rec. Sec. Mrs. Plumptre, 
t. James Rectory, Toronto. 

Conveners of the Standing Committees of the National Coun- 
il Mrs. 0. C. Edwards, Macleod, Alta., on " Laws for the 
letter Protection of Women and Children "; Mrs. Liddell, 4005 
)orchester St., Westmount, P.Q., " Suppression of Objection- 
ble Printed matter"; Mrs. Stead, 10 Quinpool Rd., Halifax, 
> r .S., " Care of the Mentally Deficient "; Mrs. Watt, 65 Dufferin 
ive., Brantford, Ont., " Finance "; Miss FitzGibbon, 52 St. 
vlbans St., Toronto, "Immigration and Colonization"; Mrs. 
Villoughby Cummings, 78 Pleasant Boulevard, Toronto, 
Press"; Mrs. L. A. Hamilton, 32 St. Joseph St., Toronto, 
Agriculture for Women"; Dr. Stowe-Gullen, 461 Spadina 
Wenue, Toronto, "Citizenship"; . . . "Supervised 
^laygrounds, Recreations and Social Centres " ; Dr. Mar 
garet Patterson, 97 Walmer Rd., Toronto, " Equal Moral 


Standard and Prevention of Traffic in Women " ; Mrs. 
Arthur Murphy, 514 12th Avenue, Edmonton, Alta., " Peace 
and Arbitration"; Mrs. Ninian Smellie, "The McKenzie," 
McLeod St., Ottawa, " Public Health " ; Miss Derick, 85 Cres 
cent St., Montreal, "Education"; Miss Ravenshill, Shawnigan 
Lake, B.C., "Professions and Employment for Women"; Mrs. 
Gurnett, 318 St. George St., Toronto, " Advertisement Com 
mittee "; Mrs. W. G. MacNaughton, 3, The Kent, 1741 Hutchin- 
son St., Montreal, " Pine and Applied Arts "; Mrs. Peter Mac 
Naughton, 1934 Barclay St., Vancouver, B.C., " Conservation 
of Natural Resources"; Miss Mackenzie, 578 Somerset St., 
Ottawa, "Nursing"; Mrs. J. A. Wilson, 178 Rideau Terrace, 
Ottawa, " Household Science." 

Nationally Organized Societies in Federation. Women s 
Art Association of Canada; Girl s Friendly Society of Canada; 
The Canadian Suffrage Association; Dominion Order of the 
King s Daughters; Aberdeen Association; Victorian Order of 
Nurses; Medical Alumnae of the University of Toronto; Ladies 
of the Maccabees; Women s Institutes; Peace and Arbitration 
Society; Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire; Canadian 
Women s Press Club; Canadian Society of Superintendents of 
Training Schools for Nurses; Women s Branch Independent 
Order of Foresters; The Agnes Baden-Powell Girl Guides; 
Single Tax Association. 

Koll of Local Councils, Presidents and Secretaries. 

Toronto Local Conncil. Pres., Mrs. Archibald M. Huestis, 
10 Homewood Place; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Irvine, 27 Chicora Ave. 

Hamilton Local Council. Pres., Mrs. Lyle, 35 Glenfern 
Ave.; Cor. Sec., Miss Harris, 169 James St. South. 

Montreal Local Council. Pres., Dr. Grace Ritchie England, 
126 Bishop St.; Hon. Cor. Sec., Mrs. Walter Lyman, B.A., 80 
Victoria Street. 

Ottawa Local Council. Pres., Mrs. Shortt, 5 Marlboro 
Ave.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Herridge, 293 Somerset St. 

London Local Council. Pres., Mrs. Boomer, 513 Dundas 
St.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Yarker, Wortley Road. 

Winnipeg Local Council. Pres., Mrs. H. P. H. Galloway, 
661 Broadway; Cor. Sec., Mrs. R. F. McWilliams, 3 Lilac Court. 


Kingston Local Council. Pres., Miss Machar, Sydenham 
St.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Hugh McPherson, " Elmhurst." 

Saint John Local Council. Pres., Mrs. T. H. Bullock, 183 
Germain St.; Cor. Sec., Miss B. Maud Crisp, Carmarthen St. 

Halifax Local Council. Pres., Mrs. Dennis, 45 Cobourg 
Rd.; Cor. Sec., Miss E. A. Ritchie, "Winwick." 

West Algoma Local Council, Pres., Mrs. W. A. Dowler, 211 
N. Archibald St., Ft. William; Cor. Sec., Miss Mary McMillan, 
318 S. Marks St. 

Victoria and Vancouver Island Local Council. Pres., Miss 
Crease, " Pentrelew " ; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Gavin H. Burns, 1720 
Denman St. 

Vancouver Local Council. Pres., Mrs. Unsworth, 1131 
Barclay St.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Mathers, 850 Bidwell St. 

Eegina Local Council, Sask. Pres., Mrs. Win. Rothwell, 
2334 Mclntyre St.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Barber, 2279 Regina St. 

Vernon, B.C., Local Council. Pres., Mrs. J. A. MacKelvie; 
Cor. Sec., Mrs. R. E. Berry. 

Brandon Local Council, Man. Pres., Mrs. Donald McEwen, 
Tullichewen; Cor. Sec., Mrs. C. P. Templeton, 315 Twelfth St. 

Nelson, B.C., Local Council. Pres., Mrs. Arthur; Cor. Sec., 
Mrs. A. L. McCulloch. 

New Westminster, B.C., Local Council. Pres., Mrs. A. H. 
Ferguson; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Wilkes, 87 St Mary s St. 

East Pictou County Local Council. Pres., Miss Carmichael, 
New Glasgow; Cor. Sec., Miss A. M. Murray, Athole Cottage, 
New Glasgow, N.S. 

Lindsay Local Council. Pres., Mrs. G. A. Milne. 

Ingersoll Local Council, Ont. Pres. Mrs. J. P. Dunn; Cor. 
Sec., Mrs. C. H. Summer, Oxford St. 

Edmonton and Strathcona Local Council. Pres., Mrs. John 
Gillespie; Sec., Mrs. C. T. Bishop, 315 llth St. 

Brantford Local Council. Pres., Mrs. W. C. Livingstone, 
90 Brant Ave.; Cor. Sec., Miss Louise Jones, 148 Brant Ave. 

Eenfrew Local Council. Pres., Mrs. B. G. Connolly; Cor. 
Sec., Mrs. Duncan Graham. 

Walkerville Local Council, Ont. Pres., Mrs. N. C. Ortved; 
Cor. Sec., Mrs. W. E. Seagrave. 

Sudfoury Local Council. Pres., Mrs, R. R. McKessock; Cor, 
Sec., Mrs. W. T. Crawford, Box 54. 


Chapleau Local Council. Pres., Mrs. V. T. Chappie; Cor. 
Sec., Mrs. T. W. Winter. 

Sydney Local Council. Pres., Mrs. Chas. S. Cameron; Cor. 
Sec., Mrs. Charles Lorway. 

Truro Local Council. Pres., Mrs. John Stanfield; Cor. Sec., 
Mrs. John Miller. 

Calgary Local Council. Pres., Mrs. R. R. Jamieson, 1211 
17th Ave. W.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. H. G. H. Glass, 535 12th Ave. W. 

Sarnia Local Council, Ont. Pres., Mrs. T. W. Nisbet, 273 N. 
Christina St.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. R. McDonald, 300 N. Christina 

Peterboro Local Council. Pres., Mrs. J. C. Davidson, St. 
John s Rectory; Cor. Sec., Miss A. Weir, 839, Water St. 

Pembroke Local Council. Pres., Mrs. Fisher; Cor. Sec. 
Miss E. Dunlop. 

Yarmouth Local Council, N.S. Pres, Mrs. C. G. Rose ; Cor. 
Sec., Mrs. A. J. Puller. 

West Pictou, N.S. Pres., Mrs. D. H. Purvis; Cor. Sec., 
Mrs. Arthur, Box 265. 

By Mrs. Dignam. 

The International Council of Women held its Fifth Quin 
quennial meeting in Rome in 1914, beginning May 5th. 

Each of the twenty-seven countries in the federation was 
entitled to nine delegates. The Dominion had its full quota 
headed by the president, Mrs. Torrington, and secretary, Mrs. 
Geo. Watt. Canada having been the first country to federate, 
the front seat was given to its delegates, who thus had the 
pleasure of sitting so near to the beloved president and 
founder of the National Council of Canada, Her Excellency 
Lady Aberdeen. 

The opening meeting of the Council was held in the old 
University of Rome. Addresses were given by a representa 
tive of each country, the national anthem of that country 
being sung previous to the address of its representative. The 
business meetings were held at the Hotel Quirinale, Via Nazio- 
nale, where many of the delegates took up their quarters 
during two weeks. The halls and corridors of the hotel 


presented a very animated appearance. It was very interest 
ing before the sessions to listen to the spirited conversations 
and discussions being carried on in German, French, English, 
Italian, Hungarian, Norwegian, Dutch, Danish, and many 
other languages; however, only English, French and German 
were used at the sessions, being the official languages of the 

The outstanding characteristic of the many discussions 
was the unanimity of experience and the universally admitted 
necessity of unity and co-operation in combating evil and 
bringing about reforms. The interdependence of nations was 

strongly shown in such questions as immigration, white slave 
traffic and reform work such as suffrage. 

Music embellished the recreation periods. Expeditions to 
art galleries and historical places such as the Forum, Villa 
of Hadrian, Frascati and the Vatican galleries were made 
under the direction of celebrated professors. 

Splendid entertainments were arranged by the Roman 
women for their guests. The Executive Committee, composed 
of the presidents of the National Councils and the officers 
of the International Council, were received in audience by 
Her Majesty Queen Elena, at the Palace of the Quirinal. 

Queen Marguerite, attended by her court, gave a large 
garden reception to all the delegates at her palace. Each 
delegate was presented personally to Her Majesty, and to 
each she gave a bouquet of red roses and a commemorative 

The Municipality of Rome gave an evening reception at 
the famous Capitol. 

The Countess Spalletti-Rasponi, 2nd Vice-President of 
the International and President of the National Council of 
Italy, was the official hostess and was untiring in her efforts 
to make the gathering in. Rome as memorable as it was 

The various delegations included women of world-wide 
fame in laws, arts, reform, literature, and music. Eleonora 
Duse received a great ovation at a dinner given at the Hotel 
Continental, and the unbounded enthusiasm, love and respect 


shown her by the women of the various nations was a great 
tribute to art. 

Amongst other noted women were Frau Hainiseh, of Aus 
tria; Contessa Albert Apponyi, of Hungary; Frau Gina Krog, 
of Norway; Madame Milka Svet Voulovitsch, of Servia; Frau 
Llmi Hallsten, of Finland; Madame Jules Siegfried and 
Madame Avril de Saint-Croix, of France ; and Marchesa Elena 
Lucifero, Signora Giulia Barnocco Fava, Dr. Teresa Labriola, 
Contessa Danieli were among the brilliant representatives 
of Italy. 

Mile. Mia Boissevain, Dr. de Jong van Beek en Donk- 
Kluijer and Mile. Baelde, of Holland; Henni Forchammer 
and Elizabeth Gad, of Denmark; Mrs. Creighton, Mrs Cad- 
bury, Mrs. Henry Fawcett, Mrs. Edwin Gray, Miss Olga Hertz 
and Miss Emily Janes, of Great Britain; Madame Eva Upmark, 
the Baroness von Flatten, Countess Anna Ruth, of Sweden; 
Helen Lange, Dr. Gertrude Baumer, and the Secretary of 
the Council, Dr. Alice Solomon; the Treasurer, Mrs. Sanford, 
of Hamilton, Canada; the first Vice-President, Mrs. Ogilvie 
Gordon, of Great Britain, are a few of the distinguished 
women who took earnest and effective part in the Quinquen 
nial Congress in Rome. 


The Parliamentary Franchise, according to "Woman Suf 
frage in Practice," compiled by members of the " International 
Woman Suffrage Alliance," was accorded to women in 
Bohemia in 1861; Wyoming, U.S., 1869; the Isle of Man, 1881; 
New Zealand and Colorado, U.S., 1893; South Australia, 1894; 
Idaho and Utah, U.S., 1896; West Australia, 1899; the Com 
monwealth of Australia and New South Wales, 1902; Tas 
mania, 1903; Queensland, Australia, 1905; Finland and Nor 
way, 1907; Victoria, Australia, 1908; Washington, U.S., 1910; 
California, U.S., 1911; Arizona, Kansas and Oregon, U.S., 
1912; Alaska, 1913. In Finland, the Commonwealth of Aus 
tralia and the above-mentioned States of the Union, women 
are also eligible for seats in the legislatures; as they are also 


in the Lower House in South Australia. With the exception 
of Bohemia, the Isle of Man and Norway, where the right to 
vote is on a tax-paying basis, there is adult suffrage in the 
states and countries named above. In Iceland, on July 17th, 
1911, " a law granting a universal eaual franchise to both 
sexes was passed by large majorities in both Chambers," 
but any measure involving a change in the constitution has 
to be " passed a second time by both Chambers in a new Par 
liament " before it can become law. 

In Ontario, 1914, an Act to entitle married women who are 
property owners to vote at municipal elections was defeated, 
though in the Referendum held in Toronto on January 1st 
26,288 persons had voted in favor of the measure and only 
13,713 against it. Shortly after the January elections letters 
were sent to the Mayors and Reeves of Ontario asking them 
to pass, in their Councils, resolutions in favor of the granting 
of the municipal franchise to the married women of the 
Province; and this was done by the cities of Fort William, 
Port Arthur, St. Catharines, Hamilton and Ottawa, and the 
municipalities of Etobicoke, Bosanquet, Arthur, Tisdale, 
Medone, Artemesia, Griffith and Matawatchan, Albemarle, Har- 
ley, Charlotteville, Bruce, East Zorra, Pittsburg, Blenheim, 
Strathroy, Ayr, Watford, Kincardine, Welland, Matheson, Kee- 
watin, Gosfield, Biddulph, Paisley, St. Mary s, Onondaga, Gait, 
Chesley, Mitchell, Midland, Haileybury, Paris and Renfrew. 

"A Canadian Pioneer." On October 29th, 1914, the Cana 
dian Suffrage Association presented to the City of Toronto a 
bust of Dr. Emily Stowe, which Mayor Hocken received on 
behalf of the City. The occasion was of immense interest to 
many women, for Dr. Stowe was a pioneer in the efforts to 
obtain for women medical education and the franchise. 

" Born in Norwich, Ontario, of Quaker parentage, about 
the year 1832, at the age of fifteen she was teacher in a coun 
try school. She gradually worked her way up, attended the 
Normal School," graduated in 1854, became principal of 
Brantford School, and about 1856 married Dr. Stowe, dentist. 
A few years after his marriage Dr. Stowe s health failed, and 
his wife, " faced with the problem of bearing a large part of 
the family burdens, decided to take up the practice of medi- 


cine. Not being able to secure the necessary medical educa 
tion in Canada, she had recourse to New York," and, graduat 
ing from the New York College for Women in 1868 "as a 
duly qualified physician, returned to Ontario and commenced 
the practice of medicine." Some little time later she formed 
the " Toronto Women s Literary Club," which for some years 
" agitated for the betterment of the conditions of women 
along many lines. Amongst other things Dr. Stowe demanded 
the admission of women to Toronto University, and she lived 
to see women freely admitted." Her own daughter, Dr. Stowe- 
Gullen, who graduated in 1883, was the first woman to study 
and take a degree in medicine in Canada. 

" The Toronto Women s Literary Club subsequently be 
came The Canadian Women s Enfranchisement Association, 
an organization which is still advocating the extension of 
the franchise to women." (See below.) 

Dr. Stowe has left her mark graven upon the life of the 
women of her time in Canada. Possessed of energy and 
imagination she always made these subservient to practical 
ends* and never ceased in her prosecution of the objects which 
she had in view to be the good mother and housewife to her 
family. ... It was only artificial barriers that prevented 
women entering the sphere of the healer of the sick, and 
it is to Dr. Stowe s lasting honor that she led the forces that 
swept those barriers away." 

" One by one," says Mrs. Annie Parker, " Dr. Emily Stowe 
saw the principles she stood for triumph in the march upward 
of public sentiment; excepting only the one to which all 
others must lead, though to her it appeared as the one motive 
power that would be the most decisive, viz., The Woman s 
Ballot. " 


Summary. It is hardly necessary to say that women are 
not eligible in Canada for membership in the Dominion and 
Provincial Legislatures, nor have they the privilege of electing 
members to these bodies. They are not eligible for the muni 
cipal offices. 

Women have school franchise and eligibility throughout 
Canada, except in the following cases. Women are not 


eligible as school commissioners or trustees in Quebec, where 
only widows and spinsters have the school franchise. In 
Nova Scotia women ratepayers have the school franchise, but 
there has been no legal test as to whether women can be legally 
elected to the School Board. (See under " School Franchise.") 
The appointment of women to the School Boards of St. John 
and other cities in New Brunswick is obligatory. Otherwise 
in this Province, according to information received Nov., 1914, 
widows and spinsters (ratepayers) have the school franchise. 
See, however, extracts from law below. In Prince Edward 
Island women are eligible for appointment to the School 
Boards in Charlottetown and Summerside, and women rate 
payers have franchise and* eligibility elsewhere; but the 
property of a married woman is assessed in her husband s 

Married women have the municipal franchise on the same 
terms as men in the three Provinces of Manitoba, Alberta 
and British Columbia. In Montreal " wives separated as to 
bed and board " have municipal franchise. In Saskatchewan 
married women do not appear to be disqualified in villages and 
rural municipalities. In this connection it is interesting to 
note the progress since 1908, for Mrs. Edwards, in " Legal 
Status of Canadian Women," gives Manitoba as the only pro 
vince in which married women had the municipal franchise. 
The cities of Victoria, Edmonton and Calgary had also 
bestowed the franchise on married women, an example now 
followed by their provinces. 

When the Wife May Not Qualify. In Ontario and Quebec 
(except in Montreal, see below), the husband is allowed to 
qualify on the property, etc., of the wife. In Nova Scotia 
the husband does not qualify on the wife s property, but if he 
is otherwise qualified and votes, his wife cannot. In cities 
and towns in Saskatchewan the married woman cannot 
qualify on her own property, but her written authorisation 
is necessary for its use in qualifying her husband. 

In British Columbia in the school franchise there is a 
reversal of privilege. In rural districts all women have a 
vote whose husbands have a vote, but a married woman s 
property does not qualify her husband for the school fran- 


chise. It is noteworthy that the province has a very large 
number of women trustees. 

Widows and Unmarried Women have municipal franchise 
on the same terms as men, with a few exceptions. In some 
provinces they cannot qualify as tenants. Certain provision 
is made for " farmer s sons " to qualify. No similar arrange 
ment is made for daughters giving their services at home. 

For Property Qualifications, etc., see below. 

The age required for eligibility for municipal office is 
usually 21 years, but in some cases, as in Charlottetown and 
Summerside, is 25 years. Twenty-one is also the age neces 
sary to qualify, except in rural municipalities in Saskatche 
wan, when 18 is the fixed age. 

Only British subjects are eligible for municipal office 
except in rare cases, as under " The Rural Municipalities 
Act " of Alberta, and " The Rural Municipality Act " of Sas 
katchewan. If not a British subject, the candidate for office 
must make a statutory declaration that he has not been in 
Canada long enough to be naturalized, and declare his in 
tention to become so as soon as he can qualify as to residence. 

The qualification of being a British subject is frequently 
required of electors. 


" The Dominion Elections Act," R. S. of Canada, 1906, c. 6, 
s. 10, " The qualifications necessary to entitle any person to vote 
at a Dominion election in any province shall, except as herein 
otherwise provided, be those established by the laws of that 
province as necessary to entitle such person to vote in the same 
part of the province at a provincial election." Provincial " dis 
qualifications," however, do not disqualify at Dominion elections. 


The primary qualifications demanded of voters are. that they 
shall be male persons whose names are entered on the list of 
voters for Provincial [Legislative elections, twenty-one years of 
age and British subjects by birth or naturalization. For more 
definite information see the Election Acts. 


Note. In the extracts below, "of the full age <of twenty-one 
years" is abbreviated to 21; "entered" means on the valuation 
or collection or assessment roll in force. The fixed assessment 
only is quoted. On account of space it has been impossible to 
give " disqualifications," qualifications of joint owners, joint 
. tenants, etc. 


"The Town Act" (1911-12, c. 2). Persons qualified to vote 
are those (s. 78) whose names are on the last revised voters 
lists of the town which shall contain " the names of all persons, 
male and female," of 21 years, assessed upon the last revised 
assessment roll for $200. Voting may be made, by by-law, con 
tingent on the payment of taxes. 


"The Villagre Act," 1913, c. 5, s. 5 (b). Any person, male or 
female, of 21 years, assessed on the last revised assessment roll 
of the village, who has paid all taxes due by him to the village. 

"The Rural Municipalities Act," 1911-12, c. 3, s. 2.- "Any per 
son, male or female," of 21 years, " whose name appears on the 
municipal voters lists as the owner of assessable land in the 
municipality," and .has paid all taxes to the municipality in 
respect of such land. 

From " The Edmonton Charter," Statutes of Alberta, 1913, 
c. 23, sections 83 and 86. Males and females of 21 years and 
British subjects: (a) Who are "assessed on the laist revised 
assessment roll," and (c) Each person, who for one month prior 
to the first day of June "has by himself or himself and his 
family occupied a house or a portion of a house in the city as his 
habitation, and for which he has paid or is liable to pay rent." 

British Columbia. 

The "Municipal Elections Act," R.S.B.C., 1911, c. 71. Persons 
entitled to vote for any duly nominated candidate in city muni 
cipalities (see section 8), Any male or female of 21 years: (a) 
Who is the assessed owner of land or real property in the muni 
cipality of the assessed value of $100. (For proviso when the 
assessed is " the holder of the last agreement to purchase said 
land or real property or the last assignee of said agreement," see 
Act.) (b) Any duly authorized representative of an incorporated 
company owning lands or improvements of lands of the assessed 
value of not less than $100. (c) Any trader whose annual license 
fee is $5.00. (d) A householder within the municipality. A cer 
tain statutory declaration is required of those qualifying under 
(c) and (d). Note. (a) is given according to amendment of 1913. 
In district municipalities the qualifications are practically the 
same as in city municipalities, except that an individual of full 
age and an incorporated company may qualify as the " occupier 
of lands or improvements of not less than $200 within the muni 

Money By-Laws, the "Municipal Act," Statutes of B.C., 1914, 
c. 52, s. 170. " No person shall be entitled to vote upon any by 
law for raising money upon the credit of the municipality, or 
any by-law to which the assent of the electors is necessary, 
unless he or she is the assessed owner of land or real property 
in such municipality according to the last revised assessment 
roll, as added to or altered under the provisions of section 250 
of this Act up to five clear days before the day of voting on the 


"The Municipal Act," C.S.M., 1913, c. 133. (This Act em 
braces rural municipalities, villages, towns and cities. It only 
applies to Winnipeg and St. Boniface where specially made ap 
plicable.) Persons Qualified to Vote (s. 60): Subject to the pro 
visions of The Municipal Electors Act," and of the next follow 
ing eight sections male and female, of 21 years, British sub 
jects; (a) Owners, resident or not; (b) Tenants resident in the 
municipality at the date of the final revision of the list of 
electors, who have been resident tenants or owners for six 
months next before such date; (c) Landowners sons in order of 
seniority as the assessed value of the property is sufficient to 
qualify, after qualifying the landowner. " A boarder or lodger 
(s. 62), shall not be deemed a tenant." The "fixed Assessment" 
(s. 59), is $100 in the case of owners, and $200, or an annual rental 
of $50, in the case of tenants. 

Winnipeg 1 (see Charter, ais amended 1907 and 1910), Rating for 
voters on freehold, $200; tenants, annual rental of $100 (s. 12). 
Only freeholders can vote on money by-laws. S. 504. 

New Brunswick. 

" The Municipalities Act," 1912, c. 6, s 25. Persons Qualified to 


Vote: Every male and every widow and unmarried female of 21 
years, being 1 a British subject, a resident ratepayer on income or 
personal property to the amount of $100, or on income and per 
sonal property together to the amount of $100, or on real prop 
erty to any amount, and whose name is on the lists prepared by 
the Parish Clerk. (See Chapter re Counties of Gloucester and 
York.) Towns Incorporation Act, C.S.N.B., 1903, c. 166, s. 21. 
Qualifications very similar. 

Nova Scotia. 

" Nova Scotia Franchise Act," U.S., 1900, c. 4, s. 7. Every 
woman of 21 years, a British subject, and at the time of the 
last assessment, assessed in respect of real property to the value 
of $150, or in respect of personal property or of personal and 
real property together, to the value of $300. "Provided that no 
married woman shall be entitled to vote under this section whose 
husband is entitled to vote. * For the following commentary on 
this last proviso we are indebted to F. F. Mathers, Esq., Deputy 
Provincial Secretary: A married woman might have property 
and her husband might have none, yet he might be registered as 
a voter and be entitled to vote by virtue of one of the qualifica 
tions than a property qualification, as set forth in section 
3 of the Franchise Act." For instance, under section 3, sub-sec 
tion (c), the husband might qualify as a yearly tenant of real 
property of the value of $150. 


1 Municipal Act," R.S.O., 1914, c. 192, s. 56. Persons having 
the following 1 qualifications, sub-section (1), shall be entered on 
the voters list: (a) A male, a widow, or an unmarried woman; 
(b) of 21 years; (c) a British subject by birth or naturalization; 
(d) not disqualified under this Act or otherwise by law prohibited 
from voting; and (e) rated, or entitled to foe rated, or in the case 
of a male whose wife is or was entitled to be rated to the amount 
hereinafter mentioned on the last revised assessment roll of the 
local municipality for land held in his or her own right, or so 
rated or entitled to toe so rated for income, or who is entered or 
was entitled to be entered on such roll as a farmer s son. 

(2) The rating for land shall be, in respect of a freehold or 
leasehold, legal or equitable, or partly of each, to an amount not 
less than (a) In villages and townships, $100; (b) In towns 
having a population not exceeding 3,000, $200; (c) In towns 
having a population exceeding 3,000, $300; (d) In cities, $400. 

(3) The rating for income shall be in respect of income from 
a trade, office, calling or profession of not less than $400 which 
has been received during the twelve months next preceding the 
final revision of the assessment roll or the twelve months next 
preceding the last day for making complaint to the judge under 

The Ontario Voters Lists Act." 

Prince Edward Island. 

Charlottetown (1903 , c. 16, s. 24). Every male, widow and 
unmarried woman of 21 years, resident of the " city or common 
thereof at least one year next preceding such election, a 
British subject, having paid all rates, taxes and assessments; 
(1) Who shall, within the ward for which he or she shall vote, 
for the previous three months have been owner of freehold lands 
or premises of the assessed value of $100; (2) Every male in 
habitant, qualified as above as to allegiance, age, residence and 
payment of taxes, for three months resident in the ward for 
which he .shall vote, tenant or occupant of lands, premises or 
tenements of the yearly rental of $14; or (3) Who shall have 
paid income tax of $2 for the year preceding such election; or 
(4) Who shall have paid, one month before election day, a poll 
tax of $2 for the preceding year. 

In Summerside (1903, c. 18), widows and unmarried women 
have similar rights. 


" Apart from the towns and large villages which are incor 
porated there is no .Municipal organization. In the rural sections 
the school districts are the only units of Government apart from 
the Provincial administration. When the above statement is 
taken into account, it is correct to say that widows and spinsters 
being property holders have Municipal franchise throughout the 
Province." (By courtesy of R. H. Campbell, Esq., Supt. of 


The following persons (see R.S.Q., 1909, article 5368), if 21 
years of age, British subjects, not legally disqualified or other 
wise deprived of the right to vote, shall be electors. and shall be 
entered on the lists, prepared in accordance with the following 
provisions, viz.: (1) Every male person, widow or spinster, being 
owner or occupant of immovable property of the assessed value 
of $200, or the annual value of $20. (2) "The husband of any 
woman separate as to property, when the latter is seized, as 
owner, usufructuary or as institute, of immovable property in 
the municipality, of the assessed value of $300 ... or when 
she carries on trade or keeps a place of business which renders 
her subject to the payment of a tax and when such place of 
business is entered on the collection roll as being of the annual 
value of $30. (3) Every male, widow or spinster, being a resi 
dent householder under lease, entered as tenant of a dwelling 
house or part of a dwelling house in the ward for which the list 
is made, of the value of $200, or the annual value of $20, accord 
ing to such roll. (4) Every male person, entered alone or 
jointly, as tenant under lease of any store, counting house, shop, 
office, or other place of business, which, if occupied by the said 
person alone, must be assessed at $200, or yearly at $20. 

Montreal, Statutes of Quebec (1903, c. 62, article 7). The fixed 
assessment for owners and occupants is $300; the fixed annual 
assessment is $30. A wife separated as to bed and board is 
given the right to vote as owner or occupant of immovable 
property, and also " in cases where she is entered as tenant on 
the tax roll then in force." 


By "The City Act" (s. 87, as amended 1910-11), which applies 
:< to the cities of Regina, Moose Jaw, Saskatoon, and Prince 
Albert, and to all other city municipalities which may hereafter 
be created or established within Saskatchewan," and by " The 
Town Act" (s. 79), the voters list shall contain the names of all 
men, unmarried women and widows, of 21 years, assessed for 
$200; " and also the names of the husbands if of the full age of 
21 years, of married women who are assessed upon the last 
revised assessment roll for $200 and upwards, and who authorize 
in writing their husband s name to be placed upon the list, and 
the names of all persons whose names appear on the house 
holder s tax list hereinafter provided for." 

" The Village Act." " Elector means any person of the full 
age of 21 years whose name appears on the last revised assess 
ment roll of the village as the owner of assessable property 
therein." "The Rural Municipalities Act." " Elector means 
any person of the full age of 18 years whose name appears on the 
municipal voters list as the owner or occupant of assessable 
property in the municipality, and who, if so required by resolu 
tion of the council, has paid all taxes due by him as shown on 
the assessment roll of the municipality." 

School Franchise and Eligibility. 

For the following valuable information we are greatly in 

To D. M. Mackenzie, Esq., Deputy Minister of Education, in 
regard to the Province of Alberta: "Women whose names are on 


the assessment roll in the districts have franchise for school 
purposes, and are eligible for office on School Boards." 

To Alexander Robinson, Esq., Superintendent of Education, 
in regard to the Province of British Columbia: "Women equally 
with men are eligible for office on our School Boards. Besides, 
in rural school districts all women have a vote whose husbands 
have a vote. The husbands have no right to vote by virtue of the 
fact that their wives may have votes. To illustrate, if a man 
owns property and his name is on the list of ratepayers, both 
he and his wife have votes; but if the wife owns property in her 
own name and the husband has none, the husband has not the 
right to vote." 

To R. Fletcher, Esq., B.A., Deputy Minister of Education, 
in regard to the Province of Manitoba: " I do not know of any 
offices in this Department from which women are absolutely 
barred, but in appointing our school inspectors we invariably 
appoint men. The conditions of travel are rather arduous, and 
we do not feel that women are quite suitable to meet all the 
requirements in this work at present. The difficulties in the way 
of women acting as inspectors are not intellectual, but physical." 

To A, H. MacKay, Esq., B.A., B.Sc., CLL.D., F.R.S.C., Superin 
tendent of Education, in -regard to the Province of Nova Scotia: 
Women who are ratepayers have the school franchise. There 
appears to be no discrimination in the Education Act against 
the election of women (as women) to School Boards. I think 
women can be legally elected to our School Boards. The 
Attorney-General of the Province some years ago appeared to 
think otherwise. There has been no legal test of the question 
up to date, although I am sorry to say a Bill to require the 
appointment of women to the School Board of Halifax, after 
passing the House of Assembly, was thrown out by the Upper 
House (the Legislative Council). There are no offices in con 
nection with the Education Department from which women are 
definitely excluded on account of sex." 

To A. H. Ball, Esq., M.A., LL.B., Deputy Minister, in regard 
to the Province of Saskatchewan: " Women ratepayers have full 
school franchise, including eligibility for office on the School 

In regard to New Brunswick, we quote from the Manual of the 
School Law and Regulations, 1913: Qualifications of Voters in 
the School Districts (s. 49) "No person shall be entitled to vote 
at any school meeting on any question whatever, unless he shall 
be a ratepayer, either a resident in the district or non-resident 
therein and owning property in the district, such ratepayers to 
be hereinafter designated as ratepayers of the district, and 
unless he shall have paid all district school rates imposed upon 
him for the then preceding year, in case any shall have been 

Qualifications of Trustees (in Country Districts). The 
trustees (s. 58), "shall be qualified voters and residents of the 
school district." 

Appointment of Board of Trustees for cities and incorporated 
towns, except St. John, section 105, subsection ("2). "The board 
of trustees of Fredericton and all other cities (except Saint 
John) and incorporated towns to which this section may apply, 
or hereafter be made to apply, shall consist of nine members, 
of whom the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council shall appoint four, 

. . and the city or town council shall appoint five. . . . 
Two of the board, one to be appointed by the Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor-in-Council and one by the city council, shall be women." 

Appointment of Board of Trustees for St. John, section 105, 
subsection (3): "The board of trustees of the City of Saint John 
shall consist of eleven members, of whom the Lieutenant-Gov- 


ernor-in-Council shall appoint five, . . . and the common or 
city council shall appoint six members of such board. . . 
Two of the board, one to be appointed by the iLieutenant-Gover- 
nor-in-Council and one by the city council, shall be women." 

For order of retirement of trustees, see The Manual men 
tioned above and amendment of "The School Act" under 
chapter 29 of the Ordinances of New Brunswick, 1914. 

Ontario Qualification of Voters. " The Public Schools Act," 
R.S.O., 1914, c. 266, section 59: (1) Every ratepayer of 21 years, 
who is assessed as a public school supporter in an urban muni 
cipality or in a school section, as the case may be, and every 
person qualified to vote as a farmer s son under The Municipal 
Act, shall be entitled to vote at the election of school trustees, 
and in a rural section on all school questions. (2) Any person 
exempted from the payment of school rates wholly or in part 
on account of indigence shall be disqualified from voting. 

Eligibility for School Trustees. In Urban Schools, s. 55: 
Any ratepayer who is a British subject resident in the muni 
cipality, of 21 years, and not disqualified, may be elected a public 
school trustee. In Rural Schools, resident farmer s sons, having 
the other qualifications mentioned above, are qualified to be 
elected trustees. 

Prince Edward Island. In 1899, (c. 7), by an amendment to 
the Act 40 Victoria, chapter I, women became eligible to " ap 
pointment by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council, or by the city 
council of Charlottetown, or the town council of Summerside 
. . . as members of the Board of Trustees." Widows and 
spinsters being property holders " having the school franchise 
are eligible for office in other parts of the Province. 

Quebec. "The Education Act," R.S.Q., 1909, article 2642: To 
have a rig"ht to vote at any election of school commissioners or 
trustees, it is necessary to be of the age of majority, to be pro 
prietor or husband of a proprietor of real estate, or to be pro 
prietor or husband of a proprietor of the buildings only upon 
land belonging to another, to be entered as such upon the valua 
tion roll, and to have paid all school contributions." 

School Commissioners and Trustees. Article 2639: Every 
Roman Catholic cure and every minister of any other religious 
faith ministering 1 in the school municipality, although not quali 
fied with respect to property, every male resident ratepayer, and 
every resident husband of a ratepayer, able to read and write, 
qualified to vote under article 2642, is eligible as a school com 
missioner or trustee." 

Women s Use of the Yote. The question is often asked- 
" Do women use the powers and opportunities already given to 
them?" With regard to this, it is of interest to quote the 
opinion of Miss Hurlbatt, Warden of Victoria College, Mont 
real: "Many of them are doing so; e.g., the Local Council of 
Women have thoroughly organized the city to bring out about 
12,000 women voters to vote for good civic government at 
the civic elections." 

" La Federation Nationale St. Jean Baptiste " uses its influ 
ence in the same direction. 

Women and Land Grants. All public lands in the Pro 
vinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, and all lands 


in British Columbia within twenty miles on each side of the 
Canadian Pacific main line are controlled and administered 
by the Dominion Government through the Department of the 
Interior. These are the lands that (under certain conditions 
as to residence and improvement duties) are disposed of as 
free homesteads. "A homestead may be taken up by any 
person who is the sole head of a family or by any male eigh 
teen years of age or over, who is a British subject or who 
declares his intention to become a British subject; a widow 
having minor children of her own dependent upon her for 
support." (Government Pamphlet.) 

A single woman is not eligible for a free grant, or the 
additional pre-emption allowed in some parts of Alberta and 

In Ontario the applicant for crown lands, either as free 
grants or to be purchased (under conditions of settlement 
and cultivation) must be a male (or sole female) head of a 
family, or a single man over eighteen years of age. 

In British Columbia, " pre-emptions," which are practically 
free grants, may be taken by " any British subject, a widow, 
or single woman over eighteen years of age, who is self- 
supporting, or an alien who declares his intention to become 
a British subject." 

Woman Suffrage Organizations. 

International Woman s Suffrage Alliance. Pres., Mrs. 
Carrie Chapman Catt, General Supt. of Schools of Iowa, 2 
West 86th St., New York City, U.S.A. 

Men s International Alliance for Woman Suffrage. Pres., 
Hon. Sir John Cockburn, K.C.M.G., London, Eng. 

Woman Suffrage Union, British Dominions Overseas. Con 
ference held in Westminster Palace Hotel, London, Eng., July 
9, 1914. Hon. Sec., Miss Harriett C. Newcomb. 

Church League for Women s Suffrage. Sec., 6 York Bldgs., 
Adelphi, London, W.C. (Confined to members of the Church 
of England all over the world of either sex), and "affirms 
the principle of absolute equality of rights and opportunities 
between the sexes in all the relations of life." Methods, " edu 
cational and devotional." Pres., The Bishop of London. 


International Women s Franchise Club, 9 Grafton St., Pic 
cadilly, London, Eng. 

Canadian Suffrage Association (Member of International 
Suffrage Alliance; Member of Canadian National Council of 
Women). Hon. Pres., Mrs. Flora MacD. Denison, Toronto; 
Pres., Dr. Margaret Gordon, 726 Spadina Ave., Toronto; Vice- 
Presidents, Dr. Stowe-Gullen, Dr. Isabella Woods, Mrs. Howard 
Stowe, Mrs. James Gow, Mrs. Henrietta Edwards, Alberta, Mrs. 
M. J. Benedictssen, Manitoba, Mrs. Hammond Bullock, Quebec; 
Rec. Sec., Dr. Margaret Johnston, 108 Avenue Road, Toronto; 
Cor. Sec., W. Munns, 88 King St. E., Toronto; Treas., Mrs. 
Geddes. The formation of this association (See above, under 
heading, "A Canadian Pioneer ") dates back to 1884, when the 
late Dr. Emily Stowe organized "The Dominion Women s En 
franchisement Association," under which name, setting forth its 
objects and aims that is, the advancement of women in all de 
partments of life it received a Government charter. The Asso 
ciation succeeded not only in having the doors of the Univer 
sity of Toronto opened to women, but in obtaining the muni 
cipal franchise for women as now exercised. In 1893, the 
somewhat cumbersome name was changed to The Canadian 
Suffrage Association, with the same objects and aims to 
obtain the full municipal, provincial and federal franchise for 
women in Canada on the same terms as now exercised by 
men. The Association has branches and affiliated societies 
in Toronto, Ottawa, London, Montreal, St. John, N.B., Mount 
Forest and Fort William, as well as three Icelandic societies 
in Manitoba. 

National Union of Women s Suffrage Societies. The 

National Union of Women s Suffrage Societies of Canada was 
organized in the spring of 1914, and is working through local 
and Provincial organizations to obtain the local, Provincial 
and Dominion Franchises for women on the same terms as 
they are, or may be, granted to men.. The first annual meet 
ing for the ratification of the constitution and election of 
officers would have taken place on October 15th, but was 
postponed, like most other nationally organized annual meet- 


ings because of the war, as the members, from near and far, 
were too busily occupied in patriotic and philanthropic work 
either to give the time or the money necessary to attend in 
sufficient numbers to make the meeting fully representative. 
In the meantime the officers elected at the organization meet 
ing to serve until the annual meeting will continue to act. 
They are: Hon. Pres., Lady Drummond, 448 Sherbrooke St., 
West, Montreal; Pres., Mrs. L. A. Hamilton, 32 St. Joseph St., 
Toronto; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. Gordon Wright, London, Prof. 
Carrie Derick, Montreal, Mrs. Cox, Ottawa; Cor. Sec., Mrs. 
W. R. Lang, 637 Huron St., Toronto; Rec. Sec., Miss Ruth 
Hutton, 40 St. George St., Toronto; Treas., Miss J. Melville, 
Toronto; Literature Sec., Mrs. Campbell, 62 Balsam Ave., 
Toronto, from whom a variety of Suffrage literature, brooches, 
etc., may be obtained. 

Provincial. Political Equality League of Manitoba. Pres., 
Dr. Mary Crawford, Waldron Apts.; Sec., Miss Prestwich, 697 
Preston Ave., Winnipeg. (The noted author of " Sowing Seeds 
in Danny," Mrs. Nellie McClung, is a most effective speaker 
for suffrage.) Ontario Woman Franchise Association. Pres., 
Mrs. Ormsiby, Orms Cliff, Mimico; Cor. Sec., Mrs. C. Maclver. 
Political Equality League of British Columbia. Pres., Mrs. 
Gordon Grant; Sec., Mrs. Montgomery. The fundamental 
principle of its policy is the establishment of the Political, 
Social and Industrial Rights of Women and Men. It recog 
nizes as indispensable the (possession by women of the Parlia 
mentary vote on the same terms as it is or may be granted to 
men. Motto " No Sex in Citizenship." " The Women s Cause 
is Man s." 

Brantford. Equal Suffrage Club, Pres., Mrs. Mary E. 
Secord; Sec., Miss Marion Mitchell. Calgary. Women s Suf 
frage Ass n, Pres., Mrs. Kerby, Mount Royal Coll. Edmonton. 
Equal Franchise League, Pres., Mrs. Broadus, 6th Avenue 
S.W. Fort William. West Algoma Equal Suffrage Ass n, 
Pres., Dr. Clara Todson, 631 Southern Ave., Ft. William; Sec., 
Mrs. J. Manning, 271 Wolseley St., Port Arthur. Halifax.- 
Woman s Suffrage Ass n, Pres., Mrs. Murray, 348 South St. 
London, Suffrage Society, Pres., Mrs. Gordon Wright, Elm- 


wood Ave. ; Women-Teachers Suffrage Ass n (connected with 
Women Teachers Ass n) . Montreal, Suffrage Ass n, Pres., Prof. 
Carrie Derick, 85 Crescent St. Ottawa. Equal Suffrage Ass n, 
Pres., Mrs. Cox, 261 Laurier Ave. East; Sec., Miss F. Burt, 
10 Chelsea Apts. Prince Albert, Sask. Equal Franchise 
League, Pres., Mrs. Win. Trail, 19th and 3rd Ave. W.; Sec., 
Miss Helen McKay, 602 6th Ave. E. Koaring Eiyer, Man- 
Woman s Suffrage Ass n, Pres, Mrs. Gertrude Richardson; Sec., 
Mrs. F. E. Livesey (" To work for the enlightenment and 
uplifting of women in all departments of life"). St. John, 
N.B. Woman s Suffrage Ass n, Pres., Mrs. Emma J. Fiske, 223 
King St. E. Toronto. Beaches Progressive Club, Pres., Mrs. 
C. J. Campbell, 62 Balsam Ave.; Sec., Mrs. Campbell Gunn, 
3 Balmy Ave. (" To protect the rights, conserve and increase 
the interests, and heighten the ideals of women." It stands 
for " service " in connection with " Votes for women, Pure 
food, International disarmament, Good roads, Tree planting, 
Children s playgrounds.") . Equal Franchise League, Pres., 
Mrs. L. A. Hamilton; Sec., Mrs. Erickson Brown, Lonsdale 
Rd. Junior Suffrage League, Pres., Miss Amyot. Political 
Equality League, Pres., Mrs. Hector Prenter, 92 Westminster 
Ave.; Sec., Miss Inez Perry, 5 Maitland Place (Includes men. 
" Its chief aims, the securing of Political Equality for women, 
the advancement of a broader democracy, and the promotion 
of higher ideals of citizenship for both men and women."). 
Toronto Suffrage Society, Pres., Dr. Margaret Gordon, Spadina 
Ave.; Sec., Mrs. Geo. Robinson, 150 Sunnyside Ave. Toronto 
Women Teachers Franchise Club, Pres., Miss J. A. Melville, 
396 Manning Ave.; Sec., Miss E. E. J. Warner, 55 De Lisle 
Ave. (" To obtain for women the Municipal and Parliamentary 
Franchise . . . and to study and discuss conditions and 
problems in Civics, Politics and Government generally, that 
we may intelligently use the Franchise."). Men s Equal 
Franchise League, Pres., Dr. James L. Hughes, 47 Dundonald 
Ave.; Sec., Geo. Dixon, 38 St. Clair Ave. Vancouver. Equal 
Franchise League, Pres., Mrs. Helen Gregory MacGill, M.A., 
Mus.B. ; Sec., Mrs. Jean Drummond, B.A. Pioneer Political 
Equality League, 302 Empire Bldg., Pres., Mrs. W. A. McCon- 


key; Sec., Mrs. W. Scott. Victoria, B.C. Political Equality 
League, Pres., Mrs. Gordon Grant, Douglas St. 

Franchise Committee of Local Council of Women, Calgary. 

Pres. of Local Council, Mrs. Jamieson; Convener of Fran 
chise Committee (an outcome of the Social Service Commit 
tee), Mrs. Kerby, Mount Royal College, Calgary, Alta. We 
owe to Mrs. Kerby the following account of the activities of 
the Franchise Committee : Its aim is " To bring before the 
women of our country the need of the franchise for our 
women, and to canvass the Province (which we have done) 
for signatures to petitions asking the Premier and Ministers 
to grant us the franchise on equal terms with men. We 
waited on Premier Sifton on October 10th and laid the matter 
before him. His reply to us was, No one in this age for one 
moment doubts the right of women to the franchise, but there 
are two objections: (1) The expense of a larger electorate. " 
Reply " But expense is no reason for persons not getting 
their rights." " * (2) You are from the cities only, and we 
must have the rural vote, as this is a large part of the 
electorate. Mrs. Langford then rose, saying, The seven 
thousand names I laid on your table are from the rural dis 
tricts done by the W.C.T.U. We did not touch the cities. 
They were done by the Local Council and Suffrage Associa 
tion. In all we laid on the table 40,200 names. But owing 
to war conditions the matter will not be taken up till next 
session of the House." 

Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage in Canada. Pres., 
Mrs. H. D. Warren; Vice-Pres., Miss Campbell, Mrs. H. S. 
Strathy, Mrs. H. C. Rae; Treas., Miss Barron; Rec. Sec., Miss 
Laing; Cor. Sec., Miss Plummer, Sylvan Towers, Toronto. 
1 This Association is formed to give those who are opposed to 
the movement in favor of woman suffrage an opportunity to 
express their conviction that such a measure would be against 
the best interests of the State. The Association takes an 
active interest in questions of civic, social and moral reform, 
and it claims that these can best be advanced without the 
extension of the parliamentary franchise to women. Any 


women opposed to woman suffrage in Canada may become 
members of this Association by sending their names and 
addresses to the secretary." (Note kindly supplied by Miss 

The Montreal Women s Club was founded by Mrs. Robert 
Reid (1892) "to promote agreeable and useful relations 
between women of artistic, literary, scientific and philan 
thropic tastes. To-day it is trying to assist in solving some 
of the many complex problems which affect childhood and 
womanhood, as regards industrial, educational, economic, civic 
and home conditions." Pres., Madame Heliodore Fortier, 404 
Metcalfe Ave.; Sec., Mrs. Alexander Murray, 29 Murray Ave., 
Westmount. Chairmen of Departments: Social Science Mrs. 
George A. Kohl, 297 Peel St.; Home and Education Mrs. Jas. 
Thorn, 4110 Western Ave.; Art and Literature Mrs. John J. 
Louson, 4250 Boulevard Ave., Westmount. 

Clubs for the Study of Social Science. 

These clubs, with their demand for personal " investiga 
tion and report on conditions," will surely prove a most effec- 
time enemy to " the historic sins of ease and indifference." 

We quote the following from the " President s Annual 
Address" of the Toronto club: "The club has always tried 
to organize its most active and willing brains in an educa 
tional movement, seeking the solution of some of the great 
problems relating to social and industrial progress, and to 
provide for study and discussion, thus helping to create the 
most enlightened public opinion. . . . We are in the 
throes of a social and economic revolution for which the 
world s history has no parallel. . . . The two factors, in 
the past, that made for the domination of Capital, were, first 
the introduction of machinery; second laws protecting manu 
facturers. ... In the nineteenth century was developed 
also the doctrine of Individualism ... a crusade for free 
dom and individual liberty. Under this influence laws were 
formulated to protect the individual factory owner, even leav 
ing him free to contract with the unprotected working classes 


for an eighteen-hour working day. . . . But to-day the 
intolerable conditions caused by the unrestrained activity of 
Capital have resulted in the combination and organization of 
Labor, to curb and restrict its power to the end that labor 
may more fully participate in its profits. Therefore, if the 
last century belonged to Capital, in this century we must be 
prepared to deal reasonably with the demands of Labor. Just 
as the principle of Capital is unrestrained individualism, so 
the true principle of Labor is collective control, or ideal 
Socialism. Between these two orders we stand to-day, while 
the relentless revolution is grinding the old forms into new 

In speaking of the last half of the year s work on " Women 
in Industry, Mrs. Small continues: "There was one outstand 
ing fact, however, that forced itself into each paper as an 
obstacle to better conditions the housing problem. We 
learned that in Toronto some 6,327 people live in 474 houses; 
being nearly two thousand in excess of health regulations, 
while our health officer tells us that to deal adequately with 
the situation he needs at once ten thousand new houses. 

" These facts cannot be repeated too often if we aspire to 
help to formulate and direct an enlightened public opinion. 
This is perhaps our most valuable office that in these days 
of spiritual unrest we may help to direct attention not only 
to the larger policies of social reforms, but also to the imme 
diate needs of our community, hoping thereby to help to 
reclaim some of the waste places of our civilization, into a 
state more akin to the Brotherhood of Man, the ideal Social 
ism, whose gospel of good news was given to us so many 
centuries ago by the Master of Masters." 

Toronto. " The Club for the Study of Social Science," 
Pres., Mrs. Sidney Small, 70 Walmer Rd.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. 
Britton Osier, 80 Crescent Rd. Programme of subjects, 1914- 
15: Mothers Pensions, Workmen s Compensation, Minimum 
Wage, Unemployment (on two separate days Part I, " The 
Case," Part II, "The Remedies"), Public Ownership. "Any 
person may become a member of this Club on payment of an 
annual fee of one dollar. (To be sent to the Treasurer)." 


Winnipeg. " The Social Science Study Club," Pres., Mrs. 
R. M. Dennistoun; Sec., Mrs Claude Nash. 

In Winnipeg the members " have practically abandoned 
their programme and " are meeting to knit and listen to a 
reading of some topic of general interest; every one has her 
mind so fixed on the war." The programme for last year, 
however, is suggestive: 

I. Preliminary meeting to discuss: The Possibility of a 
Household Service Guild. II. (a) "Local Conditions of Fac 
tory Workers." (b) Lo*cal Conditions of Shop Girls." III. 
Housing. IV. Recreation. V. Food and Water Supply. VI. 
Preventible Diseases. VII. Accidents. " Any woman residing 
in the City of Winnipeg, who is interested in the objects of 
the Club, and willing to contribute to its discussions, shall be 
eligible for membership, but the number of members shall not 
exceed thirty. Any member who misses two consecutive meet-, 
ings for any reason other than illness or absence from town 
shall be excluded from membership in the Club." 

Women s Conseryatiye Club. Headquarters, 190% Simcoe 
St., Toronto. Pres., Mrs. Arthur Van Koughnet, 238 College 
St.; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. Gearing, Mrs. Hook, Mrs. Chapman, 
Mrs. Price; Hon. Sec., Miss Jeannette Cornnell, 286 Simcoe St., 
Hon. Treas., Mrs. T. W. Close, 262 Sherbourne St. 

The aims and objects: The formation of Women s Con 
servative Clubs for the advancement and formation of the 
principles of Liberal-Conservatism in Dominion and Provin 
cial politics, for the encouragement of a healthy opinion on 
public questions of the day, by the holding of meetings to 
enable those who desire to take part in the discussions, also 
to foster patriotism in the upbuilding of Canada and the fur 
thering of the interests of the Empire; the support and main 
tenance of club rooms for that purpose, and libraries and 
reading-rooms for the use of the members; the keeping and 
distribution of political and other literature; the advance 
ment of the political, intellectual and social condition of the 
members: the providing of rational amusements for the 
recreation of the members. 

The Ontario Women s Liberal Association. Pres., Mrs. N. 


W. Rowell, 134 Crescent Rd., Toronto; Sec.-Treas., Mrs. John 
A. Tory, 17 Elm Ave., Toronto. The Association was formed 
with the idea of having a central organization with which all 
local associations might affiliate, and has for its purpose: 
(a) To promote a knowledge of sound Liberal principles; (b) 
To organize Women s Liberal Associations in Ontario; (c) To 
publish literature for use in such organizations; (d) To 
secure speakers and make other arrangements for general 
assistance in programmes, etc. 

The following local associations are at present affiliated 
with the Provincial organization: Toronto Pres., Mrs. G. G. 
S. Lindsey, 145 Tyndall Ave. ; Hamilton Pres., Mrs. Harrison, 
118 Aberdeen Ave.; Stratford Pres., Mrs. J. P. Rankin, 256 
Erie St.; Brantford Pres., Mrs. T. H. Preston; Wiarton- 
Pres., Miss Janet Miller. 


" The foundations of national greatness are set in the 
homes of the people." (George V.) 

" No matter how the daily contact with the hard realities 
of life has taken the fine bloom off our sensibilities, no matter 
how familiarity with the blue books and statistics and the 
dry routine of office work has dulled the glow of imagination, 
there is, I venture to say, not one of us who has not felt the 
inmost chords of his being thrilled by the very sound of that 
word Home. There is a music, a suggestiveness, in it 
hardly equalled by any other word in our language. Were it 
given to me to begin life anew on this planet, and to choose 
for myself those through whom I should re-enter on this 
mortal stage ... I would demand that the beginnings of 
my life should be permeated by high ideals ideals such as 
the loftiest conceptions of religion only can supply. I would 
choose parents who would behold in parenthood the nearest 
approach to the creative act of God, who would consequently 
regard the great laws of life with the highest reverence, who 
would look upon the child as a heavenly visitant, an immortal 


being sealed with the Creator s image, a child of the Most 
High, heir to a wondrous heritage, endowed with tremendous 
powers for weal or woe both for himself and others. . . . 
Next to the spiritual atmosphere, call it high ideals or what 
ever you will, comes regard for physical conditions. Had I 
the selection of the circumstances under which I would begin 
the journey of life, I would certainly select parents of sound 

" Let me have as Heaven s choicest gift a mother who will 
seek to awaken in me from the earliest lispings a love of the 
true and the beautiful, who will not hand over my instruction 
to others, who will deem it her highest happiness to see that 
my first ideas of religion, my first prayers, come to me irradi 
ated with a mother s love. I want a mother who will encour 
age my childish questionings and meet them with the refined 
discretion which is such a blessed thing. I want a mother 
who -shall win my confidence, who will teach me self-control 
from the very outset, who will find out all about my studies, 
my companions, my associations without any of the spirit of 
prying curiosity . . . who will enter into my childish griefs, 
sympathize with them, but at the same time train me to meet 
sorrow with fortitude. Above all, I want a mother who from 
the first will by word and example instil into me the great 
lesson of unselfishness. 

" I want a father who will not deem that he has done his 
whole duty when he has provided for the physical needs of 
his children and in addition procures for them good secular 
and religious instruction. I want a father who will lead his 
household in prayer, the clasp of whose hand as he led them 
to Sunday service will be a treasured memory; who will be 
his children s companion in their studies, participator in their 
sports, preserving their respect whilst at the same time win 
ning their love." (Rev. Father Minehan.) 

The Mothers Union is a Church of England Society 
founded (1) To uphold the sanctity of marriage; (2) To 
awaken in mothers of all classes a sense of their great respon 
sibility in the training of their boys and girls (the future 


fathers and mothers of the Empire) ; (3) To organize in 
every place a band of mothers who will unite in prayer and 
seek by their own example to lead their families in purity 
and holiness of life. Membership 410,850 in different parts 
of the Empire. 

Officers, Diocesan Branches. Calgary Pres., Mrs. Pink- 
ham, Bishop s Court; See., Mrs. Herschel, 2314 2nd St. W., 
Calgary. Columbia Pres., Mrs. Roper, Bishop s Close, Vic 
toria, B.C.; Sec., Mrs. Stirling, 1031 Terrace Ave. Huron 
Pres., Mrs. Boomer, 513 Dundas St., London; Sec., Mrs. Parry. 
New Westminster Pres., Mrs. de Pencier, 1346 Pendrell St., 
Vancouver; Sec., Mrs. M. I. Burd, 1717 Pendrell St. Ottawa 
Pres. and Sec., Mrs. Woolcombe, Ashbury College, Rockcliffe, 
Ottawa. Toronto Pres., Mrs. H. T. Machell, 216 St. Clair 
Ave., Toronto; Sec., Mrs. W. L. Wallis, Elmscourt Apts., 
Irwin Ave. 

Mothers Association of Winnipeg. Pres., Mrs. T. R. Dea 
con, 251 Furby St.; Mrs. C. A. Dickerson, 244 Arlington St. 
(See Day-Nurseries, Section VII.) Aim: "By education and 
example to encourage and stimulate high ideals in the home, 
and to help those less fortunate than ourselves, particularly 
mothers and little children." 

The Keeping of the Home Together. That a child has the 
misfortune to be fatherless is no sound reason why it should 
be rendered practically motherless by being placed in an 
institution. On the other hand, it is a shocking injustice to 
expect a woman to act as bread-winner for a young family 
and to bear a normal mother s burdens of washing, cleaning, 
sewing, etc., which must be done, however heavy her day s 
work. Day Nurseries help many women to accomplish this 
all-but-impossible task, and, indeed, give the children more 
skilled care than their mothers could give, but (to quote Mr. 
G. B. Clarke, Sec. of the Widows Pension Committee of the 
Winnipeg Social Service Club) " these women are engaged 
mainly in unskilled occupations, in which the wages are low, 
the (hours long, the physical strain severe," and the conditions 
of their employment " can be described only as unsatisfactory 
in the extreme." 


The Widows Pensions plan has many advocates, and at 
this time the Mothers Association of Winnipeg has under 
taken to allow $25 the month to a widow known for years to 
the Associated Charities. In Toronto the Local Council of 
Women is making a similar experiment, with a view to its 
being iput later, if satisfactory, on a more permanent basis. 
Three widows, one woman whose husband is in the peniten 
tiary and another whose husband is insane, are at present 
receiving pensions. It is recognized that not all mothers 
are efficient and capable of caring for their children, and 
also that there are great difficulties in the way of supervision 
of pensioned mothers. 

The Problem of the Deserted Wife is harder of solution 
than that of the widow. As one experienced social worker 
puts it, " If you wait two or three years for the hus band 
to turn uip, the home will in the meantime go to pieces; if 
you interfere at once an exodus to the West will ensue. If 
a man found it impossible to get work, you could hardly blame 
him for going off, if he knew that his family would be 
promptly provided for." 

The feeling of the Local Council of Montreal seems to be 
that " segregation of the feeble-minded should receive atten 
tion from the Government before mothers pensions, unless 
most unusual wisdom be shown in selecting the cases to be 

On the other hand, the Trades and Labor Congress has 
passed resolutions in favor of mothers pensions at least 
twice, and it was strongly urged by Mrs. Rose Henderson, of 
Montreal, at the recent Social Service Congress at Ottawa, 
that the pension system is far less costly than the keeping 
of children in institutions. It may be added that Mr. Clarke s 
report, referred to above, shows that of nine widows whose 
children have been placed in the Children s Home, six pay 
regularly and one irregularly; and of thirteen cases of non- 
support, eight mothers pay regularly and three irregularly, 
which would suggest that a large proportion of these unfor 
tunate women make at least a very considerable effort to help 


Marriages That Should Be Prohibited. The negative side 
of the new science of Eugenics, says Dr. Hastings, " would 
prohibit the marriage of all feeble-minded, syphilitics, epi 
leptics, etc., and thereby prevent a reproduction of that 
material. To justify this, the Jukes family, of New York, and 
the Indiana group known as the Tribe of Ishmael are fre 
quently quoted. From the Jukes family came 1,200 descend 
ants in 75 years. Out of these, 310 were professional paupers, 
who spent an aggregate of 2,300 years in poor-houses; 50 
were prostitutes, 7 murderers, 60 habitual thieves, and 130 
common criminals. It has been estimated that this family 
cost the state $1,300,000 in 75 years." 

Marriage Statistics. In Bulletin XVIII, Fifth Census of 
Canada, 1911, it is stated: "Of the total male population 62 
per cent, are single, 34.85 per cent, married and 2.33 per cent, 
widowed; of the total female population 57.37 per cent, are 
single, 36.97 per cent, married and 5.31 per cent, widowed. 
The records of the last census show that one male and 30 
females under the age of 15 had assumed the cares of mar 
ried life. The one adventurous male was a foreigner in 
Alberta, while the females comprised 17 Canadian-born, 5 
British-born and 8 foreign-born; of the native-born 4 resided 
in New Brunswick, 4 in Ontario and 9 in Quebec; of the 
British-born 2 lived in Alberta, 1 each in British Columbia, 
Manitoba and Saskatchewan, while of the foreign-born . . . 
3 were in Alberta, 1 in British Columbia, 2 in Ontario and 2 
in Saskatchewan." 

Excluding children under 15, out of a total population of 
4,835,596, the single numbered 1,940,636 (40.13 per cent), 
married, 2,583,290 (53.42 per cent.), widowed 268,810 (5.56 
per cent.). "As the proportion of divorces for both sexes is 
only about six in every 10,000 the percentages for them are 
not worked out." 

Of youths of the ages of 15 to 19 inclusive, 4,226 were 
married, 57 widowed and 6 divorced. Of girls of the same 
ages, 22,914 were married, 184 widowed, and 13 divorced. " At 
every age both the percentage and the actual numbers of 
widowed are greater among females than males." 


Making comparisons by ten-year age periods, excluding 
children under 15, it appears that more than half the women 
from 20 to 69 were married the proportion of married to the 
widowed and single being greatest (79.71 per cent.) at the 
ages 40 to 49 inclusive. As 70 is approached, the proportion 
of widowed passes that of the married. Similar comparisons 
work out Somewhat differently with men. The age periods 
in which the married exceed the single and widowed are those 
from 30 to 79 inclusive; and the widowed are not in the 
majority till the nineties are reached. 

Society for the Protection of Women and Children, 332 
Lagauchetiere St. W., Montreal. " At the service of the pub 
lic, regardless of creed or nationality," for " the protection 
of women and children from any kind of wrong, abuse or 
cruelty." Object: " to obtain the enactment of suitable laws " 
and "the proper enforcement of the same." Pres., Alfred 
Piddington, Esq.; Sec.-Treas., O. H. Skroder, Esq.; Asst. Sec., 
Mrs. O. H. Skroder; Hon. Solicitor, Gustave Dutaud, Esq.; 12 
hon. physicians. 


By the British IVorth America Act (Sections 91 and 92), 
the authority in matters of marriage is divided " Marriage 
and Divorce " being among the " classes of subjects " over 
which " the exclusive authority of the parliament of Canada 
extends." On the other hand, " The Solemnization of Mar 
riage in the Province " is included in the " classes of sub 
jects " in relation to which " in each province the Legislature 
may exclusively make laws." 

The R. S. of Canada contain what is to be cited as " The 
Marriage Act." Chap. 105, which is a consolidation of two 
previous Acts, the first legalizing the marriage of a man with 
his deceased wife s sister, the second legalizing the marriage 
of a man with the deceased wife s sister s daughter. 

With the exception of this Act and of certain criminal 
legislation, the Dominion Parliament has left the Provinces 
to deal with marriage. 

From the Criminal Code, R. S. of Canada, c. 146, s. 308: 
Every one who commits higamy is liable to 7 years impris- 


onment. Feigned Marriage, s. 309: Every one is liable to 
7 years imprisonment who procures a feigned or pretended 
marriage between himself and any woman, or who knowingly 
aids and assists in procuring such feigned or (pretended mar 
riage. Polygamy, s. 310: The penalty to which a person is 
liable for this offence is imprisonment for 5 years, and to a 
fine of $500. Unlawful Solemnization of Marriage, s. 311: 
" Every one is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to a 
fine, or to 2 years imprisonment, or to both, who, (a) without 
lawful authority, the (proof of which shall lie on him, solem 
nizes or pretends to solemnize any marriage; or, (b) pro 
cures any person to solemnize any marriage knowing that 
such person is not lawfully authorized to solemnize such mar 
riage, or knowingly aids or abets such person in performing 
suich ceremony." But, s. 1140, no prosecution for an offence 
under the above section shall be commenced after the expira 
tion of 2 years from its commission. S. 312: "Every one 
is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to a fine, or to 
1 year s, imprisonment, who, being lawfully authorized, know 
ingly and wilfully .solemnizes any marriage in violation of 
the laws of the province in which the marriage is solemnized." 

Solemnization of Marriage. 

N.B. The references below refer, unless definitely stated 
otherwise, to C.O., c. 46; R.S.B.C., 1911, c. 151, as amended 1913; 
C. S.M., 1913, c. 122; C.S.N.B., 1903, c. 76; R.S.N.S,, 1900, Vol. II. 
c. 3; R.S.O., 1914, c. 148; Laws of P. B. I., 1832, c!4; Civil Code, 
Quebec; Saskatchewan, office consolidation used, including amend* 
ments of 1913, respectively. 

Ages After Which the Consent of Parents and Guardians 
is Unnecessary. At the age of 18 in Manitoba, New Bruns 
wick and Ontario, and at 21 in all the other Provinces, the 
consent of parent (s) or guardian (s) is no longer required. 

Persons under the ages given above may marry without 
consent of parents or guardians under the following circum 
stances : 

In most Provinces, widows and widowers. In Alberta and 
Saskatchewan (sections 11 and 15, respectively), any female 
over 18, who is living apart from parents and guardians and 
earning her own living. 

When the parents are dead and there is no guardian: In 


Alberta iand Saskatchewan, a statement of the fact is required 
in the affidavit. In Manitoba, Nova Scotia and Ontario the 
issuer has authority, if satisfied of the facts, to grant the 
license. In Ontario and Manitoba, if the party under 18 has 
been resident in the Province for the next preceding twelve 
months, the issuer is also allowed to grant the license, without 
the consent of the parent if the latter is not in the Province 
at the time of the application. In British Columbia (s. 18), con 
sent is required " unless there shall be no person so author 
ized to give consent." In case of inability or refusal to grant 
consent, an appeal, s. 19, is allowed to the Judge of the 
Supreme Court. 

Persons Haying Authority to Oiye Consent to the Marriage 
of Minors. Alberta, s. 11: "The father, if living; or if the 
father is dead, then the mother of the minor; or if both 
parents are dead, then the lawfully appointed guardian or the 
acknowledged guardian, who may have brought up or for 
three years immediately preceding the intended marriage sup 
ported or protected the minor," British Columbia, s. 18: 
"The father, if living; or if the father shall be dead, the 
guardian or guardians, lawfully appointed, or one of them; 
and in case there shall be no such guardian or guardians, 
then the mother of such party, if unmarried, and if there 
shall be no mother unmarried, then the guardian or guardians 
of the person appointed by the Supreme Court (if any), or 
any one of them." Manitoba, s. 15 : The father, if living, " or 
if the father be dead, the consent of the mother, if living, or 
of a guardian if any has been duly appointed." New Bruns 
wick, s. 9 : The " father or guardian." Noya Scotia, s. 11 (1) , 
and Ontario, s.15 (1) : Practically the same as Manitoba. 
Prince Edward Island See Laws of 1843, c. 8, " Parents or 
guardians." Quebec, C.C. 119 : " Father and mother . . . ; 
in case of disagreement the consent of the father suffices." 
C.C. 121: A natural child under 21 "must be authorized before 
contracting marriage by a tutor ad hoc duly appointed for the 
purpose." C.C. 122: "If there be neither father nor mother, 
or if both be unable to express their will, minor children, 
before contracting marriage must obtain the consent of their 


tutor, or in cases of emancipation, their curator, who is 
bound, before giving such consent, to take the advice of a 
family council, duly called to deliberate on the subject." 
Saskatchewan, s. 11: Practically same as Alberta. 

Prohibition of Marriages of Children. In Manitoba (s. 16), 
the issue of a license or celebration of a marriage is for 
bidden, where either party is under 16, except to prevent the 
illegitimacy of offspring. In Ontario (s. 16), the fixed age is 
14, otherwise the same. In Quebec (C.C. 115) " a man cannot 
contract marriage before the full age of fourteen years, nor 
a woman before the full age of twelve years." 

For information with regard to this question in their 
Provinces, we are much indebted to The Hon. C. W. Cross, 
Attorney-General, Alberta; A. V. Pineo, Solicitor, Department 
of the Attorney-General, British Columbia; F. F. Mathers, 
K.C., LL.B., Deputy Provincial Secretary, Nova Scotia; Hon. 
J. A. Mathieson, Premier of Prince Edward Island; T. A. 
Colclough, Deputy Attorney General, Saskatchewan. 

Mr. Mathers states that " there is nothing in the Act (Nova 
Scotia) prescribing the age at which a person has capacity 
to contract marriage," but he is of opinion, therefore, that 
the common law rule prevails that in the case of males 
there is capacity to marry at the age of 14, and in the case of 
females at the age of 12. We are informed that this is also 
true of IVew Brunswick. 

Prince Edward Island. " Where the parents grant their 
consent, there is no limitation upon the age of persons marry 
ing." " There is no provincial statute passed by the legis 
lature of this Province prohibiting marriages under a certain 
age in Saskatchewan." 

In the case of British Columbia, we are referred to sec 
tions 18 and 19 of the Marriage Act, where will be found " all 
the provisions of our statute relating to the marriage of per 
sons under 21 years." In the case of Alberta, we were simi 
larly referred to sections 9 and 11 of the Marriage Ordinance. 
These sections, however, do not contain any age limit below 
which marriage is prohibited, with or without the consent 
of parents. 


The Solemnization of Marriage is not lawful in any of the 
Provinces of Canada unless authorized by license, publica 
tion of banns, proclamation of intention, dispensation (Mani 
toba and Quebec), or certificate (Ontario). 

Witnesses. Two witnesses to a marriage beside the person 
performing the ceremony are required. In Alberta, British 
Columbia, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan, moreover, it 
is stipulated that these witnesses must be " credible," and in 
Manitoba and Ontario that they shall be " adult." 

The affidavit required of one of the parties to an intended 
marriage before a license or certificate is issued in Manitoba 
(s. 17) and in Ontario (s. 18) includes the sub-section (c) that 
one of the parties has, for 15 days immediately preceding 
the issue of the license or certificate, had his or her usual 
place of abode within the municipality or district in which 
the marriage is to be solemnized. For alternatives, see the 

In Quebec, the regulations as to where banns shall be 
published are of great interest. C.C. 130: "If the parties 
belong to different churches, these pubttcations take place 
in each of such churches." C.C. 131: "If the actual domicile 
of the parties to be married has not been established by a 
residence of six months at least, the publications must also 
be made at the place of their last domicile in Lower Canada." 
C.C. 132: "If their last domicile be out of Lower Canada, 
and the publications have not been made there, the officer who, 
in that case, solemnizes the marriage is bound to ascertain 
that there is no legal impediment between the parties." 
C.C. 133 : " If the parties or either of them be, in so far as 
regards marriage, under the authority of others, the banns 
must be also published at the place of domicile of those under 
whose power such iparties are." 

Civil Marriages. The Marriage Acts of Alberta (s. 16, etc.), 
British Columbia (s. 8, as amended 1913), and Saskatchewan 
(s. 15), provide in detail for the conduct of civil marriages. 
In Prince Edward Island (s. 4), justices of the peace are 
included among persons authorized to solemnize matrimony. 
In Quebec (C.C. 129), "All priests, rectors, ministers and 


other officers authorized by law to keep registers of acts of 
civil status, are competent to solemnize marriage." 


" The Dominion of Canada shares with Ireland the dis 
tinction of having no law permitting a judicial decree of 
Divorce." " However, by one clause of the Act of British 
North America there was preserved in full force the laws 
and judicial system of the several Provinces until the laws 
should be repealed or the Courts abolished by competent 
authority." (Marriage and Divorce Laws of the "World, by 
H. Ringrose, D.C.L.) 

The Courts of Divorce and Matrimonial Causes of British 
Columbia, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and the Court 
of Divorce of Prince Edward Island, retained the authority 
to grant divorces which they possessed before Confederation. 
" The Court (Prince Edward Island) has not been invoked 
for many years." (Legal Status of Canadian Women, Mrs. 
Henrietta Muir Edwards.) 

A Divorce, therefore, can only be obtained in Canada, 
except in the Provinces mentioned above, by a special Act of 
the Dominion Parliament. 

Causes for Which Divorce may he Granted. " With a few 
exceptions of early date, there is no instance in which divorce 
has been awarded by Parliament without proof of adultery." 
(The Comparative Law of Marriage and Divorce, by A. W. 
Renton and G. G. Phillimore.) 

It " appears that adultery is the sole ground of divorce in 
the Provinces which have Divorce Courts, except Nova Scotia, 
where cruelty is also a ground, though this is very rare in 
practice, and in British Columbia, where, besides adultery of 
the husband, cruelty or desertion is also necessary for a 
divorce. The other grounds mentioned above (impotence and 
consanguinity within the prohibited degrees) are really 
causes for which nullity is pronounced by the Court." (Ibid., 
p. 881.) 

In British Columbia it will be found (s. 12, see below) that 
it is lawful for a husband to present a petition for dissolution 
of his marriage on the ground of his wife s adultery since 


the celebration of their marriage, but the petition of the 
wife for dissolution of marriage must be " on the ground that 
since the celebration thereof her husband had been guilty of 
incestuous adultery ... or adultery coupled with such 
cruelty as without adultery would have entitled her to a 
divorce a mensa et thoro, or adultery coupled with deser 
tion, without reasonable excuse, for two years or upwards." 
Except in British Columbia there is practically no dis 
crimination made in the matter of divorce between the sexes. 
For further Regulations as to Divorce in the Provinces, see 
R.S.B.C., 1911, c. 67; C.S.N.B., 1903, c. 115; R.S.N.S., Vol. II, 
p. 862; Laws of P.E.I., V. William IV, c. 10. 

" Connivance at, or condonation of, the adultery, or collu 
sion in the proceedings for divorce is always a sufficient 
ground for rejecting a Bill of Divorce." (Standing Rules and 
Orders of the Senate, Rule 145.) 

Expenses for Defence of Wife, Rule 139 (7). "If the wife 
shows to the satisfaction of the Senate Committee on Divorce 
that she has, and is prepared to establish upon oath, a good 
defence to the charges made by the petition, and that she 
has not sufficient money to defend herself, the Committee 
may make an order that her husband shall provide her with 
the necessary means to sustain her defence, including the 
cost of retaining Counsel and the travelling and living 
expenses of herself and of witnesses summoned to Ottawa on 
her behalf." 

Cost of Obtaining a Divorce. We frequently hear that 
none but the wealthy can afford a divorce in Canada. The 
following information as to the sources of expense, obtained 
through the courtesy of Mr. J. C. Young, Deputy Clerk of the 
Senate, will be of interest: 1st, Cost of advertising notice 
of intention in the Canada Gazette for three months, $210 
(Rule 140), which must be paid to tfae Clerk of the Senate 
before any petition for a Bill of Divorce will be considered. 
($200 of this goes " towards expenses which may be incurred 
during the proceedings upon the petition and the Bill," and 
$10 " for translating and printing 600 copies of the Bill in 
English and 200 in French.") " The above mentioned fee* 


do not include Counsels fees, or expenses for witnesses sum 
monses to give evidence on behalf of the petitioner." Divorce 
of People in Poor Circumstances. " In the event of the peti 
tioner being in poor circumstances, it is the custom to make 
application to the Committee for the return of the fees pay 
able under Rule 140." Note. The Court of British Columbia 
may make " rules and regulations . . . for enabling persons 
to sue in the said Court in forma pauperis." 

Statistics, supplied by Mr. J. C. Young, June 29th, 1914.- 
" Prom 1868 to 1910 (42 years) 160 Divorces were granted by 
the Senate, 94 were to husbands and 66 to wives. 1914 (sta 
tistics incomplete) 42 applications were received, 34 granted, 
5 which the proceedings were discontinued against, and 1 not 
favorably reported upon. Applications: From husbands, 18; 
from wives, 23." 

Children. In the Statutes of New Brunswick and Prince 
Edward Island it is expressly stated that divorce does not 
illegitimize the issue. This is in fact the general rule. 

Dissolution of Marriage by a Foreign Court, " The courts 
hold that a marriage celebrated in Canada between persons 
domiciled there is in its nature indissoluble except by death, 
or by the Act or decree of the Dominion Parliament or a 
Canadian court of competent jurisdiction, and that no judg 
ment of a foreign court dissolving such marriage will be 
recognized in Canada." (Ringrose.) 

In the Provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and 
Prince Edward Island, divorce does not bar dower or tenancy 
by courtesy, unless expressly so adjudged in the sentence 
of divorce. 

Alimony and Settlement of Property. British Columbia 

(s. 17) "The Court may, if it shall think fit, on any such 
decree, order that the husband shall to the satisfaction of 
the Court, secure to the wife such gross sum of money, or 
such annual sum of money, for any term not exceeding her 
own life, as, having regard to her fortune (if any), to the 
ability of the husband, and to the conduct of the parties, it 
shall deem reasonable." 

(S. 29) " In any case in which the Court shall pronounce a 


sentence of divorce or judicial separation for adultery of the 
wife, if it shall be made to appear to the Court that the wife 
is entitled to any property either in possession or reversion, 
it shall be lawful for the Court, if it shall think proper, to 
order such settlement as it shall think reasonable to be made 
of such property or any part thereof for the benefit of the 
innocent party, and of the children of the marriage, or either 
or any of them." 

Noya Scotia. Alimony for the wife practically the same 
as British Columbia. 


British Columbia. Judicial Separation (R.S.B.C., 1911, c. 
67) may be obtained by either husband or wife, on the ground 
of adultery, cruelty or desertion without cause for two years 
and upwards. The Court may make any decree for alimony. 

Manitoba. The Wives and Children s Maintenance and 
Protection Act. Part I. Any married woman whose husband 
shall have been convicted of assault upon her within the mean 
ing of "The Criminal Code," or is guilty of desertion, per 
sistent cruelty, habitual drunkenness or wilful neglect to 
provide reasonable maintenance for her and her infant chil 
dren, and so has caused her to live apart from him, may apply 
to a county court judge for an order or orders for any or all 
of the following provisions: Freedom from cohabitation with 
her husband; custody of the children under 16; reasonable 
maintenance; freedom from the interference of her husband. 
No order (s. 10) shall be made if the wife is proved guilty of 
adultery, unless the husband is also responsible for the 

Quebec. Separation from bed and board (Civil Code, 187, 
etc.). A husband may demand separation: on the ground of 
the wife s adultery; a wife, " on the ground of her husband s 
adultery, if he keep his concubine in their common habita 
tion"; either husband or wife, "on the ground of outrage, ill 
usage or grievous insult committed by one toward the other." 
See also " Desertion." 

Alberta. See under "Desertion." 


Desertion and Compulsory Support and Protection Orders. 

That the question of desertion and non-support is a very 
serious one is suggested by the following quotation, for indeed 
the problem is not peculiar to Montreal. " In the year 1911, 
an estimate made for the child welfare exhibition places the 
number of desertion and non-support cases appearing in 
Montreal courts at 1,200. It has been conservatively estimated 
that from 30% to 35% of the dependent children looked after 
by the city of Montreal are dependent through the neglect 
of the father to support his family. ..." (Page 1408, Labor 
Gazette, June, 1914.) 

The Criminal Code Amendment (242A, 1913) "imposed a 
penalty of $500 fine, or a year s imprisonment, or both, on a 
man who, being legally liable, refused or neglected to support 
his wife or child or ward under 16, when they were in desti 
tute or necessitous circumstances." (Labor Gazette.) 

" So far as this new amendment goes, it is highly commend 
able, but it still falls short of dealing with the vital part of 
its particular problem. . . . What is needed is some inter 
vention by the (State which will both keep him (the deserting 
husband) engaged at labor of some kind and secure for his 
family a fair share of his earnings." (Montreal Star, May 28th, 

We are informed on good authority that a movement was 
started in the United States before the outbreak of the war 
with a view to getting desertion included among the extradit 
able offences between Great Britain, the United States and 
Canada. Proper appropriations must also be made for the 
Work of tracing and bringing back deserters. 

The following Provincial Acts may be grouped together: 
The " Deserted Wives Maintenance Act," R.S.B.C., 1911, c, 242, 
amended 1914; "The Wives and Children s Maintenance and 
Protection Act," of Manitoba, Part II ; " The Deserted Wives 
Maintenance Act," R.S.O., c. 152; and "The Deserted Wives 
Maintenance Act " of Saskatchewan, 1911, c. 14. 

In British Columbia, a maximum weekly sum of $20 may 
be paid to the deserted wife. The amount and times of pay 
ment are left in Manitoba to the discretion of the magistrate 


or justices. In Ontario the maximum weekly sum is $5; in 
Saskatchewan, $10. In British Columbia, at the request of the 
wife, the magistrate shall issue warrant (s) of execution upon 
default of payment of the weekly sum. The copy of an order, 
certified by the magistrate, for the payment of money to a 
deserted wife may be registered against the lands of the hus 
band in the same manner as the registration of a judgment 
under the "Execution Act." Manitoba. The magistrate or 
justices may require from the husband a bond not exceeding 
$500 or a cash deposit not exceeding $200. In case of neglect 
or refusal to carry out the order, he may be committed to the 
common gaol for a period not exceeding 40 days with or with 
out hard labor. The sums ordered to be paid to a deserted 
wife shall constitute a debt recoverable by action at law in any 
"court of competent jurisdiction. All applications under this 
part shall be made by summons. Proceedings under Part II 
may be instituted by any -charitable society acting on behalf of 
the wife or children. 

Alberta. Alimony may be granted (C.O., 1905, c. 29) to 
any wife who, by the law of England, would be entitled to 
alimony, or to a divorce and alimony. 

In New Brunswick (R.S. 1903, c. 20), and in Nova Scotia 
(R.S., 1900, c. 112, s. 31), a woman living apart from her hus 
band for reasons justified by law may apply to a judge for 
an order for protection, giving her control of the earnings of 
her minor children free from the debts and disposition of her 
husband. Protection orders may also be obtained for other 
causes and in other provinces. iSee Married Woman s Pro 
perty Acts. 

Prince Edward Island. " In respect of wife desertion and 
non-support, the common Law right of the deserted wife to 
pledge her husband s credit for all necessaries is the only 
remedy in this Province." (Hon. J. A. Mathieson.) 

Quebec. C.C. 191: "The refusal of a husband to receive 
his wife and furnish her with the necessaries of life, according 
to his rank, means and condition, is another cause (See " Sep 
aration ") for which she may demand separation." C.C. 166: 
" Children are bound to maintain their father and mother and 


other ascendants who are in want." For other regulations as 
to support of relatives and connections see Civil Code 167, etc. 


References. Married Women s Property Acts, Alberta, C.O., 
c. 47; R.S.B.C., 1911, c. 130; C.S.M., c. 123; R.S.N.B., 1903, c. 78, 
amended, 1906; R.S.N.S., c. 112; R.S.O., 1914, c. 149; Laws of 
P. E. I., 1903, c. 9 amended, 1908; P. of Q. Civil Code; Sask. R.S.S., 
1909, c. 45, amendments not referred to below are not listed. 

In all the Provinces except Quebec a married woman is 
capable of acquiring, holding and disposing by will or other 
wise of any real or personal property as her separate pro 
perty, in the same manner as if she were a " feme sole," with 
out the intervention of her husband or any trustee. The 
above, however, does not extend in certain of the Provinces 
to any property received by a married woman from her hus 
band during coverture. In New Brunswick the Act safe 
guards the " husband s tenancy or right by the curtesy in any 
real estate of his wife " (s. 4). 

The wife has control of her own earnings, but in Nova 
Scotia, if she proposes to carry on a business separately from 
her husband she or her husband must file a certificate in the 
registry of deeds for the registration district in which she 
proposes to carry on business. 

The general rule, except in Quebec, is that a married 
woman may sue and be sued without the intervention of her 
husband. Any costs recovered by her in such action shall 
be her property, and costs recovered against her in such 
action shall be payable out of her property and not otherwise, 
unless her husband has " intermeddled." Property which is 
restrained from anticipation is not available to satisfy obli 
gations arising out of any contract entered into by a married 
woman, but in an action or proceeding instituted by a married 
woman the Court may by judgment or order require the 
payment of the cost of the opposite party out of property 
which is subject to restraint on anticipation. The husband 
may make valid conveyance to his wife without intervention 
of a trustee. A married woman shall have, in her own name, 
against all persons whomsoever, including her husband, the 
same remedies for the protection and security of her property 
as if such property belonged to her as a feme sole. The 


wife s property is not liable on account of her husband s 


Quebec." The fundamental rule of our law is that a 
married woman is incapable of contract, and that without the 
written consent of her husband no agreement which she makes 
is of any legal effect." (T. P. Walton, K.C., LL.D.) 

Exceptions to the above. " A married woman can make 
deposits up to $2,000 with certain savings banks, and the 
banks are entitled to allow her to withdraw what she has 
deposited without having to enquire further what becomes of 
the money." (Ibid.) 

After authorization from her. husband to become a public 
trader, a wife may obligate herself, without further author 
ization, for all that relates to her commerce. In such 
case she also binds her husband, if there be community 
between them (C.C. 179). Even when the property is separate 
the wife s power extends only to administration (C.C. 181) ; 
that is, she can do as she likes with the income. When the 
parties are living together the law presumes that the wife has 
authority from the husband to act as his agent for the pur 
chase of food, clothing and other necessaries for the keeping 
up of the domestic establishment." This may be withdrawn 
by public advertisement or private notification. 

A husband, although a minor, may (C.C. 182) authorize 
his wife who is of age. A wife cannot appear in judicial 
proceedings (C.C. 176) without her husband or his authoriza 
tion, even if she be a public trader or not common as to pro 
perty. The want of authorization by the husband, however, 
where it is necessary, constitutes a cause of nullity (C.C. 183). 
Authorization to appear in judicial (proceedings and to make 
a deed may be given by the judge. 

" A wife may make a will without the authorization of her 
husband" (C.C. 184). 

"If there is no marriage contract there is legal community." 
" The common fund, called the community, consists of all the 
moveable property of both when they are married, and of all 
which they may acquire during the marriage. This will 
include the rents of houses or lands. Into the community 


fall likewise the immoveables which come to either husband 
or wife during the marriage in any other way than by suc 
cession or by gift or legacy from an ascendant. . . . When 
the marriage comes to an end by the death of one of the 
consorts the community has to be divided between the survivor 
and the heirs of ithe other, and if there is a judgment of separ 
ation it is divided between the husband and the wife. The 
private property of each is unaffected by the marriage except 
in two points t . namely, that the wife s powers of dealing with 
her iprivate iproperty are suspended during the marriage, and 
that the husband s private property, or at least one class of 
it, is subject to dower after his death." (Dr. Walton.) 

" The husband alone administers the property of the com 
munity. He may sell, alienate or hypothecate it without the 
concurrence of his wife. He may even dispose of it, either 
by gift or otherwise inter vivos, provided it is in favor of 
persons who are legally capable, and without fraud " (C.C. 

Any earnings of a married woman are included in the 
community, so that she " has no right to her own earnings 
if married without a marriage contract without special per 
mission from the Court." (Mrs. H. M. Edwards.) 

" As regards the wife s private property, the husband can 
administer it, though he cannot dispose of her immoveables, 
and probably not of her moveable capital, if she has any 
which has been excluded from the community, without her 
concurrence. As regards the husband s private property, it 
goes without saying that he can do as he likes." (Dr. Walton.) 

If, however, there is separation of property, the wife gains 
the right of administering her own property, but cannot even 
then dispose of it without the authorization of her husband. 
(See C.C. 181.) 

" The contract usually contains a declaration that the wife 
shall be separate as to property, a renunciation by her of 
right to dower, and a settlement by the husband of some pro 
perty upon her." At the time of marriage it may be impos 
sible for a husband to make a large settlement upon his wife. 
But he may later become wealthy and neglect to make a will; 


in which case the wife will receive the amount stipulated by 
the settlement, and for the rest will be classed as a twelfth 
degree relative. 

With a view to having certain amendments made to the 
marriage laws of the Province of Quebec, a delegation of 
members of the Montreal Suffrage Association waited on Sir 
Lomer Gouin, Dec. llth, 1913, and submitted the following as 
amendments, drafted by Dean Walton, of the McGill Law 
Faculty, giving the wife the right to control her own earn 
ings; the surviving consort a share in the estate of the de 
ceased as against distant relatives; a married woman the 
right to manage her own property; equality as to rights in 
case of separation. 

The Editors regret that they have been unable to include, 
this year, notes on the laws regarding guardianship and 
illegitimacy, and especially dower. 

Cost of Living. 

In 1905 and again in 1912 the Board of Trade of the United 
Kingdom made investigations, which included Canada, as to 
rents and retail prices of food for 1900-1912; it appeared that 
during the years mentioned there had been a general rise of 
24 per cent, and an advance in the more important commodities 
that brought up the actual rise in the cost of living by about 
36 iper cent. At the end of 1912 the general level of prices 
was " probably the highest within the present generation " ; 
(See Labour Gazette, Sept., 1913) but in 1913, except in the 
case of meats, "the sharpness of the upward trend was 

In retail prices a calculation of the weekly expenditure 
of a typical family of five on 36 staple articles of consumption, 
in terms of the average prices for each month of the year 
in every city of Canada having a population of 10,000 and 
upwards, shows the same level in the total expenditure for 
foods as in 1912, namely $7.34, for although meats, fuel, 
lighting and rents were somewhat higher, " potatoes, sugar, 
flour and some of the less important articles of food averaged 
lower." The " weekly budget of food " for this typical family 


of five would have cost $6.95 in 1910; $7.14 in 1911, and $7.34 
both in 1912 and 1913. During the same years fuel and light 
ing for a week would have cost $1.76 in 1910, $1.78 in 1911, 
$1.82 in 1912, and $1.90 in 1913. In rentals the cost per week 
for a six-roomed house (striking an average of rents for 
houses with and without sanitary conveniences, and situated 
in some fifty different centres of population) was $4.05 for 
1910 and 1911, $4.60 in 1912, and $4.75 in 1913. The total 
weekly expenditure on food, rent, fuel and lighting (which 
it is thought represent 80 per cent, of the expenditure of the 
ordinary family) was therefore $12.79 in 1910, $13.00 in 1911, 
$13.79 in 1912, and $14.02 in 1913. (Labour Gazette). Multiply 
ing by 52 the difference between the weekly totals for 1910 and 
1913, the result is an advance in the annual total of $63.96. 

Suggestions as to Causes of the high cost of living were 
rife before the war added a new element to be taken into 
account. Some which merit attention are: national and indi 
vidual extravagance; a vast aggregate of inefficient house 
keeping; exacting landlords and speculation in land; and 
under-production. We buy eggs by the carload from the 
United States, and much of our butter and mutton comes from 
far-away New Zealand. But in the case of articles produced 
near home, it not infrequently happens that circuitous 
methods of marketing result in a kind of artificial distance . 
between producer and consumer. The Toronto Globe told 
recently how certain New Jersey farmers " figured it out that 
they were getting just 41 cents of every dollar the consumer 
paid for their potatoes. The other 59 cents went to feed and 
pay " five sets of dealers, " every one who handled the pota 
toes increasing their cost to the consumer without any benefit 
to the farmer." 

Co-operation. Obviously the remedy for this state of 
things seems closer connection between producer and con 
sumer, and every year the idea of co-operation is gaining 
ground. Seventy years ago, 28 workmen in a Lancashire town 
founded a little co-operative store; and in 1910 Great Britain 
had an army of co-operators numbering millions. In Canada 
the co-operative idea applied to distribution is slowly taking 


hold in different provinces, and in 1909 the Co-operative Union 
was founded at Brantford, Sec., Mr. George Keen. There are 
now associations in affiliation with the above at Guelph, 
Preston, Ottawa, Berlin, London, Brockville, Peterborough, 
Gait and Port Arthur in Ontario; at Magog and Valleyfield, 
in Quebec; at Sydney, Sydney Mines, Dominion, Inverness 
and Glace Bay in Nova Scotia; New Westminster, Merrrtt and 
Nanaimo in British Columbia; Coleman, Eckville, Hillcrest 
and Lethbridge in Alberta, and at Winnipeg. 

In Connection with some societies, Women s Guilds have 
banded together to spread the principles of co-operation. 
The first of these organized (March, 1913) was the " Women s 
Co-operative Guild," Pres., Mrs. Walker; Sec., Mrs. C. Miller, 
Preston. It s chief object is " to draw the different classes 
of people more together." 

Co-operation amongst Farmers has, in different forms, 
proved eminently successful, for proof of which statement 
one needs only to point to those great organizations in the 
West the " Grain Growers Associations " of Saskatchewan 
and Manitoba and the " United Farmers of Alberta," and 
the resultant Grain Growers Grain Company, which has 
achieved signal success in the co-operative marketing of 
grain. Long before these associations came into existence 
Ontario had its Granges and associations of farmers and 
fruit growers, and early in 1914 was launched the " United 
Farmers of Ontario," with its allied " Farmers Co-operative 

Governmental Encouragement of Co-operation. In Decem 
ber, 1913, the " Co-operation and Markets Branch" was added 
to the Department of Agriculture in Ontario. Saskatchewan 
also has a " Co-operative Organization Branch of the Depart 
ment of Agriculture." Acts were passed in Manitoba (1902), 
Alberta and Saskatchewan (1913) to provide for the forma 
tion of Co-operative Associations; and the latter passed also 
a " Co-operative Farm Mortgage Act " to enable the farmers 
to obtain cheaper money. 

Co-operative Banking in Quebec. Many years earlier, Mr. 
Alphonse Desjardins started at Levis a co-oiperative and 


savings society, "La Caisse Populaire," in which neighboring 
farmers were included. Its chief object was the making of 
loans for short periods of emergency. At the beginning of 
1914, there were 120 of these people s banks in Quebec and 
19 in Ontario. 

Markets. Some few Canadian cities have markets of more 
than local reputation such as quaint old Halifax, with its 
" curb " market, Hamilton, Kingston, London, Montreal, Que 
bec, St. John. But the high cost of living has caused a 
general agitation for better market facilities, and here and 
there something is being accomplished. In Brandon a public 
market was opened last year; in Calgary three members of 
the Consumers League have been put uipon the Market Com 
mittee of the City Council; at Prince Albert, a mass-meeting 
of farmers was arranged for July 18th last to consider the 
establishment of a city market; in Toronto, during the early 
months of 1914, the various Ratepayers Associations, House 
wives and Citizens Leagues, as well as the farmers likely 
to be affected, brought forward proposals for the improvement 
of the St. Lawrence Market and the establishment of others 
to serve the northern, eastern and western sections of the 
city. No new markets have yet been opened. 

Housewives and Consumers Leagues. Calgary Consum 
ers League is a notable and successful association, which 
has cut down the cost of living in Calgary, been thanked by 
the Alberta farmers, and whose president, Mrs. B. P. New- 
hall, has organized several western leagues. Edmonton Con 
sumers League, Hon. Pres., Mrs. Bulyea, had a demonstration 
of choosing and cutting meat by packing company, and an 
at-home in fair-week where town and country women con 
ferred. Halifax. The Montreal Housewives League, Pres., 
Mrs. Geo. A. Kohl; Sec., Mrs. Robt. Wilson, 596 Wellington 
St., is studying the milk supply and conditions in shops 
where food is offered for sale. Ottawa Household League, 
formed March, 1914, Pres., Mrs. J. A. Wilson, 178 Rideau Ter 
race; Sec., Mrs. Attwood, 119 Charlotte St. Members are 
requested " to pay all accounts promptly, to plan orders so 
that but one delivery a day is required, to refrain from hand- 


ling articles of food exposed for sale, and to report to the 
Society cases of dirty shops." Toronto Housewives League 
began as a committee of the Canadian Household Economics 
Association in October, 1913, with 14 members, and had by 
June, 1914, 500. Its objects are to interest women in their 
own homes " so that they may be efficient housekeepers and 
spend what their circumstances will allow, not what their 
neighbors can afford." The League worked hard to secure 
curb markets, as within a radius of 20 miles much good fruit 
went to waste, but only succeeded in getting the St. Lawrence 
Market cleaned up and improved. It also arranges for lec 
tures on subjects interesting to all housekeepers. Pres., Mrs. 
F. S. Mearns, 240 Russell Hill Rd.; Sec., Mrs. H. S. Harwood, 
84 Admiral Rd. Vancouver Home Economics Society, Pres., 
Mrs. Martin, Britannia High School. Victoria Household 
League; Hon. Pres., Lady McBride; aims to cut down the 
waste as well as cost of living, to advocate a cash basis, and 
to insist on full weights and measures. 

Modern Machinery in the Home. " I found on my organiz 
ing trip last fall that the men were much interested in the 
possibility of having the gasoline engine do the heaviest 
work in the house. The women were a little more backward. 
Many would rather drudge along in the same old way than be 
bothered trying something new." So said Miss Lillian K. 
Beynon at the Homemakers Convention, Regina, 1911; and 
Miss E. Cora Hind followed with a practical talk on the con 
veniences that should be contained in " A Model Kitchen." 
All she mentioned, including a dishwasher, a washing ma 
chine, a bread mixer, a fireless cooker and a kitchen cabinet, 
could be obtained for " the price of an ordinary binder, 
namely $150 or $160," a limit chosen " for the reason that 
every man on a farm tells you that he must have a binder." 
But " the purchase of kitchen conveniences should become 
as much of a neces-sity as a binder." 

Where electrical power is available there is hardly any 
limit to the use which the housekeeper may make of it. It 
was told at the Lethbridge Convention of Farm Women how 
" one electric motor," in a Colorado farmhouse, " runs the 


sewing machine, washes the dishes and clothes, supplies with 
power the ironing mangle, the electric iron, the toaster, the 
electric flreless cooker, at the average cost of three cents an 
hour." Not a few " Women s Institutes " and other clubs 
have invested in vacuum cleaners for the use of their members. 


" In this day it is not necessary to argue the importance 
of child-welfare work. That has long since been conceded. 
Public sentiment is in advance of any measure of reform 
that has been promulgated, and is ripe for any forward move 
ment. Our laws for the protection of children are excellent, 
and little pressure is needed to secure any necessary amend 
ments. It is for lack of funds that the work suffers most. 
With its splendid revenue advancing year by year, the Domin 
ion Government spends nothing on child-welfare work, and 
the Provinces do but slightly better. The voting of more 
money to this important work in all the Provinces is the most 
pressing need of the hour. Child-welfare, like the children 
whom it seeks to serve, has hitherto been starved and ill- 
treated." J. J. Kelso. 

Superintendents of Neglected Children. 

Alberta. Supt. of Dependent and Delinquent Children, Mr. 
R. B. Chadwick, Parliament Buildings, Edmonton. 

Manitoba. Supt. of Neglected Children, Mr. P. J. Billiarde, 
Legislative Buildings, Winnipeg. 

IVoya Scotia. Supt. of Neglected and Dependent Children, 
Mr. Ernest H. Blois, Halifax. 

Ontario. Supt. of Neglected Children, Mr. J. J. Kelso, Par 
liament Buildings, Toronto. 

Prince Edward Island. Supt. of Neglected Children, Mr. 
Lawrence W. Watson, Charlottetown. 

Saskatchewan. Supt. of Neglected and Dependent Chil 
dren, Mr. S. Spencer Page; Assistant, Miss MacLachlan; 
Legislative Buildings, Regina. 

In New Brunswick " the New Brunswick Society for the 


Prevention of Cruelty through its general agent, has super 
vision of work under Children s Protection Act, but is paid 
no salary by Government." Mr. A. M. Belding is the President 
of the Children s Aid Society, St. John. 

British Columbia has no Provincial Superintendent of Neg 
lected Children, and issues no report " regarding the care of 
neglected children." Of the Children s Aid Society, Van 
couver, C. J. South, Esq., J.P., is Superintendent. 

In Quebec, Mr. O. H. Skroder is the Secretary of the 
" Society for the Protection of Women and Children," 332 
Lagauchetiere St. West, Montreal. 

The Deputy Supt.-General of Indian Affairs is Mr. Duncan 
C. Scott, Ottawa. 

(See below, " Infants Act," B.C.; Children s Aid Societies; 
Homes, etc.) 

Juvenile Offenders. "The first >plea for Juvenile Courts 
in the Dominion of Canada dates back to 1893, when Mr. J. J. 
Kelso, Superintendent of the Neglected Children of Ontario, 
at the Waifs and Strays Conference, held in Chicago, on 
October llth of that year, advised a separate court for chil 
dren. Mr. Kelso s suggestion was not taken up seriously 
until the following year, when the Women s Club in Chicago 
succeeded in having established the first Juvenile Court on 
the American Continent, under the care of a judge of the Sur 
rogate Court of that city. 

" Canada, however, did not take any action on Mr. Kelso s 
recommendation, aside from establishing a Children s Court 
in the city of Toronto, in 1894. This court was merely an 
extension of the City Police Court system, and was presided 
over by a Police Court Magistrate and known as the Children s 
Police Court. 

" The first effective work done in respect to establishing a 
Juvenile* Court under Canadian law was done by Mr. W. L. 
Scott, of Ottawa. Mr. Scott for years gave a great deal of 
time and attention to the prevention of delinquency and crime 
among boys, and as a result of his observations and study, he 
drafted a bill which is entitled The Juvenile Delinquents 
Act, the same being assented to by the Canadian Houses of 


Parliament under date of July 20th, 1908." (Canadian Con 
ference of Charities and Correction, Report, 1913, p. 13.) 

The Juvenile Delinquents Act " (7-8 Edward VII, chap. 
40) . The preamble states that " it is inexpedient that youth 
ful offenders should be classed or dealt with as ordinary 
criminals, the welfare of the community demanding that they 
should on the contrary be guarded against association with 
crime and criminals, and should be subjected to such wise 
care, treatment and control as will tend to check their evil 
tendencies and to strengthen their better instincts." 

Section 2 (a) defines " child " as meaning " a boy or girl 
apparently or actually under the age of sixteen years"; and 
subsection (c) defines " juvenile delinquent " as meaning " any 


child who violates any provision of the Criminal Code, 
chapter 146 of the Revised Statutes, 1906, or of any Dominion 
or Provincial statute, or of any by-law or ordinance of any 
municipality, for which violation punishment by fine or im 
prisonment may be awarded, or who is liable by reason of any 
other act to be committed to an industrial school or juvenile 
reformatory under the provisions of any Dominion or Pro 
vincial statute." 

" When any child is arrested, with or without warrant, 
such child shall, instead of being taken before a justice, be 
taken before the Juvenile Court; and, if a child is taken 
before a justice, upon a summons or under a warrant or for 
any other reason, it shall be the duty of the justice to transfer 
the case to the Juvenile Court," unless the said justice " is 
a judge of the Juvenile Court " or " has power to act as such, 
under the provisions of any Act in force in the province." 
(Sec. 6.) 

" Where the act complained of is . .an indictable 

offence, and the accused child is apparently or actually over 
the age of fourteen years, the court may, in its discretion, 
order the child to be proceeded against by indictment in the 
ordinary courts; but such course shall in no case be fol 
lowed unless the court is of the opinion that the good of the 
child and the interest of the community demand it. The 
court may, in its discretion, at any time before any proceeding 


has been initiated against the child in the ordinary criminal 
courts, rescind an order so made." (Sec. 7.) 

There is provision in the Act for summary trials of juvenile 
delinquents (sec. 5) ; for the establishment of Juvenile Court 
Committees to aid in the reformation of juvenile delinquents 
(sec. 23 and 24) ; for the appointment of probation officers 
(sec. 25) ; for the notification of parents or guardians of 
children to be tried (sec. 8), and of the probation officer 
(sec. 9) ; for the private trial of children, if possible, in a 
private room (not the ordinary court room), (sec. 10); no 
report of the trial of a child " in which the name of the child 
or its parent or guardian is disclosed shall, without the special 
leave of the judge, be published in any newspaper or other 
publication" (sec. 10), and the proceedings may be "as in 
formal as the circumstances permit, consistently with a due 
regard to the proper administration of justice" (sec. 14). 

" No child, pending a hearing under the provisions of this 
Act, shall be held in confinement in any county or other jail 
or other place in which adults are or may be imprisoned, but 
shall be detained at a detention home or shelter used ex 
clusively for children" (sec. 11), and juvenile delinquents 
(except those proceeded against under section 7), shall not be 
imprisoned in any place in which adults are imprisoned 
(sec. 22). 

Under section 16 a child proved delinquent may be fined, 
put under the charge of a probation officer, placed in a foster 
home, committed to the charge of the Children s Aid Society, 
or of the provincial superintendent of neglected children, or 
to an industrial school, the parents of the child or the muni 
cipality to which it belongs being required to contribute to 
its support; or (sec. 18), the parents may be fined or re 
quired to give security for the child s good behavior. 

With regard to the placing of a child in a foster home, 
institution, etc., the religion of such child, whether Protestant, 
Roman Catholic (sec. 19), or (by an amendment passed in 
1912), of any other faith, must be respected. 

In general " this Act shall be liberally construed to the 
end that its purpose may be carried out, to wit: That the 


care and custody and discipline of a juvenile delinquent shall 
approximate as nearly as may be that which should be given 
by its parents, and that as far as practicable every juvenile 
delinquent shall be treated, not as a criminal, but as a mis 
directed and misguided child, and one needing aid, encourage 
ment, help and assistance." (Sec. 31.) 

This Act may be put in force in any province, or in any 
portion of a province, by proclamation, after the passing of 
an Act by the legislature of such province providing for the 
establishment of Juvenile Courts, or designating any existing 
courts as Juvenile Courts, and of detention homes for chil 
dren." (Sec. 34.) 

Moreover, it " may be put in force in any city, town, or other 
portion of a province, by proclamation, notwithstanding that 
the provincial legislature has not passed an Act such as re 
ferred to in section 34 of this Act, if the Governor in Council 
is satisfied that proper facilities for the due carrying out of 
the provisions of this Act have been provided in such city, 
town, or other portion of a province, by the municipal council 
thereof or otherwise." (Sec. 35.) 

Where the Act is in Force. The Juvenile Delinquents Act 
is in force in the cities of Victoria, Vancouver, Halifax, 
Montreal, Toronto and Ottawa. It has not been proclaimed 
anywhere in Saskatchewan or Manitoba, which has its " own 
Act covering this point," and Alberta is " the only province 
that has it as a province," the legislature having, in the 
second session of 1913, passed " The Juvenile Courts Act " 
(chap. 14), which provides that "in every village of over five 
hundred inhabitants and in every town and city there shall 
be a Juvenile Court, and such court shall have jurisdiction 
over such portions of the province, in addition to the area 
included within the limits of such village, town or city, as 
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may from time to time 

" The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may at any time 
establish a Juvenile Court for any rural municipality, district 
or portion of the province or for any other village." (Sec. 2.) 

The commissioners appointed under the Children s Protec- 


tion Act of Alberta shall be judges of the Juvenile Court of 
the city, town, etc., to which they are appointed. In addition, 
magistrates, District and Supreme Court judges shall be ex 
officio judges of the Juvenile Courts, but " shall not be re 
quired to preside unless willing to do so." 

Agents of Children s Aid Societies shall act as clerks of 
the Juvenile Courts held where they reside ; and the " Super 
intendent of Neglected Children and every inspector ap 
pointed under The Children s Protection Act shall each be a 
clerk of all Juvenile Courts " ; or there may be clerks speci 
ally appointed and paid for by any city, etc., with the ap 
proval of the Superintendent of Neglected Children (sec. 6). 

" It shall be the duty of the clerk of a Juvenile Court to 
see that all cases to be heard before the court are properly 
prepared, to have before the court all papers and documents 
in such cases, to arrange for the sittings of the court and to 
preserve order during such sittings." (Sec. 7.) 

Agents of Children s Aid Societies shall be, and volunteers 
may be, appointed probation officers for juvenile delinquents 
(sec. 10, 11) ; and orphanages, children s homes, or shelters 
may be used " with the consent of the trustees or governing 
body thereof," as detention homes, (sec. 16.) 

Alberta has at least thirty-two Juvenile Courts scattered 
throughout the province. 

In Saskatchewan " the Juvenile Delinquents Act," never 
having been proclaimed, there are " no courts which come 
technically under the description, Juvenile Court, but," 
writes Mr. S. Spencer Page, " in all cases where definite 
police magistrates have been appointed, which includes 
several of the second grade cities, besides Regina, Moose Jaw 
and Saskatoon, they have recognized the necessity of doing 
the children s work altogether apart from their ordinary 
work. Proceedings in the case are very often heard in the 
magistrate s private sitting room, or at any rate in his down 
town office." 

" An Act respecting Juvenile Delinquents " was passed in 
Quebec in 1910, by which was established " in and for the 
city of Montreal, a court of record, called the Juvenile 


Delinquents Court. " Under this Act, "the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council may from time to time specify and ap 
prove the institutions which may be used as industrial 
schools," and, "subject to ratification by the legislature, 
may make agreements for the keeping and maintenance of 
the children to be confined therein." 

In the following year (1911) the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council was empowered to erect or provide a building to be 
used as " a reformatory prison for young offenders," and in 
the same year it was provided that " a hulk," as it is described 
in the marginal note, may be " fitted up and used as a re 
formatory prison," with training in seamanship for those 
boys desiring it. 

What Juvenile Courts are Doing. At the Social Service 
Congress held at Ottawa, March 3-5, 1914, Judge Choquet, of 
Montreal, said: " The Juvenile Court is not only a place where 
children and their parents are humanely treated, and their 
steps turned in the right direction, but it is also a great 
national asset, saving as it does thousands of children from 
becoming habitual criminals. Last year 2,500 children passed 
before me for various offences, out of which number only 160 
were sent to the reformatory, and 2,340 were let out on pro 
bation. . . . The money saved to the state is enormous but 
the saving in the lives and morals of these future citizens 
cannot be estimated in terms of gold." 

Winnipeg s Juvenile Court. The City of Winnipeg has a 
Juvenile Court, under the " Children s Protection Act of 
Manitoba," and, from the most recent report available of Mr. 
P. J. Billiarde, Judge of the Juvenile Court and Superinten 
dent of Neglected Children, it appears that in the first five 
years over 1,500 children were dealt with, and at least ninety 
per cent, of the cases " have turned out successfully, and 
have been handled with lasting benefit to the child and the 

Provincial Acts for Protection of Children. There are now 
in force the following provincial Acts for the protection of 

Alberta, The Children s Protection Act (Statutes of Al 
berta, 1909, chapter 12). Afterwards amended several times. 


British Columbia. The Infants Act (Revised Statutes of 
British Columbia, 1911, chapter 107). This is divided into 
five parts, as follows: I. Guardianship and Apprenticeship of 
Minors; II. Infants Contracts, Settlements, Leases, etc.; III. 
Illegitimate Children s Support; IV. Protection of Children; 
V. Youthful Offenders. 

Manitoba. " The Children s Protection Act of Manitoba " 
(R.S.M., chap. 30, as amended 1914). 

New Brunswick. Children s Protection Act (passed 1913, 
amended 1914). 

Nora Scotia. " Children s Protection Act, 1912." 
Ontario. " The Children s Protection Act of Ontario," as 
revised and passed in April, 1913, which date, by the way, 
was just twenty-one years from the time of passing Ontario s 
first Children s Protection Act (3-4 George V., chap 62). 

P. E. Island. " The Children s Protection Act of Prince 
Edward Island." (Laws of P.E.I., 1910, chapter 15.) 

Quebec. (See above under Juvenile Delinquents.) 

Saskatchewan. Children s Protection Act (Saskatchewan 
Revised Statutes, 1909, chap. 28). 

Not the least interesting portion of most of the Children s 
Protection Acts is the definition given of the phrase " neg 
lected child." The definition varies in some particulars in the 
different Acts, but that given below from the recently revised 
Ontario Act is a good example. " Neglected Child shall 
mean a child who is found begging, receiving alms, thieving 
in a public place, sleeping at night in the open air, loitering 
about in a public place after nine o clock in the evening, 
associating or dwelling with a thief, drunkard or vagrant, or 
is a habitual truant, or .a child who by reason of the neglect, 
drunkenness or other vice of its parents is growing up with 
out salutary parental control and education, or in circum 
stances exposing such child to an idle and dissolute life; or 
who is found in a house of ill-fame, or known to associate 
with or be in the company of a reputed prostitute; or an 
orphan, or an illegitimate child whose mother is unable to 
maintain it; or who is deserted by its parents; or whose only 


parent is undergoing imprisonment for crime; or who by 
reason of ill-treatment, continual personal injury, or grave 
misconduct or habitual intemperance of its parents or either 
of them is in peril of loss of life, health or morality; or whose 
home, by reason of neglect, cruelty or depravity, is an unfit 
place for such child." 

Under these Acts has been appointed in most of the 
provinces a Superintendent of Neglected and Delinquent Chil 
dren (see list above), clothed with "the powers conferred 
upon a Children s Aid Society." 

Amongst the chief duties of the Superintendents are the 

(a) To encourage and assist in the establishment of Chil 
dren s Aid Societies. 

(b) To advise such societies and instruct them as to the 
manner in which their duties are to be performed. 

(c) To see that a record is kept by such societies of all 
committals, and of all children placed in foster homes under 
the Children s Protection Act, and of such other particulars 
as may be deemed desirable. 

(d) To direct and supervise the visiting of any place where 
a child is placed pursuant to the provisions of the Act. 

(e) To prepare and submit an annual report to the 

In Ontario the Superintendent of Neglected Children also 
inspects and reports upon Industrial Schools and Shelters. 

Children s Aid Societies. The definition of a "Children s 
Aid Society" in the Ontario Act is as follows: (b) "Chil 
dren s Aid Society " shall mean " a society having among its 
objects the protection of children from cruelty and the care 
and control of neglected children which has been approved 
by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council for the purposes of 
this Act; and, in a county or district in which there is no 
Children s Aid Society, shall mean the Superintendent." 

The definitions in the Alberta and Nova Scotian Acts are 
very similar. 

In the "Infants Act" of British Columbia "Children s 
Aid Society " means " any duly incorporated and organized 


society, association, or institution having among its objects 
the protection of children from cruelty, the safe-guarding of 
the young, the care and control of neglected and dependent 
children, the education and care of orphans and destitute 
children, and the carrying-on of schools, orphanages, and 
hospitals; such society, association, or institution having been 
approved by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council for the pur 
poses of this Act." 

But perhaps even more illuminating than legal definitions 
is such a document as the preamble to the model constitution 
for Children s Aid Societies adopted throughout the Province 
of Alberta. 

" The objects of the society among others shall be: First 
To protect children from cruelty, to care for and control 
neglected children, to provide foster homes for orphan or 
neglected children and in general to carry out the provisions 
of The Children s Protection Act of Alberta. Second To 
systematically agitate against all that tends to rob the chil 
dren of the right to grow up in an atmosphere of purity and 
moral cleanliness. Third To prosecute persons who con 
tribute to the delinquency of children. Fourth To create a 
sentiment for the establishment of wholesome uplifting in 
fluences, such as small parks, play-grounds, gymnasiums, free 
baths, social centres, and the like. Fifth To establish a 
personal service corps so that individual attention may be 
given to children by interested men and women. Sixth To 
maintain an educational campaign on subjects relating to 
child protection. Seventh To supervise and promote legis 
lation in connection with the object for which the society is 

" In the administration of the Children s Protection Act " 
in Ontario we quote from the report of 1914 " it is im 
pressed upon Children s Aid Societies that children should 
not be lightly taken from their parents; that, ordinarily, a 
child s own home is the best place to rear that child, and 
similarly the institutions should not place in foster homes 
children who have been committed to their care because of 
temporary difficulties, such as loss of work, etc., in which 
parents are involved." 



Alberta. Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbridge, Medicine Hat. 
Taber, and a number of other places not named in the report. 

British Columbia. One Society in Victoria, two in Van 
couver (C. J. South, Esq., J.P., Supt. C.A.S., Vancouver). 

Manitoba, Winnipeg (Sec. C.A.S., Mayfair Ave.), St. Ade- 
larde, St. Boniface, Brandon, Dauphin and Swan River. 

New Brunswick. St. John. Also branches of the " Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty" at Fredericton, Moncton, 
Woodstock and Sackville. 

Nova Scotia, Springhill, Windsor, Wolfville, Yarmouth, 
Amherst and New Glasgow, whilst " the Nova Scotia Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty " (headquarters at Halifax) has 
been approved as a Children s Aid Society. 

Ontario. Algoma District, Agent, J. P. Reed, Sault Ste. 
Marie; Brant County, Agent, J. L. Axford, Brantford; Bruce 
County, Sec., Rev. D. McLennan, Walkerton; Carleton County, 
Sec., John Keane, Ottawa; Dufferin County, Sec., Rev. G. W. 
Tebbs, Orangeville; Elgin County, Sec., W. J. Shaw, St. 
Thomas; Essex County, Agent, W. F. H. Hackney, Windsor; 
Frontenac County, Agent, W. H. Wyllie, Kingston; Grey 
County, Agent, A. E. Trout, Owen Sound; Haldimand County, 
Sec., R. A. Harrison, Dunville; Haliburton County, Sec., Rev. 
George Finch, Haliburton; Halton County, Sec., Mrs. Fred. 
Dewar, Milton; Hastings County, Agent, W. H. Wrightmyer, 
Belleville; Huron County, Agent, G. M. Elliott, Goderich; 
Kenora District, Sec., Mrs. J. P. Earngey, Kenora; Kent 
County, Agent, W. R. Baxter, Chatham; Lambton County, 
Agent, J. Wilkinson, Sarnia; Lanark County, Sec., J. R. Mc- 
Diarmid, Carleton Place; Leeds and Grenville Counties, Agent, 
W. H. Wood, Brockville; Lennox and Addington Counties, 
Sec., Mrs. F. L. Hooper, Napanee; Lincoln County, Agent, R. 
E. Boyle, St. Catharines; Middlesex County, Agent, J. Sanders, 
London; Nipissing District, Agent, W. W. Ryan, North Bay; 
Norfolk County, Agent, D. E. Mclntosh, Simcoe; Northumber 
land and Durham Counties, Sec., Dr. G. A. Dickinson, Port 
Hope; Ontario County, Agent, Rev. E. C. Hall, Oshawa; Ox 
ford County, Acting Agent, Mrs. C. S. Pedley, Woodstock; 
Parry Sound District, Agent, Jos. Ryder, Parry Sound; Peel 
County, Agent, C. W. Norton, Brampton; Perth County, Agent, 


Hugh Ferguson, Stratford; Peterborough County, Sec., E. L. 
Goodwill, Peterborough; Prescott and Russell Counties, Sec., 
Rev. John Gait, Vankleek Hill; Prince Edward County, Agent, 
H. C. McMullen, Picton; Rainy River District, Sec., W. J. 
Clarke, Fort Frances; Renfrew County, Agent, Rev. W. M. H. 
Quartermaine, Renfrew ; Simcoe County, Agent, Rev. A. Smith, 
Barrie; Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Counties, Agent, 
Wm. Pollock, Cornwall; Sudbury District, Sec., Mrs. P. S. 
Frawley, Sudbury; Temiskaming District, Agent, N. J. Mc- 
Aulay, Haileybury; Thunder Bay District, Agent, Frank Blain, 
Fort William; Victoria County, Agent, Mrs. E. E. Sharpe, 
Lindsay; Waterloo County, Agent, Rev. C. R. Miller, Berlin; 
Welland County, Agent, Chas. Black, Niagara Falls; Welling 
ton County, Agent, Rev. Amos Tovell, Guelph; Wentworth 
County, Sec., John S. Fry, Dundas; Hamilton Society, Agent, 
J. C. Pinch, Hamilton; York County, Agent, R. P. Coulson, 
Stouffville; Toronto Society, Sec., Wm. Duncan, 229 Simcoe 
St., Toronto. 

Prince Edward Island. Charlottetown. 
Quebec. (See " Soc. for Protec. of Women and Children.") 
Saskatchewan. Regina (Mr. J. Campbell, Pres. C.A.S ) , 
Saskatoon (Mr. S. Wright, Sec. C.A.S. ), Carlyle, Estevan, Hum- 
boldt, Indian Head, Kamsack, Maple Creek, Melville, Mooso- 
min, Moose Jaw, North Battleford, Prince Albert, Qu Appelle, 
Swift Current, Weyburn, Yorkton. 


In Ontario " the appropriation for Children s Aid work is 
$10,000 for inside and $20,000 for outside service. All thirty- 
eight counties are now organized and are doing more or less 
efficient work. Some counties have no paid inspector, and in 
consequence their work is unsatisfactory. There are societies 
also in twenty-four separated towns and cities. There are 
branch societies in nine judicial districts. Contribution is 
made through the Superintendent s office towards the salaries 
of twenty-eight agents, the highest amount being $480 per 
annum and the lowest $25. Travelling expenses of visits to 
wards are paid by the Neglected Children s Branch. During 
1913, 1,017 children were legally committed to the guardian- 


ship of the Children s Aid Societies. A file and record of each 
one is kept in the central office in the Parliament Buildings. 
Each child is visited at least once a year and suitable action 
taken to prevent neglect or ill-treatment. Societies are sup 
plied with literature of general interest. All necessary forms 
used in the work are supplied by the central office." 

In some places in the Dominion, the Children s Aid 
Societies raise all the money needed for the support of the 
work in the district which they represent, through member 
ships and subscriptions alone. Alberta is in the position, how 
ever, where, under The Children s Protection Act, municipali 
ties of 10,000 population or over are required by law to pro 
vide and maintain shelters, and appoint and pay agents." 
R. B. Chadwick. 

For children over twelve years of age there is a demand on 
account of their ability to do light work. 



The Juvenile Court Judge " must be assisted by probation 
officers, men and women, who really act as his eyes and ears, 
with a thorough understanding of social conditions, possessed 
of great patience and tact, and also a great love and under 
standing of children and their problems. . . . They must 
also be capable of making friends with the children . . . 
as a child will speak freely to a person whom he trusts, but 
will be stubborn with, or lie hopelessly to, a person whom he 
dislikes or distrusts."- -His Honor Judge Choquet. 


" The girl problem is entirely different from that of the 
boy, and can only be safely handled by women probation 
officers," says Mr. R. B. Chadwick. " The majority of charges 
against girls are for sex crimes, and, as a general rule, the 
most difficult to deal with. The work of women probation 
officers in Calgary and Edmonton has been most excellent." 

Again, in his recent report, Mr. Chadwick says: "During 
the past year, the work which has been enlarged to possibly 
a greater extent than any other branch of this work has been 
that of dealing with the Girl Problem, and Children s Aid 


Societies all over the province have urged the necessity and 
advisability of having special women officers to deal with the 
girl in the cities, and in many instances they have gone be 
yond the sphere of constituted authority in this, and have 
urged the appointment of special police women and police 
matrons. To Edmonton belongs the satisfaction of having 
appointed the first woman probation officer with police powers 
in the person of Miss Annie Jackson, who for the past four 
years has been connected with this branch of the Attorney- 
General s Department. The work which the various women 
probation officers have done in the matter of the prevention 
of crime, and their work among girls who have been picked 
up off the streets and removed from other pernicious influ 
ences, is beyond estimation." 

A provincial probation officer (Mrs. Mary Yeomans), has 
also been " appointed to deal particularly with the problem of 
the girl in the country districts," and her duty (as she sees 
it), besides a general supervision of probation work amongst 
girls, is to study " existing conditions for girls throughout 
the province," with regard both to employment and recrea 
tion, and to " endeavor to interest the public generally, but 
women particularly, as mothers and big -sisters, all over the 
province to lend their active assistance in doing everything 
possible to safeguard young girls, to give them the necessary 
education in the plan and functions of life, to shield them in 
times of temptation, to instruct them properly as to the 
dangers of life in the larger cities, -to make provision for their 
recreation, and to do what they can to raise the standard of 
our future citizens. ... In the spring of 1913, at the 
request of the Department of Agriculture, and in company 
with one of their officials, many of the Women s Institutes, 
chiefly in the southern part of the province, were visited, and 
the importance of the work with girls was impressed. By 
this means access was gained to the ranching, the mountain, 
and the outlying homesteading districts, and satisfactory 
results achieved. In one instance meetings were held be 
tween sixty and seventy miles from the railway, and the 
audience gathered from as far as thirty-five miles distant. 11 


The name of Calgary s woman probation officer is Mrs. 
Effie H. Bagnall. 

At Vancouver, B.C., Miss M. Crawford has been lately 
appointed overseer of the girls under detention, and has been 
put in charge of the girl delinquents on probation. 

A Woman Commissioner was appointed under the Chil 
dren s Protection Act of Alberta Mrs. R. R. Jamieson, who 
has the distinction of being the first Canadian woman to hold 
office as judge of a Juvenile Court. For many years she has 
been a leader in social and philanthropic work in Calgary. 



[Dr. Helen MacMurchy, to whom we are indebted for the fol 
lowing article, has attained a unique position among" the women 
physicians of Canada. She has made a special study of Infant 
Mortality, and of the Feeble-Minded, and is recognized as an 
authority on these subjects far beyond the boundaries of the 
Dominion. Having been a teacher for many years before enter 
ing the medical profession, she has had peculiar opportunities of 
studying the development of the mental faculties. In 1906 she 
was asked by the Ontario Government to prepare a Census of the 
Feeble-Minded in the Province. In 1913 she was appointed In 
spector of the Feeble-Minded, and Assistant Inspector of Public 
Charities and Hospitals in Ontario. Previously, in 1910, she 
represented the Province of Ontario at the first annual Confer 
ence for the Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality, held at 
Baltimore, and in that year, and in 1911 and 1912, by the desire of 
Hon. W. J. Hanna, she prepared three special reports on Infant 

The infant mortality rate is generally regarded as the 
most sensitive index to the health and well-being of the com 

It is well known that the registration of births is not 
attended to in Canada as well as it ought to be, and this is 
one reason why our infant mortality rate appears so high. 

The City of Sydney, Victoria, . Australia, has an infant 
mortality rate of 72 per 1,000 births. 

New Zealand has a lower infant mortality rate than any 
part of the British Empire, or indeed any other part of the 

The average infant mortality of the twelve largest cities 
in England is at present about 104 per 1,000 births. 

The infant mortality rate in Ontario is as follows: Deaths 
under one year of age per 1,000 births, in 1910, 119.2; in 1911, 
112.1; in 1912, 110.3; and in 1913, 117.7. 


Maternal nursing is the most important safeguard for the 
infant s life. The chances are that the infant nursed by its 
mother will live. For the infant fed in any other way the 
chances are unfavorable. Among the sixty-three infants who 
died in Fort William during the months of July and August, 
1910, of summer diarrhoea, it was found on investigation by 
the Medical Health Officer, Dr. Wodehouse, that not one was 
nursed by its mother. 

Other important means of saving the baby s life are a pure 
milk supply, maternity benefits, schools for mothers, the 
training of girls in home duties, especially in the hygiene of 
the home and the care of children, a pure water supply, good 
drainage and other sanitary measures. Fresh air and perfect 
cleanliness are also of extreme importance. 

Some Statistics from Other Provinces. In British Colum 
bia, 1913, of 4,619 deaths, 1,271 were of children under 3 years 
of age, the rate per thousand for the whole Province being 
2.56 and the percentage 27.51. In Nova Scotia, 1912-13, 20 per 
cent, of all deaths were those of infants under 1 year, while 
for the 5 years, 1908-13, deaths of children under 1 year per 
thousand births averaged 114.5 for the Province; 170.6 for 
towns of over 10,000 population; 143.5 for towns 5,000 to 
10,000, but in country districts only 85 per 1,000. In Mani 
toba, of deaths registered in 1912, 35.2 per cent, were those of 
infants under 1 year, corresponding to a mortality rate of 
147.4 per 1,000 births. In Quebec Province, 1911, 49.7 per cent, 
of total deaths were those of children under 5 years. 

In Toronto a Division of Child Hygiene was inaugurated 
last June. " The attempt has been made to keep in touch with 
every baby in the city under one year of age. To this end a 
filing system has been arranged in which all names and avail 
able information concerning each child is placed as soon after 
birth as it is recorded, there being nearly 4.000 cards in the 
filing system. The Division sends out literature on the 
hygiene of infancy to every mother as soon as the birth of 
her child is reported; and with this an invitation to attend 


the various Well-Baby clinics if the child is not under the 
care of a private physician. 

" There are ten Well-Baby clinics under the division. Each 
clinic meets twice a week and a doctor and several nurses are 
in attendance. Seven of the Well-Baby clinics are in connec 
tion with the milk stations. All the clinics are growing very 
rapidly, and accommodation will soon prove inadequate. 

"The division keeps records of all deaths of infants under 
two years, and is making an investigation of babies who died 
from digestive disorders. 

" A mortality pin map is being kept, and the deaths are re 
corded and specified according to their cause by various 
colored pins." Health Bulletin, Toronto, July, 1914. 

" Better Babies." In June, 1914, was held at Calgary, Al 
berta, a " baby show," in which most of the women s organiza 
tions and many of the physicians of the city were interested. 
A doctor was chairman of the committee in charge. " The 
slogan " was " Better Babies." Seven hundred infants were 
brought for examination, " but not one reached the hundred 
per cent, perfection limit, though several touched ninety-nine 
and a half." 

The Pure Milk Crusade is being carried on along two 
different lines. One is the raising of the standard of all the 
milk sold by means of the passing and enforcement of laws 
and municipal regulations, and the maintaining of constant 
and efficient inspection. 

The other is the supply of good milk to the poorer classes 
at milk stations and depots, which are usually made centres of 
education for mothers. 

A, great impetus was given to the campaign, already well 
begun, when, at " the Convention of the Canadian Medical 
Association held in Ottawa in June, 1908, Dr. C. J. O. Hastings 
of Toronto read a paper on The National Importance of Pure 
Milk. The matter was promptly taken up by the executive, 
which decided to form a Canadian Medical Association Milk 
Commission. It was composed of representatives from all 
parts of Canada, with Dr. Hastings as Chairman and Dr. J. H. 
Elliott of Toronto as Secretary. Its object was defined as 


being to co-operate with Boards of Health in securing a pure 
milk supply, and to seek more stringent legislation." The 
meetings were held in Toronto, where enough members to 
make a quorum resided ; and immediately the " Canadian 
Medical Milk Commission " began to organize local " Com 
missions " in Toronto, Ottawa and Hamilton. The result of 
publicity given to the dire effects of unclean milk has been a 
greatly improved supply in many cities of the Dominion. 

Ontario now has on the Statute books (R.S.O. 1914, chap. 
221) an Act entitled " The Milk Act/ which empowers the 
council of every municipality to pass by-laws regarding the 
production, care, transportation or sale of milk, and for the 
making of tests as to the wholesomeness of milk. The Act 
provides against the spread of disease through infected milk. 

A clause of special interest to social workers is the fol 
lowing: "The council of every municipality may establish 
and maintain, or assist by annual grant or otherwise, in the 
establishment and maintenance of milk depots in order to 
furnish a special supply of milk to infants." 

Milk Depots in Montreal. As an example of the self- 
evident usefulness of pure milk depots and baby clinics, which 
leads to such a rapid extension of work, we shall insert a 
comparison of the work done in Montreal for the years 1911, 
1912 and 1913, from the " Annual Report of the Municipal 
Assistance Department": 

1911. Depots, 13; infants treated, 1,180; deaths, 112; aver 
age death rate, 9% per cent.; consultations, 8,955; outdoor 
visits, 1,118; pints of milk distributed, 26,119. 

1912. Depots, 16; infants treated, 1,880; deaths, 104; aver 
age death rate, S 1 /^ per cent.; consultations, 7,582; outdoor 
visits, 3,875; pints distributed, 105,311. 

1913. Depots, 23; infants treated, 2,729; deaths, 156; aver 
age death rate, 6 per cent.; consultations, 31,789; outdoor 
visits, 5,966; pints distributed, 154,692. In this year 28,010 
pounds of ice were distributed also. 

The Milk Depots are connected with dispensaries, hos 
pitals, parishes, settlements, etc. The list is as follows :- 

Montreal Local Council of Women, corner Ontario West 


and Church; St. Joseph Parish, 306 Richmond; Dispensaire 
de I Enfant-Jesus, 91 St. Joseph Boulevard East; St. Justine 
Hospital, 1107 DeLorimier; St. Pierre Parish, 213 Visitation; 
St. Cunegonde Parish, corner Vinet and Quesnel; St. Edouard 
Parish, 982 Beaubien; St. Jean-Baptiste Parish, 411 Drolet; 
Mothers Clinic, 150 Colborne; St. Jean Berchman s Parish, 
2251 Cartier; St. Arsene Parish, 551 Daniel; St. Helen s 
Parish, 190 St. Maurice; Hochelaga Parish, 237 Cuvilliers; 
St. Clothilde Parish, 20 Cote St. Paul Road; Montreal Found 
ling and Sick Baby Hospital, 43 Argyle; St. Henry and St. 
Zotique Parishes, 1844 Notre Dame West; St. James Parish, 
306 St. Hubert; Dispensaire des bebes (Emard Ward), 233 
Boulevard Monk; Iverley Settlement, 12 Richmond Square; 
Chalmers House, 908 St. Catherine East; University Settle 
ment, 159 Dorchester West; Ste. Bridgide Parish, 941 Dor 
chester East; Bonsecours, 2 Friponne. 

Amongst the cities which have one or more pure Milk 
Stations may be mentioned Ottawa, Winnipeg, Halifax, Regina, 
and also Hamilton, where, in June, 1911, was organized " the 
Babies Dispensary Guild," at 12 Euclid Avenue. " The first 
annual report, given March, 1912, gives the total daily attend 
ance as 2,738, and the daily average as 11. The Guild pro 
vided 27,745 quarts of certified milk and 2,202 quarts of albu- 
menized milk. To those who have no means of paying the 
milk is sent free of charge; others receive it at about half 
what it costs the Guild. The average number under care 
per day was 140. Two nurses are now connected with the 
dispensary. The Guild is a purely philanthropic institution. 
Last year it had a campaign to raise $15,000, and about 
$10,000 has been received. The Ontario Government gave a 
grant of $300, and the city also gave $300. There is no doubt 
that this work is doing much and will do more to lower Ham 
ilton s infant death rate." 

In Connection with the milk stations and special work for 
infants, the various nursing agencies, women s organizations 
and settlements have done demonstration work of a character 
so excellent that in many instances the municipalities and hos 
pitals have taken up the task on a more extensive scale. In 


Winnipeg " the Babies - Milk Depot as a municipal institution " 
was opened in March, 1914, " under the supervision of the 
Health Committee of the City Council, assisted by Mrs. N. T. 
McMillan, Mrs. A. K. Godfrey, and Mrs. W. J. Boyd, social 
workers." It was put in charge of four graduate nurses, and 
one other nurse (a linguist) "and supplied ice, in many 
cases, as well as milk." 

The Margaret Scott Nursing Mission led the way in p~e- 
ventive work for babies. The names and addresses of babies 
registered at the City Hall were regularly obtained, and tho 
nurse assigned to the preventive work visited as frequentH 
as the urgency for Instruction and the demands of other case* 
allowed. Ice boxes were sold at cost price or loaned. Pro 
tection from flies by means of fly screens, mosquito nettings 
for the babies hammocks, etc., were not forgotten. Modified 
milk and medical advice were obtained at the Winnipeg Free 
Dispensary, the North Winnipeg Hospital, and other stations 

The Day Nursery. So long as mothers with young chil 
dren have to be " the family bread-winners " such an insti 
tution as " The Creche," or " Day Nursery," seems an absolute 
necessity. Many a mother, forced by circumstances to become 
the wage-earner of the family, would be obliged to choose be 
tween locking her little ones in a cheerless room, exposed to 
many dangers, or turning them into the street during her en 
forced absence, were it not for the Day Nursery. The nurseries 
generally serve as agencies which help the women to obtain 
work. But many nurseries do imore than this. For instance, 
the aim of the Montreal Day Nursery is " to teach," as well 
as " take care of," the children " during the hours the mothers 
work " ; and many nurseries have kindergartens in connec 
tion. There are, of course, variations in the rules of the 
different nurseries as to ages of children admitted, hours, 
etc. ; but there is a growing tendency to ,-put these institutions 
under the care of more highly trained workers than in former 

In 1913 a Central Committee of the Day Nurseries of 
Toronto was formed. " This Committee consists of three 
representatives from each of the five Day Nurseries. Its 


duties are to consider matters of common interest, and 
through it application is made to the Social Service Commis 
sion, recently organized, for grants of money from the city 
or for the investigation of cases requiring special attention 
or advice." (Secretary, Mrs. Saul, Brunswick Ave., Toronto.) 

Halifax. House of the Guardian Angel (for Foundlings), 
Sisters of Charity. Hamilton. Day Nunsery (W.C.T.U.). King 
ston. Creche Ass n. Pres., Mrs. Bidwell, King St. Montreal. 
Day Nursery, 50 Belmont St. Pre|s., Mrs. Wellington Dixon; Sec., 
Miss E. Thomas, 290 Pine Ave. W. (Children three weeks to twelve 
years.) Nursery, Foundling Asylum, and Maternity Hosp. 
Sisters of Misericorde. Nursery (R.C.), 440 E. Dorchester St. 
King s Daughters Summer Creche. Sec., Miss Buchanan, 40 
Westmount Blvd. Sault au Recollet. Foundling Asylum and 
Nursery. Sisters of Misericorde. Toronto. Creche, 374 Victoria 
St. Pres., Lady Mosls, 219 Lonsdale Ave. Danforth Day Nursery, 
26 Arundel Ave. Pres., Mrs. A. M. Bell, 140 Danforth Ave. East 
End Nursery, 28 River St. Pres., Mrs. Susan McDonald, 8 Play- 
ter Blvd. Queen St. E. Day Nursery, 1575 Queen St. E. Pres., 
Mrs. Farmery, 53 Leuty Ave. West End Creche. Preis., Mrs. Geo. 
Burton, 77 Lowther Ave. The Day Nursery (-R.C.), Ossington Ave. 
Jewish Day Nursery and Children s Home, 218 Simcoe St. Pres., 
Mrs. A. Raffelman. Vancouver. Baby Nursery, 1221 Pendrell St. 
The Creche, 752 Thurlow St. City Creche. Winnipeg". Bene 
dictine Inst. (Holy Ghost Parish), Selkirk Ave. Day Nursery, 
378 Stella Ave., "owned and maintained" by the "Mothers Ass n. 
of Winnipeg," (See Section VI.) Immaculate Conception Parish 
Day Nursery, Austin St. 


Halifax. Infants Home, 152 Tower Rd. Pres., Mrs. Ivan 
Mader; Sec., Mrs. Hector Mclnnes. Hamilton. Infants Home 
and Home of the Friendless, 170 Caroline St. S. Pres., Mrs. R. 
Evans, 49 Homewood Ave.; Sec., Mrs. J. D. Ferguson. Kingston. 
Home for Friendless Women and Infants. Pres., Mrs. MacNee; 
Sec., Mrs. E. J. B. Pense. London. Women s Refuge and Infants 
Home, 190 St. James St. Montreal. Foundling and Baby Hosp. 
Pres., Mrs. James Thorn, 4110 Western Ave., Westmount. Prot. 
Infants Home. Pres., Mrs. Hutchinson, 4170 St. Catherine St., 
Westmount. St. Justine s Infants Home, 820 Delorimier Ave. 
Pres., Mrs. J. A. Hutchinson; Sec., Mrs. J. Edgar. Rimouski, Que. 
Infant Asylum. Sisters of Charity. Toronto. Infants Home 
and Infirmary (incorp. 1875), 21 St. Mary St., Toronto. St. Vin 
cent s Infants Home. (For other Homes, see Sections IX and 


Alberta. Calgfary, Children s Aid Shelter. S. A. Children s 
Home, 1446-1448 Blvd., N. W. Edmonton, Dept. of Dependent and 
Delinquent Children (Prov. Gov t.), 8 Credit Foncier Building. 
Children s Shelter. 

British Columbia. Nanaimo, St. Ann s Convent and Orphan 
age. Quarnichan, Boys Protectorate. New Westminster, Provi 
dence Orphanage, 837 12th St. Supt, Sister M. Dolores. Van 
couver, Alexandra Orphanage, 1726 7th Ave. W. Children is Home, 
Powell St. E. Monastery of Our Lady of Charity. Victoria, B.C. 
Prot. Orphans Home, 2091 Cook St. Children s Home and Deten 
tion Home, 1462 Pembroke St. Prot. Orphanage, 495 Hillside St. 

Manitoba. St. Boniface, Orphanage. Winnipeg", Children s 
Home, 200 River St. Pres., Mrs. Wm. Clark, 261 Colony St. 
Children s " Home of the Friendless," 81 Poison St. Home of 
the Friendless Children, 590 Furby St. St. Joseph s Orphanage-, 
11 Kennedy St. Pres., Mrs. N. Bawlf; Sec., Mrs. R. Driscoll. 


New Brunswick. Moncton, St. Mary s Orphans Home, 91 
Main St. St. Basil, N.B. Orphanage, (Hospital Nuns of St. 
Joseph.) St. John Prot. Orphan Asylum, 165 Britain St. Pres., 
Mrs. McLellan. St. Vincent s Orphans Asylum for Girls, Cliff St. 
Wig-grins Male Orphan Institution, 225 St. James St. Tracadie, 
Orphanage (connected with Leper Hospital). 

Northwest Territories. Providence, Orphan Asylum. Gray 

Nova Scotia. Halifax, Prot. Orphans Home, 54 Campbell 
Rd. St. Joseph s Orphanage, Quinpool Rd. (R.C.). St. Paul s 
Girls Home. Sydney, St. Anthony s Home. R.C. Orphanage. 
Truro, Prot. Orphanage, Bible Hill. 

Ontario. Belleville, Children s Shelter, W. Moira St. Berlin, 
Berlin Orphanage, 202 King St. W. Brantford, Jane Laylock s 
Children s Home. Cornwall, Nazareth Orphanage. Fort William, 
Orphans Home. G-uelph, Children s Shelter, Clark St. Hamilton, 
Boyls Home. Pres., Mrs. Leggat, Duke St.; Sec., Mrs. N. Fear- 
man. Children s Home, Main St. E. Hamilton Orphan Asylum, 
Aged Women s Home and Ladies Benevolent Soc., 195 Welling 
ton St. S. Orphans Home, 195 Wellington St. Orphans Guild, 
Pres., Miss McKinley. St. Mary s Orphan Asylum, Park St. N. 
King-ston, Hotel Dieu Orphanage, St. Joseph -St. Hoiilse of Pro 
vidence and Orphanage, Montreal St. Prot. Orphans Home. 
Union St., three Directresses, Miss Muckleston, Mrs. H. Calvin, 
Mrs. A. Strahan; Sec., Mrs. A. P. Chown. St. Mary-of-the-Lake 
Orphanage. London, Prot. Orphans Home, Richmond -St. S. A. Res 
cue and Children s Home, Riverview Ave. Mount St. Joseph Or 
phanage. Ottawa, Prot. Orphante Home, 455 Gilmour St. Pres., 
Mrs. Levi Crannell, 136 Lisgar St.; Sec., Mrs. Hugh Lewis, 29 
Argyle Ave. St. Joseph s Orphans Home (R.C.), 71 Rideau Ter 
race. St. Patrick s Orphan Asylum and Home for the Aged. 
Peterborough, St. Vincent s Orphanage (M. Placidia). Picton, 
Loyal True Blue Orphanage. St. Agatha Orphan Asylum. St. 
Catharines, Prot. Home Orphanage br. St. Thomas, Children s 
Shelter, 113 Wellington St. Toronto, Bethany Orphanage, 1004 
College St. Boys Home, George St. Children s Aid Shelter, 229 
Simcoe St. (Supt., Mr. Duncan). Girls Home, 229 Gerrard St. 
Pres., Mrs. Lucas; Treas., Mrs. A. C. Beasley. Home for Home 
less Children, 50-52 Ossington Ave. Carmelite Sisters. Prot. 
Orphans Home, Dovercourt Rd. Sacred Heart Orphanage and 
Children s Home, 1740 Queen St. W. Working Boys Home, 63 
Gould St. Woodstock, Children s Shelter. 

Prince Edward Island. Charlottetown, Orphanage, (Grey 

Quebec. Orphanages at Albany; Beauharnois; Chambly; Chi- 
coutimi; Coteau du Lac; Farnham; Levis; Longueueil; Midnapore; 
Montfort. Montreal, Boys Home, 113-121 Mountain St. Pres., 
John Redpath Dougall; Sec., E. N. Ross. Boys Farm and Train 
ing School. Bethlehem Orphan Asylum and Infant Sch. (Gray 
Nuns, Richmond Sq.). Hervey In St., Claremont Ave. Pres., Mrs. 
J. A. Hendeilson; Sec., Mrs. Alex. Murray. Aim: "To take care 
of half-orphan children " of mothers that have to earn their liv 
ing, or fathers unable to pay a housekeeper, and left in charge 
of children. Prot. Orphan Asylum. Pres., Mrs. E. B. Green- 
shields, 349 Peel St. St. Patrick s Asylum, St. Catherine Rd. 
N. Cote des Neiges, Gray Nuns (Irish orphans, boys and girls). 
St. Henry s Orphan Asylum, 63 College St. St. Vincent de Paul, 
E. St. Catherine St. " Maternal Schools." Gray Nuns. Quebec 
City, Church of England Female Orphan Asylum, 225 Grande 
Allee St. Male Orphan Asylum, 34 St. Faya Rd. Nazareth 
Orphanage for Boys. Orphanage of the Sacred Heart. St. 
Bridget s Asylum and Kindergarten (for orphans and old people). 
Youville Orphanage for Girls and Infant Asylum, St. Olivier St. 
Rimousld; Shawbridgre, Boys Farm and Training Sch. Sec., E. 


Ross-Ross; Supt., G. W. O. Matthews. St. Albert; St. Ursule; 
Three Rivers. Saskatchewan, Prince Albert. St. Patrick s Or 
phanage. Sisters of Charity. 


The Educational Systems of all the provinces are based 
on the idea of free public or common schools for all children, 
and of ensuring facilities for higher education (in most cases 
including State-aided university education) for the ambitious 
young people who intend to take up the learned professions 
or prepare themselves for leadership in the community. 
Under the general similarity, there are differences of method, 
grading and nomenclature, each province having developed a 
certain individuality in the effort to meet its own peculiar 

One of the most interesting features of the general situa 
tion is the demand, becoming constantly more insistent, that 
methods of education shall be readjusted to meet the changed 
conditions of life. The manufacturer looks to education to 
supply him with skilled industrial workers, as the mistress 
demands efficient maids; while the economist and sociologist 
protest against " educating the boy away from the farm," and 
the girl away from the home and the ideals of wifehood and 

It is asserted that the vast sums spent on schools, colleges 
and universities have gone chiefly to " the development of 
the exceptional man," and that while " the developing of the 
exceptional man is important, we have too long neglected the 
average man" (and still more the average woman). "The 
time demands that more attention should be paid to raising 
the average level." 

Educational Authorities. 

Alberta. The Education Department " is in charge of the 
Minister of Education, his Deputy and staff." There is an 
Educational Council of five members (two of whom must be 
Roman Catholics) to whom text-books and proposed regula 
tions are submitted for approval 


British Columbia. The Superintendent of Education is the 
executive head of the Department and goes for his instruc 
tions to the Minister of Education. " The course of instruc 
tion is determined by the Council of Public Instruction, which 
is the Government of the day." 

New Brunswick. The Board of Education is " composed of 
the Lieutenant-Governor, the members of the Executive Coun 
cil, the Chancellor of the University of New Brunswick and 
the Chief Superintendent of Education. The Board provides 
Normal and Model Schools, . . . appoints school inspec 
tors, divides the Province into school districts, and generally 
provides for an efficient system of education." But the Chief 
Superintendent " directs the inspectors, enforces regulations, 
apportions the County School fund, and does the work of 

Nora Scotia. Education is " controlled by the Council of 
Public Instruction, which consists of the Executive of the 
Provincial Government. . . . Since 1908 there has been 
an Advisory Board comprising five members appointed by the 
Government and two elected every two years by members of 
the Provincial Educational Association." The Lieutenant- 
Governor-in-Council appoints both the Superintendent of 
Education (who is Secretary of the Council of Public Instruc 
tion) and the Director of Technical Education (who is also 
Principal of the Technical College). The twelve Inspectors 
are appointed by the Council, on the recommendation of the 

Manitoba. " The Department of Education is organized 
under a Minister of Education. He is assisted by a Deputy 
Minister and office staff, and an Advisory Board representing 
the various educational interests of the Province. ... In 
addition to the regular staff of School Inspectors (appointed 
and paid by the Department), there are organizers of schools 
among foreign-speaking peoples." 

Ontario. At the head of the Provincial Department of 
Education is the Minister of Education, who is assisted by 
the Deputy Minister, the Superintendent of Education, and 
an Advisory Council composed of the Superintendent and 


nineteen elective members representing the University of 
Toronto, Queen s University, McMaster University, Ottawa 
University, and the Western University, School Teachers 
Public, High, and Separate Public School Inspectors, and 
the School Trustees. 

There is one woman in the Council, Miss Harriet Johnston, 
a Public School representative. 

Under the School Law the Department of Education 
. . . . prescribes the courses of studies, leaving consider 
able latitude to the Boards of Trustees, which control the 
schools." The inspectors are appointed by the County Coun 
cils, and by "the larger urban municipalities"; but these 
appointments must be confirmed by the Minister of Education. 

Prince Edward Island. The Board of Education consists 
of the Premier as President, eight members of the Govern 
ment, the Principal of Prince of Wales College and the Chief 
Superintendent of Education." 

Quebec. The Council of Public Instruction consists of 
Roman Catholic and Protestant members and is divided into 
two committees, dealing with and regulating school questions 
affecting the interests of Roman Catholics and Protestants 
respectively. The committees sit separately, each appointing 
its own chairman and secretary. The Roman Catholic com 
mittee consists of " the bishops, ordinaries or administrators 
of the Roman Catholic dioceses and apostolic vicariates, situ 
ated wholly or partly in the Province "; and " an equal num 
ber of Roman Catholic laymen, appointed by the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council during pleasure." Besides these, the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council may appoint, for a term not 
exceeding three years, " four officers of instruction " two 
being priests and the principals of Normal Schools, and two 
laymen " officers of primary instruction." " The Protestant 
Committee consists of a number of Protestant members equal 
to the number of Roman Catholic lay members and appointed 
by the Lieutenant-Governor during pleasure." In addition " the 
Protestant committee may associate with themselves six per 
sons as associate members, and the Provincial Association of 
Protestant Teachers may at each annual meeting elect one 


of their members to be an associate member of the Protestant 
Committee, for the following year." These have the same 
powers in the Protestant Committee as the other members, 
but do not form " part of the Council of Public Instruction." 
" School questions affecting the joint interests of both Roman 
Catholics and Protestants are under the jurisdiction of ... 
the entire Council of Public Instruction. The secretaries of 
the two committees are joint secretaries of the Council, and 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction is President of the 

Saskatchewan. The Department of Education is under the 
Minister of Education, who is assisted by a Deputy Minister 
and a Superintendent of Education. 

School Attendance, Compulsory or Otherwise. 
Alberta. Attendance at school is compulsory for children, 
aged 7 to 12, inclusive, for at least 16 weeks each year (Sec. 
144, School Ordinances) ; but there is considerable difficulty 
in enforcing the law. 

New Brunswick has " a compulsory attendance law, but it 
io optional with localities, and in country districts is not 
generally enforced, though adopted at school meetings." St. 
John and Moncton " have appointed truant officers with good 

Nora Scotia has a " Compulsory School Attendance Act " 
for towns. 

Manitoba. By amendment to the " Children s Act of Mani 
toba " (R.S.M., ch. 30), in 1914, the education of children over 
7 and under 14 has been made compulsory. 

Ontario. School attendance is compulsory for every child 
between 8 and 14 years of age, unless excused for valid 
reasons (9 Edw. VII, chap. 92, sec. 3). By recent amendments 
to the Truancy Act, instruction for blind and deaf children is 

Prince Edward Island. " Every child from 5 to 16 must 
have free school privileges," and, while there is no compulsory 
if the average attendance falls below fifty per cent of the 
enrolment a deduction (to be made up by the parents who did 
not send their children to school, or the district) is made from 


the Government grant toward the teacher s salary. In 1913, 
moreover, it was enacted that $1.00 for each child in average 
daily attendance during each half year " shall be paid to each 
teacher whose work is satisfactory to the inspector," but the 
allowance to any one teacher is not " to exceed $25.00 in one 
half-year." In 1911 Prince Edward Island was the banner 
province for school attendance. (See below.) 

Quebec. Education is not compulsory. 

Saskatchewan. " The law calls for compulsory school 
attendance from 7 to 12 years of age, with penalty for non- 
attendance for a certain number of days in the year," but the 
regulation is difficult to enforce. 

Statistics of School Attendance, taken from Bulletin XIX, 
5th Census of Canada, published March, 1914. " The total 
number of persons between the ages of 6 and 20 at the date 
of the Census (1911) was 2,141,909, of which 1,801,779, or 84.12 
per cent., were Canadian-born, 6.65 per cent, were British- 
born (the term including all persons, except Canadians, born 
in the United Kingdom, or in any of its dependencies), and 
9.23 per cent, were foreign-born. Of this number 52.51 per 
cent." attended some place of learning for some part of 1910, 
but only 44.82 per cent, attended school for more than six 
months in that year. 

With regard to children between 7 and 14 years of age, 
inclusive, who accounted for 16 per cent, of the total popula 
tion of the nine provinces and numbered 1,154,307, less than 
80 per cent, attended school during 1910, and less than 70 per 
cent, were under instruction for more than six months. The 
percentages of attendance for the provinces were as follows: 
Prince Edward Island, 84.60; Ontario, 84.27; Nova Scotia, 
82.86; Quebec, 80.96; New Brunswick, 80.05; British Colum 
bia, 75.33; Manitoba, 74.64; Saskatchewan, 66.71; and Alberta, 
62.83 per cent. 

It is not fair, however, to argue from these figures that 
the western provinces have been remiss, compared to the 
eastern, in providing for the education of their children, for 
between 1906 and 1911 " Manitoba put in operation on the 
average two new schools per week . . . Saskatchewan 
about five, and Alberta about three per week." 


In 1911, " basing the computations on the number of 
teachers to the number of persons between the ages of 6 and 
16, Prince Edward Island had one teacher to every 39 chil 
dren"; Nova Scotia, 1 to 41; New Brunswick, 1 to 43; Que 
bec, 1 to 38; Ontario, 1 to 42; Manitoba, 1 to 36; Saskatche 
wan, 1 to 28; Alberta, 1 to 39; and British Columbia, 1 to 50. 

Quebec and Ontario show the greatest percentage (76.47 
and 74.43 respectively) for children, 7 to 14 years of age, 
attending school for more thon 6 months, whilst " the Maritime 
and Prairie Provinces show the greatest proportion attending 
school for from 4 to 6 months in the year." 

Of the Canadian-born population between the ages of seven 
and fourteen, 81.57 per cent, had a record of school attendance, 
as against 72.52 per cent, of the British-born and 64.97 per 
cent, of the foreign-born, but of the last-named about a third 
of those attending school went for short periods only. The 
attendance at school of children of the above ages is naturally 
better in urban districts, including cities, towns and incor 
porated villages with a population of 1,500 or more, than in 
rural districts. The percentages for all Canada are 83.38 
urban and 77.90 rural. " The rural communities of the west 
ern provinces show a much smaller percentage of school 
attendance for the population 7 to 14 years than is shown by 
the provinces in eastern Canada. In the western provinces, 
the large majority of the foreign-born children of this age are 
to be found in rural parts." In Saskatchewan 926 in every 
thousand of foreign-born children, of 7 to 14, resided in coun 
try districts. The proportion per thousand in Alberta was 
879; and in Manitoba, 625; but in Quebec it was only 330, 
and in Ontario 286. " Prince Edward Island has the highest 
percentage of rural school attendance, and New Brunswick 
the highest for urban centres," all nativities included; but 
" the city of St. Catharines and the towns of Brockville and 
North Bay lead, not only the Province of Ontario, but the 
Dominion, in the matter of school attendance, with percen 
tages of attendance of over 90." 

Returning now to the larger division, including the popu 
lation from 5 to 20 years of age, " the proportion for all 


Canada of males to females, attending school, is very nearly 
equal for every age group, excepting in the 15 to 20 group, 
where the proportion is 14.67 per cent, of the total males as 
against 17.23 per cent, of females. The greatest proportion 
of attendance is shown in the group 10 to 14, with 79.43 per 
cent, for males and 80.07 for females." By the census taken 
in 1901, as well as that of 1911, it appeared that the percentage 
of boys, aged from 5 to 9, was slightly higher than that of 
girls of the same age group, as regards school attendance; 
but in the age group of 10 to 19 the census of 1901 showed that 
the attendance of the sexes was equal, being 480 in every 
thousand of each class, whilst that of 1911 showed that the 
number of males of every thousand of this age group had 
risen to 484, and the number of females to 508. 

Of the population 5 to 9 years of age, 58.69 per cent, were 
reported as being at school in 1910, as compared with 59.73 
per cent, in 1901"; but in the age-group 10 to 19 there was 
" a gain of 1.58 per cent .in the decade," and " the net gain in 
school attendance for the population, 5 to 19 in the decade, 
was, therefore, about 8 in the thousand." 

Consolidated Schools. In Noya Scotia, in 1912-13, 409 
schools were kept open with an average attendance of 7 
pupils each; and some of these had only two or three pupils. 
It is the same in every other province of the Dominion. 
Sparse population in many country districts makes the edu 
cation of the children extremely difficult and expensive. The 
" only known method of providing adequate primary and 
secondary education for farm children," according to Mr. A. C. 
Monahan, Specialist in Rural Education in Washington, D.C., 
is " the Consolidated School." It is " the only way of securing 
an attendance large enough to supply for children the com 
panionship necessary for their best development. It is the 
only way to retain trained teachers for the country and to 
divide the work so that it may be done efficiently. The road 
problem enters the consolidation problem. It has been found 
that good roads follow the consolidation of schools. Poor 
roads have never been any hindrance in conveying pupils to 
a centralized school." He added, " Canada is much better 
prepared to undertake consolidation of schools than the United 


States is, owing to its excellent system of supervision and 
Government support." 

"In Ontario, the Macdonald Consolidated School, Guelph, was 
formed as an experiment, in 1903, by a union of 5 sections, 
whose 15 trustees composed the Consolidated School Board. 
" The sections were to retain their separate identity and main 
tain their old premises in case of a return to the individual 
system. . . . After the three years assigned for the experiment 
three and a half sections withdrew," because the school was 
unfavorably situated and the cost of conveying the pupils was 
excessive. With one exception, however, all the ratepayers 
who had children attending the school voted to continue the 
consolidation at the additional expense; the continuance of 
the school was prevented by the adverse vote of ratepayers 
who had no children to be educated. It is now a two-school 

New Brunswick has several* consolidated schools. " In 
1904 a type school was built from the Macdonald Fund and 
with Macdonald accessories a school similar to the Mac 
donald Consolidated School at Guelph. Seven districts were 
united; they were sparsely settled, with only 130 pupils. 

. . The Macdonald Fund paid the extra expenses above 
what the sections had been paying," and after three years 
experience " arrangements were made to continue the assist 
ance for three years more. At the end of the fifth year the 
building was burned, but . . . the people declined to 
abandon the consolidated system and voted to tax themselves 
heavily to rebuild and continue the school. The New Bruns 
wick Legislature has voted $7,000 to sections which adopt 
consolidation. If three school districts have an average of 
six pupils or less they must unite, the Government paying 
one-half of the expenses." 

In Prince Edward Island, " the Macdonald Consolidated 
School was established at Hillsborough in 1905." Six dis 
tricts, in which the average salary given to the teachers of 
the one-roomed schools was under $200 the year, and which 
during five years had " matriculated but one pupil to Prince 
of Wales College," united, with the result that in the next 
five years twenty pupils from those same districts and another 


twenty from outlying districts matriculated, and " the 95 per 
cent, who never go beyond the Public School " received a 
much better training for their life work. In this case, consoli 
dation not only made possible a kindergarten and classes in 
manual training, household science, school gardening, nature 
study, music, drawing and physical culture, but it enriched 
the social life of the district with its " Literary and Social 
Clubs " and associations for sports. Unfortunately the school 
has had to be closed temporarily for financial reasons. 

Manitoba has adopted the consolidation idea with enthu 
siasm. " By June 30th, 1912, 176 old districts had been con 
solidated into 29, and during the year 35 more were consoli 
dated into 12. ... The consolidated School Districts 
are operated very successfully, the van drivers seldom missing 
a trip, and the country children attending with great regu 
larity." To attend to the many requests for information the 
Department of Education has recently appointed Mr. J. A. 
Beattie, M.A., to be " Special Agent for Consolidation." 

In Saskatchewan, the School Act was amended in the 
session of 1912-13 to provide " for the erection of a large dis 
trict in territory heretofore unorganized," and also " for the 
enlargement of existing districts." Three large districts " got 
into fair running order during 1913," and four in 1914. Two 
of these were formed out of unorganized territory and took 
in the maximum area, 50 square miles . . . with village 
communities as their centres. Others were organized dis 
tricts that extended their original boundaries, and two were 
real consolidations. The cost of conveyance (of which, accord 
ing to the School Grants Act, a sum not exceeding one-third 
will be granted by Government) has ranged in Saskatchewan 
from $2.75 to $4.25 a day. In the last session " the School 
Grants Act " was amended to allow grants to school districts 
providing for the conveyance of their pupils to a neighboring 
district. The extra expense is the chief source of difficulty in 
the consolidation of schools. 

Secondary Education. Intermediate between the ordinary 
Public Schools and the High Schools are the " Superior " 
Schools of New Brunswick and British Columbia, the schools 
of Nova Scotia which do some High School work, the " Contin- 


uation " Schools of Ontario, the " Intermediate " Schools of 
Manitoba, and the " Model " Schools of Quebec. 

In Nova Scotia the County Academies (in addition to which 
may be other High Schools in the same county) are free to 
all pupils from the county, and in 1913 the attendance was 
8,636. The County Grammar Schools of New Brunswick are 
also free to pupils resident in the county. In December, 1912, 
there were 2,008 pupils in the High School grades of New 
Brunswick. In Ontario small fees are charged to all pupils 
attending a High School, and non-resident pupils may be 
charged a fee to cover " the average cost per pupil of main 
tenance of the High School." Ontario had in 1912 148 High 
Schools (including 44 Collegiate Institutes), and the enrol 
ment of pupils was 32,273. Manitoba, according to the last 
available statistics, had 13 High Schools, 6. Collegiate Depart 
ments and 10 Collegiate Institutes, with an enrolment in all 
grades over VIII of 4,996. British Columbia had, in 1913, 30 
High Schools, with an enrolment of 2,680. 

Normal Schools. Alberta. Calgary. British Columbia. 

Normal School. Manitoba. Provincial Normal School, Win 
nipeg; attendance (1913), 210; (187 females); also 5 training 
schools. New Brunswick. Normal School, Fredericton; at 
tendance (1912), 398 students (347 females). Nova Scotia.- 
Provincial Normal College, Truro; attendance (1912-13), 302 
(female students, 277). Ontario. Normal Schools at Hamil 
ton, London, North Bay, Ottawa, Peterborough, Stratford, 
Toronto; attendance (1912-13), 1,186 (female students, 1,062). 
11 Provincial Model Schools; attendance, 362 (females, 285). 
Prince Edward Island. Normal School in connection with 
Prince of Wales College. Quebec. At Quebec, "Laval"; in 
Montreal, "Jacques Cartier"; at Rimouski, Chicoutimi, Nico- 
let, Valleyfield, Hull, Three Rivers, Joliette, St. Hyacinthe, 
and MacDonald College Normal School, at St. Anne de Belle- 
vue. Attendance (1912), R.C. schools, 895 (720 females). 
Attendance (1913), Macdonald College School, 170. Saskatche 
wan. Normal Schools, Regina and Saskatoon; attendance, 
348 students. 

(We regret that this year we are unable to find space for 


any account of the Dominion and Provincial Educational 

Teachers Institutes (formerly Teachers Associations) are 
held periodically in each Inspectorate. In Toronto Institute 
a man and a woman alternately preside. This year Miss 
Burger, 161 Sunnyside Ave., is President; Sec., Miss Bleakley. 

Besides these, in some cities are Women Teachers Asso 
ciations. The aim is variously described as " to serve as a 
bond of union . . . both socially and professionally," " to 
discuss current events, women s work, and new educational 
facts"; to develop the ability and resources of the indi 
vidual members," and to provide recreation in the way of 
social gatherings. In Toronto at least once a year there is 
a dance for women alone, which is generally considered a very 
successful entertainment. Amongst these Associations are: 
Calgary. Pres., Miss R. J. Coutts, 526 4th Ave. W.; Sec., Miss 
Annie Campbell, 1315, 1st St. N.W. Hamilton. Pres., Miss H. 
V. Booker, 110 Grant Ave.; Sec., Miss Frances A. Park, 132 
Grant Ave. Kingston. Pres, Miss Lovick, University Ave.; 
Sec., Miss Fraser, Aberdeen St. London. Pres., Miss Tol- 
hurst, Horton St. Montreal (Protestant W.T.A.) Pres, Miss 
Norris, 38 St. Famille St. Ottawa. Pres., Miss Rose Patton, 
1127 Wellington St.; Sec., Miss Ellis, First Avenue School. 
Toronto. Pres., Miss Carey, 585 Markham St.; Sec., Miss 
Zimmer, 32 Delaware Ave. 

Industrial and Technical Education. 

In the space at our command it is impossible to do more 
than glance at the large subject suggested by the caption 
above; but its importance is admitted on all hands. " Today," 
says Dr. Seath, " the modern educationist everywhere joins 
with the manufacturer and the merchant in pressing for tech 
nical training maintained wholly or largely at the public 
expense "; and it may be added, the workmen are of the same 
opinion. The appointment, in June, 1910, of the Royal Com 
mission on Industrial Training and Techical Education was 
the outcome of a resolution passed by the Canadian Manufac 
turers Association and endorsed by many of its branches and 
the principals of many universities. The Commission after 
amassing a vast amount of information recommended that 


" Provision should be made for (1) Training of the senses and 
the muscles; (2) More and better drawing; (3) More physical 
culture; (4) Nature study and experimental work; (5) Pre- 
vocational work; (6) More and better singing; (7) Organized 
and supervised play and games. It recommended further that 
" Secondary Vocational Education should be provided for 
those persons who are to follow manual industrial occupa 
tions, producing occupations such as agriculture, conserving 
occupations such as housekeeping, and commercial and busi 
ness occupations." 

With regard to elementary Manual Training and Domestic 
Science, beginnings had been made at some centres in all the 
provinces, and in 1913 to give but a few instances British 
Columbia had 31 such centres, with 4,442 Public and 387 High 
School pupils; Nova Scotia had 17 centres, with 2,177 pupils 
in "mechanic" and 2,223 pupils in domestic science; while 
Ontario had 70 manual training and 57 household science 

Legislation. In 1913 the Dominion Parliament passed the 
" Agricultural Instruction Act," by which ten million dollars 
was set aside from the Consolidated Revenue Fund of Canada, 
to be paid out in annual instalments during ten years to the 
several provinces in proportion to the population, for the pur 
pose of giving encouragement to agriculture by means of 
" education, instruction and demonstration." Hitherto, how 
ever, the Dominion Parliament has not made similar provision 
for general technical education. In Ontario the " Industrial 
Education Act " of 1911 provides for a very comprehensive 
system of industrial schools, including those for instruction 
in the Pine and Applied Arts. In Quebec an Act for the 
" establishment of technical schools and vocational courses 
in the province " was passed in 1914. 

Special Directors and Inspectors. Alberta has a Director 
of Technical Education; British Columbia, a special Manual 
Training Inspector; Manitoba, a Director of School Garden 
ing; New Brunswick, a Director of Manual Training; Nova 
Scotia, a Director of Rural Science Schools, and Ontario has 
a Director of Industrial and Technical and a Director of 


Elementary Agricultural Education; also a special Inspector 
of Technical Education. 

Technical Schools. 

Ontario. In Toronto there are five Day and Evening 
Technical Schools, of which the Central (College Street) 
is soon to be removed to a most amply equipped new 
building on a site of about six acres in extent. 
Hamilton and London have Day and Evening Industrial 
and Art Schools; and Sault Ste. Marie, Haileybury, 
Sudbury, Berlin, Brockville, Collingwood, Gait, Guelph, 
Stratford and St. Thomas have Industrial Schools or 
Classes. It is interesting, by the way, that wherever good 
teaching in domestic science subjects is offered, young girls 
and older women eagerly avail themselves of the opportunity. 
For instance, Dr. A. C. McKay, of the Toronto Technical High 
School, says that " Hundreds of girls in service are coming 
here, and it is not an uncommon thing for a mistress and her 
maid to come together to evening classes." 

Quebec. Montreal and Quebec have recently established 
Technical Schools, each administered by a corporation of 11 
members, among whom are included representatives of the 
City Council, the Montreal Board of Trade, and a delegate of 
the " laboring classes." Earlier, the Council of Arts and 
Manufactures organized classes in drawing and other subjects 
in Montreal, Quebec, St. Hyacinthe, Sherbrooke, Three Rivers, 
St. Johns, Valleyfield, Sorel, Charny, St. Romuald, Chicoutimi. 
Evening Technical classes are also conducted by the Pro 
testant Board of School Commissioners and the Montreal Tech 
nical Institute, which " had its origin in the Canadian Manu 
facturers Association." In 1911 a Technical Institute was 
founded at Shawenegan Falls, Quebec. 

A few companies, including the Grand Trunk and Canadian 
Pacific Railway Companies, have inaugurated systems in their 
shops for training apprentices. (For particulars see Report, 
Royal Commission on Industrial Training and Technical Edu 
cation, IV, pp. 1935-1939; 2166-2170.) The result is that the 
C.P.R. is " getting a different style of boy altogether " and 
finds the advantages of the plan " very great when the appren 
tices become journeymen." " The boys in the G.T.R. shops 


take a great interest in the scheme and look upon it just like 
a big school. They have their band, their hockey, baseball 
and football clubs, and find time for all these recreations." 

Nora Scotia has at Halifax a well-equipped Provincial 
Technical College (for men) and Evening Technical Schools 
(most of which offer courses for women in domestic science) 
at Amherst, Halifax, New Glasgow, Sydney, Truro and Yar 

Manitoba has two Technical High Schools at Winnipeg, 
which give day and evening courses for boys, young men and 
girls. " Effective training of domestic science and art is also 
furnished in the Brandon Collegiate Institute." 

(Regarding Education in Agriculture, See Section XII, 
" Agriculture and Country Life.") 

Cadet Corps in Schools. 

At this time we cannot pass without mention the Cadet 
Corps in High and Public Schools of the different provinces. 
" The cadet drill," says Dr. A. H. MacKay, Supt. of Education, 
Nova Scotia, " is proving to be one of the most valuable single 
subjects of the curriculum. . . . The effect on the dis 
cipline, morals, and even the health and scholarship of the 
students is quite marked." " The fact that schools in which 
are the most efficient Cadet Corps usually stand highest also 
in scholastic attainments, is not only an answer to those who 
say they have no time for such work, but should be an added 
incentive to the carrying on of this very important branch 
of education." 

At the Convention of the Ontario Educational Association, 
in April, 1914, a motion was made that military training be 
abolished in schools, on the ground that the system inculcated 
the military spirit, but after an interesting discussion the 
motion was lost. In the High and Public Schools of Ontario 
there were, in 1913, 136 corps, with a combined strength of 

Special Classes for Backward Children or Foreigners. 

British Columbia. At Victoria and Vancouver there are 

special classes for backward or sub-normal children, and also 

evening classes for foreigners. Nova Scotia. " In Springhill 

a few years ago a special class was organized for backward 



children, which was successful only so long as the strong 
teacher first placed in charge was retained." Halifax and 
Amherst are considering opening such special classes. The 
only special classes for foreigners are those conducted by the 
" Reading Camp Association " (see below, Section X). Ontario. 
Several night classes for foreigners are held in Toronto 
(see "Forest Schools," etc., under Section XTV). Saskatche 
wan. There are classes for the backward at Regina; for 
foreigners at Yorkton, Regina, Moose Jaw and Estevan. 

Kindergartens. We regret that we cannot this year make 
any adequate note as to kindergarten work in Canada. In 
Ontario, according to the most recent report available, there 
were in 1912, 204 kindergartens, 371 kindergarten teachers, 
and 21,562 pupils in attendance. 

There are Free Kindergartens in connection with many 
Missions and Day Nurseries in Toronto, St. John and other 
cities ; and Winnipeg has a " Free Kindergarten Association," 
Pres., Mrs. R. W. Knechtel, The Breadalbane, Hargrave St.; 
Sec., Mrs. T. H. West, Nassau St., Winnipeg. It was organized 
April, 1892, with the object of " the establishment and main 
tenance of Free Kindergartens in the city and the furtherance 
of good work among needy and neglected children." The 
association maintains the " Free Kindergarten," 294 Ellen 
St., and the " Froebel Kindergarten," 676 Alexander St. Girls 
Clubs, Mothers Meetings, etc., are held in connection. 

Little Mothers Leagues, or similar organizations to pre 
pare girls for the duties of motherhood, have been started in 
Winnipeg, Toronto and Regina. In the first named city the 
" Little Nurses League," under the direction of a nurse from 
the " Margaret Scott Nursing Mission," was started in 1912 
and proved so great a success that the nurse was placed on 
the permanent staff of the Board of Education to give instruc 
tion to the elder girls in the care of infants. The classes 
were held in the schools of the " North End," a district in 
habited largely by foreigners. 

In Regina " Little Mothers Classes " are held in Earl Grey 
School, and are attended by pupils of many nationalities. 

In Toronto, there are now " Little Mothers Leagues," 
under the Board of Education, connected with twenty schools. 


The Leagues meet once a week, from 3.30 to 4.30 p.m. Attend 
ance is voluntary. The girls, ranging in age from 11 to 15, 
aie taught how to bathe, dress and feed a baby, prepare its 
food, make its bed and its clothes. Occasionally a real, live 
baby is the subject of the demonstration; more often a large 
celluloid doll. The children learn also what a baby should 
be able to do at certain ages; when its teeth should come, 
and a number of other important facts. 

Schools for the Blind and the Deaf. 

Manitoba. School for the Deaf, Winnipeg. Principal, H. 
J. McDermid. Pupils (year ending Nov. 30th, 1912), 115; 59 
from Manitoba, others from British Columbia, Alberta and 

New Brunswick. School for the Deaf, St. John, N.B. 
Principal, Joseph Keating. Attendance (1912), 41. 

Nora Scotia. School for the Blind, Halifax, N.S. Supt., 
Dr. C. F. Fraser. Attendance (year ending Dec. 1st, 1913), 169. 

Institution for the Deaf, Halifax, N.S. Principal, J. 
Fearon. Attendance (1913), 113; 79 from Nova Scotia, the 
other pupils coming from New Brunswick, Prince Edward 
Island and Newfoundland. 

Ontario. Ontario School for the Blind, Brantford. Prin 
cipal, H. F. Gardiner. Average attendance (session ending 
June, 1913), 99. Registration foi year ending Oct. 31st, 1913, 

Ontario School for the Deaf, Belleville. Supt, C. B. 
Coughlin, M.D. Average number of pupils (1912-13), 238. 

Quebec. Institute for Deaf and Dumb Women, Saint Denis 
St., Montreal. Superioress, Sister Bertille. Pupils in ordinary 
course of instruction, 169; former pupils under care of 
separate department, 108; total, 277. 

Mackay Institute for Deaf Mutes and the Blind, Montreal. 
Sec., George Durnford. Pupils, 59 deaf; 10 blind. 

Montreal Institute for Deaf Mutes. Director, J. M. 
Cadieux, C.S.V. Number of pupils (1912-13), 142. 

Nazareth Institute for the Blind, Montreal. Superioress, 
Sister Ste. Eulalie. Pupils (1912-13), 64. 

Note. From the report of the Department of Education is 
taken this striking sentence regarding the Manitoba School 


for the Deaf: " Of all the deaf people who have graduated 
from it in twenty-five years, not one has ever been a charge 
upon public charity, and not one has ever been convicted of 


Acadia University, Wolfville, N.S. Pres., Rev. George B. 
Cutten, Ph.D., D.D. Total attendance (1913), 244; women 
students, 63; College women s residence for 50. University 
Faculty (Women) : Instructor in Library Science (and 
Librarian), Amy Paunce Freeman; Instructor in Oratory, 
Nettie Shreve-Bayman. 

Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. Pres., A. Stanley Mac 
kenzie, Ph.D., D.C.L., F.R.C.S. Attendance of women, 1913- 
1914, 92, including 5 studying medicine. Residence for Women, 
Forrest Hall, 101 South Park St.; address The Warden, Miss 
Florence Manners. Adviser to Women Students, Eliza Ritchie, 
B.L. (Dal.), Ph.D. (Cornell).; Faculty of Arts and Science, 
Reader in English, M. Josephine Shannon. 

McMaster University, Toronto. Chancellor and Prin., A. L. 
McCrimmon, M.A., LL.D. Total attendance (1913), 203 about 
50 women. Some of these take the Theological Course. All 
courses are open to women. The Principal of Moulton Col 
lege (see below) is, ex-officio, a member of the Senate. 

Macdonald College (McGill University), Ste. Anne de Belle- 
vue, Quebec. Prin., F. C. Harrison, D.Sc., F.R.S.C. Women 
Instructors Faculty of Agriculture, Jennie Reid, N.D.D., In 
structor, and Jessie D. Gray, N.D.D., Asst.-Instructor in Home 
Dairying; Miss Frederica Campbell, Demonstrator to Home- 
makers Clubs of Quebec. School for Teachers (Women), 
Lilian B. Robins, B.A., Lecturer in Mathematics and Classics; 
Dorothy F. Richmond, Instructor in Physical Culture. 
Teachers in Practice School, Frida Kruse, Miss E. L. Rollins, 
B.A. ; Edith Doane. School of Household Science Miss Kath- 
erine A. Fisher, Head of School; Instructors: Mrs. T. T. 
Rutter, Miss Anita E. Hill, Miss Bessie M. Philip, Household 
Science; Miss Alice M. Zollman, Domestic Art. Librarian, 
Mrs. Frank J. James. Women s Residence, accommodation, 
200; Supt., Miss Amy S. McGill: Housekeeper, Mrs. Edith R. 


The courses offered in the School of Household Science 
are: A one-year homemaker course; a two-year institution- 
administration course; three short courses (about three 
months each), providing training in practical work con 
nected with the home, and special courses. " The senior year 
of the course ^in institution administration is devoted to 
special work, bearing on housekeeping for large numbers 
from a business point of view," while the homemaker courses 
are " planned to give the student a good foundation in the 
different branches of ordinary household work, supplemented 
by scientific studies which have a bearing on the subjects of 
cooking, laundrying, etc. Above all, it is desired to awaken 
a girl s interest in the wider questions of sound bodies, whole 
some dwellings, and comfortable homes." 

Macdonald Institute, Gueluli. (See below under Ontario 
Agricultural College.) 

McGill University, Montreal. Prin. and Vice-Chancellor, 
William Peterson, M.A., LL.D., D. Litt, C.M.G. Total enrol 
ment (1913-14), including students in Macdonald College, 
Bellevue, and in the McGill University Colleges in British 
Columbia (see below) 2,422. Of these the women (exclusive 
of those attending the School for Teachers at Macdonald Col 
lege) see above numbered nearly 400. In the McGill Con- 
servatorium of Music (see Section XL), a majority of students 
are women. Women s Residence and Lecture Rooms, Royal 
Victoria College, Montreal. Warden and Resident Tutor in 
History, Miss Ethel Hurlbatt, M.A., T.C.D. (Somerville Col 
lege, Oxford). 

Other Officers of Instruction (Women) : Carrie M. Derick, 
M.A., Macdonald Professor of Morphological Botany; Susan 
E. Cameron, M.A., Vice-Warden of Royal Victoria College and 
Assistant Professor in English; Clara Lichtenstein, Lecturer 
and Resident Instructor in Music; Elizabeth A. Irwin, M.A., 
Lecturer and Tutor in Classics; Ida Couture, B.A., Sessional 
Lecturer in German; Violet Henry, B.A., Demonstrator in 
Physics; Ethel M. Cartwright, Physical Director; Ruth Clark 
(Trafalgar Institute), on Committee of Physical Education; 
Maude E. Abbott, B.A., M.D., L.R.C.P. & S. (Edin.). 

Great stress is laid on physical education. " Classes in 


educational gymnastics are conducted for all undergraduate 
students in the gymnasium of the Royal Victoria College. All 
students on entering the University are required to pass a 
physical examination and to pass satisfactory physical tests 
before taking part in any of the outdoor or indoor physical 
exercises organized by the Physical Depaitfment, whether 
educational, remedial or recreational. . . . Work in the 
Physical Education Department throughout the four-year 
course (amounting to 140 hours in all) is required of all 
undergraduate students," but no student is " asked to do work 
unsuited to her physique." There are special courses for 
teachers in Physical Education. 

McOill University College of British Columbia, with teach 
ing centres at Victoria and Vancouver. Acting-Prin., G. E. 
Robinson, B.A. Women Instructors (at Vancouver), Isabel 
Maclnnes, M.A., in German; (at Victoria), Jeanette A. Cann, 
B.L., Lecturer in English; and Alice O. E. Henry, M.A., Lec 
turer in Modern Languages. 

Mount Allison University, Sackville, 1V.B. Pres., Rev. B. C. 
Borden, D.D. Amongst " the Regents of Mount Allison " are 
five ladies, representing the Alumnae Society Mrs. J. O. 
Calkin, Mrs. D. W. Johnson, Mrs. H. A. Powell, Mrs. J. Wood, 
Mrs. W. G. Smith. " Women are received on a perfect equality 
with men in all lectures and competitions for prizes and 
honors. Mount Allison was the first chartered college in 
Canada to admit women to all the privileges of regular Col 
legiate Courses and Degrees." 

Mount Allison Ladies College. Prin., Rev. G. M. Campbell, 
D.D. Vice-Prin., Miss Annie Sprague, B.A. The Ladies Col 
lege is governed by " the Regents " who govern the University. 
Its departments include the Conservatory of Music, Director, 
Prof. J. Noel Brunton, L.R.A.M., L.T.C.L., A.R.C.M.; School of 
Household Science Staff, Miss Winona Cruise and others, and 
Owen s Museum of Pine Arts, Prin., Prof. John Hammond, 
R.C.A.; College Librarian, Miss Jean Whitman, B.A. 

Notre Dame College, 1010 Sherbrooke West, Montreal 
(Affiliated with Laval University). " This college for the 
higher education of young women is connected with the 
mother-house of the Sisters of the Congregation de Notre 


Dame. Degrees are conferred upon young ladies who pass 
the examinations successfully." Superior, Sister Ste. Anne- 
Marie. Pupils, 440. 

Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph. President, G. C. 
Creelman, B.S.A., LL.D. This College has a notable " Home 
Economics Department," known as the " Macdonald Institute." 
Prin., Miss Mary Urie Watson. The Institute was established 
" to bring to the vocation of home making the same kind of 
help which the Ontario Agricultural College brings to the 
business of farming" and " to provide for the adequate train 
ing of Home Science teachers for our public schools." Three 
homemaker courses are offered, continuing respectively two 
years, one year, and three months. All are planned for the 
girls who are able to live in their own homes, and desire to 
better fit themselves for the duties of the home-maker. The 
general aim is the same as that of Macdonald College, Quebec. 
(See above.) 

Faculty of Instruction Miss Mary Urie Watson, Director 
of Home Economics; Miss Grace Greenwood, Instructor in 
Normal Methods; Miss Jean Roddick, Instructor in Domestic 
Science; Miss Annie Ross, M.D.C.M., Lecturer in Physi 
ology, Home Nursing, Psychology, Child Study; Miss Alta 
Dickey, Instructor in Domestic Art; Mrs. F. Doughty, Demon 
strator in Domestic Art; Miss Mary McLennan, Demonstrator 
in Domestic Science; Miss Netta M. Nixon, Demonstrator in 
Laundry and Household Administration; Miss Eliza Maddock, 
Supervisor of House Practice, Lecturer. Also, on the general 
staff of the O.A.C., Miss M. A. Purdy, Demonstrator in Chem 
istry, and Miss Belle Millar, Demonstrator in Butter and Soft 
Cheesemaking; Miss J. Gardiner, Librarian. 

Prince of Wales College and Normal School, Charlotte- 
town, P.E.I. Prin., S. N. Robertson, M.A., LL.D. Enrolment 
(1911-12), 278 (men and women). Women Instructors: Eng 
lish and Latin, Lily H. Seaman, M.A.; Household Science, 
Grace E. Dutcher. " Secondary education is carried in the 
highest class to the first year of Arts, and is accepted by Mc- 
Gill and Dalhousie Universities." 

Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario. Prin., Very Rev. 
Daniel Miner Gordon, M.A., D.D. Women admitted to courses 


in Arts and Education ; formerly also in Medicine, but not now. 
In 1913-14, 213 women enrolled as intra-mural students in 
Arts, 22 in Education; 94 extra-mural students; total, 329. 
Residence (for 16), maintained by Queen s Alumnae Asso 
ciation. Adviser of Women, Caroline E. McNeill. Faculty of 
Education, Women Instructors, Mrs. J. R. C. Dobbs, Miss C. 
E. Green, Mrs. Mabee. 

University of Alberta, Edmonton. Total attendance (1913- 
14), 435; women, 64, including one Arts graduate studying 
Law. Twelve of these were in residence. Adviser to Women 
Students and Assistant Professor in Latin, Geneva Misener, 
M.A., Ph.D. 

Affiliated Institutions. Alberta College (Meth.). Prin., 
Rev. J. H. Riddell, B.A., B.D., D.D. Lady Prin., Miss Nettie 
Burkholder, B.A., S.B.; Lecturer Elocution and Oratory, Miss 
Gertrude K. Trotter. Robertson College (Presbyterian). 
" Women s Guild " of above furnished two college residences 
in Edmonton for students. 

University of Bishop s College, Lennoxville,. Quebec. 
Prin., Rev. R. A. Parrock, LL.D., D.C.L. Total attendance 
(1913-1914), exclusive of students taking preparatory work, 
46; women, 11. No woman s residence. 

University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta. Dean, F. H. Mac- 
Dougall, M.A., Ph.D. 

University of Toronto. Pres., Robert Alexander Falconer, 
M.A., LL.D., D.Litt., C.M.G. Total enrolment (1913-14), 4,234. 
Of these the women numbered 1,180, distributed as follows: 
Candidates for Ph.D., 3; Candidates for M.A., 18; Occasional 
Students in the University of Toronto, 8; Summer Session, 
231; University College, 367; Victoria College, 144; Trinity 
College, 61; St. Michael s College, 29; Faculty of Medicine, 24; 
Faculty of Household Science, 91; Faculty of Education, 203; 
Dental Student, 1. University College Lady Superintendent, 
Miss Salter. Residences for Women, Queen s Hall (connected 
with University College, Lady Superintendent, Miss Alice 
Parkin. St. Hilda s College and 193 Crawford St. (connected 
with Trinity College) ; Lady Principal, Miss Mabel Cartwright, 
B.A. Annesley Hall (connected with Victoria College) ; Dean, 
Miss M. E. T. Addison, B.A. St. Joseph s Convent, St. Alban s 


Street, and Loretto Abbey, Wellington Street (in connection 
with St. Michael s College) ; address, " The Superior." 

Women Elected Members of Senate: Miss G. Lawler, M.A. 
(a representative of Graduates in Arts of University College) ; 
Augusta Stowe Gullen, M.D.C.M. (a representative of grad 
uates in Medicine) ; Miss C. Laing, M.A. (a representative of 
graduates in Arts of Trinity College). Women Members of 
the Staff: The Misses Margaret Eleanor Theodora Addison, 
B.A., M. Auten, Clara Cynthia Benson, Ph.D., Ivy Cov 
entry, Lexa Denne, B.A., Ethel May Eadie, Stella Newman 
Hamilton, B.A., Annie Homer, B.A., Christine Elizabeth Ram- 
merer, B.A., Annie Lewisa Laird, Helen McMurchie, B.A., 
Helen MacMurchy, M.D., Jennie McFarlane, M.A., Laura Lav- 
inia Ockley, B.A., Nellie Lyle Pattinson, Olive E. Pedley, 
Annie Theresa Reed, B.A., Dorothy Marguerite Sawyer, Sadie 
Louise Smith, Mary Clara Tucker, G. Wright. See also XIX. 

The University offers Household Science Courses which 
lead to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and Courses for 
" occasional " students, who desire a general knowledge of 
Household Science. The courses which lead to the Bachelor 
of Arts degree are the Household Science Course, the Physi 
ology and Household Science Course, and the General Course, 
which includes options in Household Science. 

On January 28, 1913, was opened the magnificent Household 
Science Building given by Mrs. Massey Treble. It is admir 
ably equipped and its presentation has given " a great im 
pulse to the development of this side of the education of 
women." In its gymnasium and swimming pool it offers 
excellent opportunities for physical training. 

The Western University, London, Ont, Pres., N. C. James, 
M.A., Ph.D. Women admitted to Arts Courses on same terms 
as men. Attendance of women (1913-1914), 34. No women s 

University of King s College, Windsor, IT.S. Pres., Rev. T. 
W. Powell, M.A., D.D., D.C.L. 83 students, not including those 
in law; 5 women. 

University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. Pres., James A. 
MacLean, Ph.D., LL.D. 


University of New Brunswick. Chancellor, Cecil C. Jones, 
M.A., Ph.D., LL.D. 

University of St. Francis Xavier s College, Antigonish, 

N.S. Pres., Rev. H. P. MacPherson, D.D. Women admitted 
to degrees on same conditions as men. Enrolment (1913- 
1914) in Arts, 103; women, 18. 

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. Pres., Wal 
ter C. Murray, M.A., LL.D. Total attendance (1913-1914) of 
students in Arts, 242; about 60 women. Women are admitted 
to the College of Law, but as yet none have attended. They 
are not admitted to the College of Agriculture. School of 
Pharmacy, 20 men, 1 woman. College residence for 30 women. 
Superintendent of University Hall, Ethel Tennant; Faculty of 
Arts and Science, Instructor in Greek, Mary S. Oliver, B.A. 
(Sask.), also Librarian. Faculty of Agriculture, Abigail De 

Women with Honorary Degrees. 
Her Majesty, Queen Mary (then Duchess of Cornwall and 

York), LL.D., McGill University, 1901. 
Countess of Aberdeen, LL.D., Queen s University, 1897. 
Miss Maude E. Abbott, B.A., M.D. (Bishop s), L.R.C.P. & S. 

(Edin.), Hon. M.D., McGill University, 1910. 
Mrs. Willoughby Cummings, D.C.L., King s College University, 


Miss Grace Dean McLeod Rogers, M.A., Acadia, 1911. 
Miss Marshall Saunders, M.A., Acadia, 1911. 

Alumnae Associations. 

Alumnae Ass n, Bishop s College, Lennoxville, P.Q. Pres., 
Miss M. O. Vaudry, M.A., St. Lambert, P.Q.; Sec., Miss M. I. 
Drummond, M.A., Sherbrooke, P.Q. 

Alumnae Ass n, Dalhousie University, Halifax. Pres., Miss 
Eliza Ritchie, Ph.D., " Winwick," Halifax. Ass n " works in 
the interests of girl undergraduates of Dalhousie. Has 
founded and maintains Forrest Hall, South Park St., as a 
residence for girl students," and " is now making a strong 
effort to build a residence that will accommodate a greater 

Alumnae Ass n, Queen s College, Kingston. Pres., Mrs. J. 


M. Macgillivray, Kingston; Sec., Miss J. Muir, Ottawa. Ass n 
has collected $20,000 for women s residence fund. 

Alumnae Ass n, McMaster University, Toronto. Pres., Mrs. 
Burnaby; Sec., Miss McNeil. 

Alumnae Ass n, St. Hilda s College (Trinity Univ.), Toronto. 
Pres., Miss Morley, 87 Rowland Ave.; Sec., Miss E. M. 
Lowe, 55 Albany Ave. 

Alumnae Ass n Medical Toronto University. Pres., Dr. 
Augusta Stowe-Gullen, 461 Spadina Ave., Toronto; Cor. Sec., 
Dr. Catherine Woodhouse, 58 Duke St., Toronto. 

Alumnae Ass n, University College, Toronto. Pres., Mrs. 
McMaster; Sec., Miss Conklin, Christie St., Toronto. Has a 
tea-room for undergraduates, both men and women. 

Alumnae Ass n, Victoria College, Toronto. Pres., Mrs. W. 
T. Bain, 398 Eglinton Ave. W.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. J. Robert Page, 
1 Devon Crescent, Toronto. 

Alumnae Society of McGill University, Montreal. Pres., 
Mrs. W. S. Johnson, 61 Trafalgar Ave., Montreal; Sec., Mrs. 
C. V. Christie, 455 Grosvenor Ave., Westmount, P.Q. Aim 
Association of women-graduates " in philanthropic work and 
development of a University spirit." 

Alumnae Soc. of Mount Allison University, Sackville, N.B. 

Women s Associations connected with Universities and 


Alexandra Society, King s Coll., Windsor, N.S. (is working 
for residence for girl students). 

St. Hilda s Literary Soc., Toronto. Pres., Miss Marguerite 
Clench; Sec., Miss Winifred Anderson. 

McMaster Girls Literary Soc., Toronto. Pres., Miss Elsie 

University College Women s Literary Society, Toronto.- 
Pres., Miss Jean McRae. 

University College Women Undergraduates Ass n, Toronto. 
Pres., Miss M. Anderson; Sec., Miss Elsie Miller. 

Victoria Coll. Women s Athletic Ass n, Toronto. Pres., 
Miss Vera Kenny. 

Victoria Coll. Women s Literary Soc., Toronto. Pres., Miss 
Hester Young. 

Victoria Women s Ass n (Victoria Coll., Toronto). Pres., 


Mrs. W. Graham, 17 Wells St., Toronto; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Row 
lands, 242 Rusholme Rd., Toronto. " Takes charge of Women s 
residences of Victoria Coll., and nominates ladies on Com 
mittee of Management." 

Uniyersity Women s Clubs. 

We have been fortunate in receiving a printed report (1913- 
14) of the University Women s Club of Winnipeg. A few quo 
tations from this inspiring report may be taken as illustrative 
of the aims of these clubs. " The opening meeting of the year 
took the form of a supper at which all graduate women, 
whether members or not, were invited to be present. Sixty- 
two took advantage of the invitation, and it was before this 
enthusiastic body of women that the Executive brought for 
ward its plan of widening the Club s interests so as to include 
definite work along four different lines: the studying of con 
ditions under which women work in departmental stores; the 
bringing together of graduate and undergraduate by means 
of vocational teas at which helpful addresses would be given; 
the organizing of occasional Saturday twilight organ recitals; 
and the bringing to Winnipeg at moderate prices of some out 
standing lecturer." 

The following note from the report of the Social Com 
mittee is very suggestive: " The girls of the third and fourth 
years were invited to the teas, the first of which was held in 
November, when . . . Miss Rice, travelling secretary of the 
Y.W.C.A.," described " the qualifications needed by a success 
ful secretary and the opportunities offered the college grad 
uate in the field of Y.W.C.A. work. The second tea was held 
in January, when Mrs. Thomas, one of the founders of the 
University Women s Club, told of the trials, opportunities and 
rewards of the newspaper woman. The third tea was held 
in March, when Dr. Ellen Douglass, another of the club mem 
bers, gave an exceedingly interesting and practical talk on 
the life of the woman doctor." The potential influence of 
these clubs is thus suggested by Mrs. McWilliams, president 
of the club : We " shall not touch " the life of the city " at 
one point only, but at many; through our lectures, the gen 
eral as well as the academic public; through our studies of 
women s work, its industrial life; through our work among 


the students, the leaders of the future; through other means 
which succeeding committees will devise, and always with an 
ideal before us the ideal of a great people and a great coun 
try which we believe Canadians and Canada are called to be." 

Ottawa. Pres., Mrs. D. A. Campbell. New Westminster- 
Sec., Miss Thora Hutton, 526 5th Street. (" Recently organized 
but none the less active.") St. John, N.B. Toronto. Pres., 
Mrs. John C. Saul, 69 Brunswick Ave.; Sec., Mrs. J. P. Mac- 
Gregor. Vancouver, B.C. Pres., Miss Chipman, Victoria. 
Winnipeg. Pres., Mrs. R. T. McWilliams; Sec., Mrs. W. B. H. 
Teakles, 19 Harrow Apartments. (See also under Employ 
ment, Section IX.) 

Incorporated Schools for Girls. 

Acadia Seminary, Wolfville, N.S. Prin., Rev. H. T. De 

Alberta Ladies College, Red Deer. Prin., Mrs. Muldrew. 

Alma College, St. Thomas (affiliated with Victoria Univer 
sity). Prin., Robert L. Warner, M.A., D.D.; Lady Prin., Ella 
D. Bowes, B.A. 

Bishop Strachan School, Wykeham Hall, Toronto Prin., 
Miss Walsh, B.A. 

Branksome Hall, Toronto. Prin., Miss Edith M. Read, M.A. 

" Edgehill " Church School for Girls, Windsor, N.S. Prin., 
Miss Gena Smith. 

Halifax Ladies College, Halifax. Prin., Mrs. J. S. True- 
man, B.A. 

Havergal College, Toronto. Prin., Miss Knox. 

Havergal College, Winnipeg. Prin., Miss Jones. 

Moulton College, Toronto. Prin., Miss Harriet Stratton 
Ellis, B.A. 

Ottawa Ladies College, Ottawa. Prin., Miss Boyd. 

Ontario Ladies College, Whitby (affiliated with Victoria 
Univ.). Prin., J. J. Hare, Ph.D.; Lady Prin., Miss Taylor, B.A. 

St. Agnes School, Belleville. Prin., Miss F. B. Carroll. 

St. George s School for Girls, Victoria, B.C. Prin., Mrs. 
W. W. Suttie. 

St. Hilda s College, Calgary. 

St. Margaret s College, Toronto. Pres., Mrs. George Dick- 
son; Prin., Miss J. E. Macdonald, B.A. 


Stanstead Wesleyan College, Stanstead, Que. Prin., Geo. J. 
Trueman, M.A. ; Lady Prin., Jean M. Holding. 

Westbourne School for Girls, Toronto. Prin., Miss M. 
Curlette, B.A. 

Westminster College, Toronto. Prin., Mrs. A. R. Gregory. 

Roman Catholic Academies and schools for young ladies 
are very numerous. They are under the charge of Religious 
Orders specially devoted to the work of education, including 
the Sisters of the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Ladies 
of Loretto), Motherhouse, Loretto Abbey, Toronto; the Sisters 
of the Congregation de Notre Dame, Motherhouse at Mont 
real; the .Ursuline Sisters, Motherhouse in Quebec; and the 
Congregation of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, Mother- 
house in Nicolet, P.Q. 


Women in Professional Life. Of the three vocations that 
used to be denominated " the professions," medicine is the 
only one which has many votaries among Canadian women. 
There are, however, a number of newer professions which 
many women have taken up. 

There are some women on the staffs of not a few of the 
Universities, whilst the women teachers of the Dominion far 
outnumber the men. (See Section VIII, Education.) The list 
of women supervisors, principals and others holding positions 
of special responsibility is too long for our limited space. 
In this connection, however, we cannot pass over the name 
of one woman, Miss Margaret K. Strong, New Westminster, 
B.C., who is the only woman holding the position of " Muni 
cipal Inspector " (or City Superintendent) of Schools in all 
Canada. (British Columbia seems to realize better than some 
provinces that education of the young is largely women s 
work, for many of the school trustees are women.) Journal 
ism (see Section X) is one of the newer professions, which 
offers an ever widening field to women. 

Women in Canada, as elsewhere, have had a struggle to 
gain entrance to professions (See note on Dr. Emily Stowe, 


"A Canadian Pioneer," Section V), and the victory is only 
partially won. For instance, in Ontario, women are not ad 
mitted into the Institute of Chartered Accountants. 

Women Lawyers. In Alberta, women are " admitted as 
students-at-law the same as men," but none are as yet prac 
tising or qualified to practise; in British Columbia, the name 
of one woman lawyer, Miss Mabel P. French, Vancouver, was 
last year on the roll. Women may study law, but there is no 
law school. " They merely serve in an office." Manitoba. 
Women were admitted to the study and practice of law in 
1912. There are no women lawyers, but " five lady students 
are now studying law." A Jaw school was opened on October 
5th last. Prince Edward Island has " no women lawyers." 
Saskatchewan. It seems that "no women lawyers are at 
present practising in the province," but there are two women 
studying law. (We owe the above information to the courtesy 
of the Secretaries of the Law Societies of the several 

Ontario has several women lawyers. Miss Clara Brett 
Martin, B.C.L., LL.B., " was the pioneer in opening the legal 
profession to women in Ontario," and was " the first woman 
to practise law in the British Empire." She " has practised 
law in Toronto since 1899," and is " the only woman ever 
elected to the Board of Education in Toronto." She "was a 
member for seven years, and in 1908 headed the poll by over 
2,000 majority." Miss Jean Cairns, Huntsville, has recently 
begun to practise. 

Quebec. Mrs. Annie McDonald Langstaff, of Montreal, the 
first woman graduate of McGill Law Faculty, taking fourth 
place in first-class honors, was refused permission to write 
on the examinations for admission to the Bar of the Province 
of Quebec, but she continued the fight for equal privileges 
with male lawyers. 

Medical Women Graduates of Toronto Colleges. The first 
Canadian woman graduate in Medicine was Dr. Augusta 
Stowe-Gullen (daughter of Dr. Emily Stowe), who graduated 
in 1883. After her graduation Dr. Gullen was appointed 
Demonstrator of Anatomy, and subsequently Professor in 


Diseases of Children. She is now a member of the Senate 
of the University of Toronto, where she interests herself par 
ticularly in the women undergraduates. 

Women graduates of the Canadian Medical Colleges are to 
be found in many lands. Some are doing splendid work as 
medical missionaries in the foreign field, and two are special 
izing in surgery at the Ludhiana Medical College, North India. 
Many of our Toronto graduates [These notes were kindly 
supplied by Dr. Catherine Woodhouse.] have studied abroad, 
and several have obtained the English degrees, L.R.C.P. and 

In Canada, several of our number act as Medical Inspectors 
of schools in Toronto, Winnipeg and Calgary; and one is well 
known as a Government Inspector of Prisons, Hospitals and 

Under the Department of Agriculture, many women phy 
sicians are lecturing to the Women s Institutes in towns and 
rural communities on medical subjects throughout the Pro 
vince. Lectures on " First Aid to the Injured " and " Home 
Nursing " are also given in many schools and colleges by 
women physicians. 

Dr. Elizabeth Hurdon, Surgeon, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 
Baltimore, has written a valuable book on " Appendicitis." 

In Toronto the women physicians are on the staffs of the 
various hospitals, and also have a hospital of their own, " The 
Women s College Hospital and Dispensary." (See below, Sec 
tion XIV.) Not only in other countries, but in Canada and in 
Toronto itself are to be found women specialists in the follow 
ing branches of medical science, viz., Gynaecology, Surgery, 
Obstetrics, Ear, Nose and Throat, Pediatrics, and Anaesthesia. 

Keg-iilations for License to Practise Medicine. For official 
information of all matters relative to the regulations for 
license to practise in the various Provinces in the Dominion, 
students should communicate with the Registrar. The fol 
lowing is a list of the names and addresses of the Registrars 
of the Medical Councils: Ontario Dr. J. L. Bray, 170 Univer 
sity Avenue, Toronto, Ontario. Quebec Dr. J. Gauvreau, 30 
St. James St., Montreal, and Dr. C. R. Paquin, Quebec, P.Q. 


New Brunswick Dr. Stewart Skinner, St. John. Nova Scotia 
Dr. A. W. H. Lindsay, 241 Pleasant St., Halifax. Prince 
Edward Island Dr. S. R. Jenkins, Charlottetown. Newfound 
land Dr. H. Rendell, St. John s, Newfoundland. Manitoba- 
Dr. J. S. Gray, 358 Hargrave St., Winnipeg, or W. J. Spence, 
Registrar University of Manitoba, Winnipeg. Alberta Dr. G. 
Macdonald, Calgary, Alta. Saskatchewan Dr. G. A. Charlton, 
Regina. British Columbia Dr. C. J. Fagan, Victoria. 

Women Doctors. 

Alberta. Calgary, Dr. Rosamond Leacock and Dr. Evelyn 
Windson, Hester Apartments. 

British Columbia. Baynes Lake, Dr. M. L. Robertson (Mrs. 
Saunders). Coquitlam, Dr. K. J. MacKay-Mackenzie. Kelowna, 
Dr. Maud McNaughton. Nelson, Dr. Isabel (Mrs. E. C.) Arthur; 
Dr. A. V. Jones. Vancouver, Dr. E. L. Anderson (Mrs. A. A. 
Wilson); Dr. Grace Anderson; Dr. M. B. Campbell; Dr. Ella 

E. Scarlett-Synge; Dr. (Mrs.) T. A. Wilson. Victoria, Dr. A. 
(Mrs. H. McK.) Cleland; Dr. (Mrs.) E. P. H. Denovan; Dr. L. 

F. McPhee (Mrs. Green) ; Dr. M. G. Flumerfelt (Mrs. Jef 

New Brunswick. Farmerston, Dr. Elizabeth Secord. Kog- 
ersville, Dr. Mary J. de Olloqui. St. John, Dr. Margaret Parks, 
9 Cobourg St. ; Dr. Mary E. McLeod, 79 Charlotte St. 

Nova Scotia. Bridgewater, Dr. Victoria S. Ernst. Chester, 
Dr. Clara M. Olding-Hebb. Cheverie, Dr. Annie Hennigar. 
Halifax, Dr. Heartz-Bell; Dr. Grace E. B. Rice, Morris St. 
North Sydney, Dr. Jean A. MacLean. Petite Riviere, Dr. Bessie 
Balcom-Davis. West-Gore, Dr. Elizabeth P. Bryson. 

Manitoba. Winnipeg, Dr. Mary E. Crawford and Dr. Mar 
garet Ellen Douglass, 138 Sherbrooke St. 

Ontario. Arthur, Dr. Eva J. Ryan (Mrs. Fisher). Belle 
ville, Dr. Emma Connor. Brigden, Dr. Annie Davis. Canning- 
ton, Dr. Elizabeth Catherine Bagshaw. Craigvale, Dr. Gerald- 
ine Oakley. Dover Centre, Dr. Mary Louise Agar. Guelph, 
Dr. Annie Ross, Macdonald Inst. Hagersville, Dr. Minnie 
Alice McDonald. Mildmay, Dr. Christina Sinclair (Mrs. Mack- 
lin). Ottawa, Dr. Mary Gamble Bryson, 470 Albert St. 
Peterborough, Dr. Jessie Amelia Birnie. Richmond Hill, Dr, 


(Mrs.) Lillian Carroll Langstaff. Stratford, Dr. Daisy Mary 
Macklin. Toronto, Dr. Alice Baxter, 453 Ontario St.; Dr. 
Edith Beatty (Mrs.) ; Dr. Caroline S. Brown, 323 Ossington 
Ave.; Dr. Stella Cunningham, Bloor St. W.; Dr. Lelia Ada 
Davis, "The Alexandra," University Ave.; Dr. Margaret Blair 
Gordon, 726 Spadina Ave.; Dr. Eliza Rebecca Gray, 98 Carlton 
St.; Dr. Jennie Gray (Mrs. F. Wildman), 98 Carlton St.; Dr. 
Laura S. M. Hamilton, 68 Macpherson Ave.; Dr. Ethel Milli- 
cent, Davenport Rd.; Dr. Rowena G. D. Hume, 226 Carlton St.; 
Dr. Eleanor F. Lucas, 121 Dunn Ave.; Dr. Ida E. Lynd, 224 
Dovercourt Rd.; Dr. Margaret McAlpine, 619 Bathurst St.; 
Dr. Margaret Macallum (Mrs. Johnston), Avenue Rd.; Dr. 
Helen MacMurchy, 133 Bloor St. E.; Dr. Dorothea A. J. Orr, 
556 Dovercourt Rd.; Dr. Annie Louise Pickering, 37 Wilton 
Cres.; Dr. Bessie Thelma Pullan (Mrs. Singer), 163 Beverley 
St.; Dr. Olive Maude Rea, 8 Clifford St.; Dr. Minerva Ellen 
Reid, 125 Annette St.; Dr, Victoria Reid, 1 First Ave.; Dr. 
Isabella May Roberts, 56 Tranby Ave.; Dr. Ellen Sherratt, 7 
Dundonald St.; Dr. Emma L. Skinner Gordon, 467 Spadina 
Ave.; Dr. Jennie Smillie, 1075 Dovercourt Rd.; Dr. Estelle 
Olive Smith, 15 Mansfield Ave.; Dr. Elizabeth Lillian Stewart, 
467 Spadina Ave.; Dr. Augusta Stowe-Gullen, 461 Spadina 
Ave.; Dr. Lily Ethel Taylor; Dr. Julia Thomas, 83 Isabella 
St.; Dr. Isabella Smith Wood, 321 Bathurst St.; Dr. Catharine 
Woodhouse, 58 Duke St. Woodstock, Dr. Emily J. Irvine 
(Mrs. Smith). 

Saskatchewan. Onion Lake, Dr. (Mrs.) Elizabeth Becket 
Math e son. 

Canadian Medical Association. Pres., Dr. Murray Mac- 
Laren, St. John, N.B.; Pres. elect, Dr. R. E. McKechnie, 
Vancouver; Sec.-Treas, Dr. W. W. Francis, 836 University 
St., Montreal; Annual Meeting, Vancouver, B.C., 1915, 

Toronto Women s Medical Association. Pres., Dr. Jennie 
Gray Wildman; Sec., Dr. Jennie Smillie, Dovercourt Rd. 

Admission to Practise Dentistry. Seven of the nine pro 
vinces of Canada, i.e., all but Quebec and British Columbia, 
have united to form the Dominion Dental Association. Re- 


quirements for admission to practise in any of these pro 
vinces may be learned by writing to Dr. W. D. Cowan, Regina, 
Sask. The Secretary of the Dental Board of British Columbia 
is Dr. R. F. Vermider, Victoria, and of Quebec, Dr. E. Dubeau, 
308 Sherbrooke St. East, Montreal. 

Toronto Women Dentists.. (Condensed from article by Miss 
Irene B. Wrenshall, in Toronto World.) Dr. Wells was the 
first woman graduate in dentistry in Canada, and at the time 
she received her diploma as dental surgeon and licentiate the 
" powers that be " were so unused to the idea of a woman 
dentist that her certificate bears the word " him " in place 
of " her." Apart from her regular practice, Dr. Wells is in 
charge of the dentistry in various industrial schools in and 
about the city, has her hours of attendance at Queen Street, 
and is even called to attend prisoners from the prison farm. 

Other women dentists followed in graduation, Dr. Hannah, 
now Mrs. Glass, and Dr. Abbie Walker, now Mrs. Kirk, the 
latter practising in Toronto some six or seven years before 
her marriage. 

In the same class with Dr. Hannah was Dr. Margaret 
Gordon, who at the present time is well known as one of the 
chief dentists of the municipal clinic. She is of the opinion 
that dentistry has many advantages over medicine for a 
woman s profession. 

Dr. L. M. Ryerse, who graduated a year ago from the 
Dental College, has been placed over the dental chair at 
Eglinton School, where she is busy every school day between 
the hours of 9 and 12. 

Besides these graduates of the Dental College in past 
years, all of whom have " made good," there are at the 
present time three girls in college studying dentistry, one 
of whom, a Russian Jewess, was astounded to find herself 
the only woman among one hundred and two men students, 
since in Russia dentistry is a particularly popular work for 
women. " Children should not be left to a man dentist," she 
said. " They have not the same interest in the teeth of the 
little children." Dentistry among the poor is a matter also 
of keen interest to the young Jewish girl. " Any dentist 


could give one hour a day to the poor," she will tell you, " if 
they only would." 

In 1914, one woman took the degree of Doctor of Dental 
Surgery at Laval University, Montreal. 

Kegistration of Nurses. While it is required in the several 
provinces that doctors shall have certain specified educational 
qualifications, there is (except in one province) " no guaran 
tee to the public that a nurse is really efficient," but the 
trained nurses of Canada are working for the introduction 
of a system of registration, " standardizing the training, so 
that a diploma " shall have " some definite significance." 
Such registration would hall-mark a woman who had under<- 
gone due training, and would give protection against im 
postors professing to be trained nurses. It would also make 
easier the investigation of the charges made from time to 
time against individual nurses, and might save a nurse un 
justly accused from the ruin of her career, while leading 
to the revocation of certificates given to the unworthy. The 
object of the agitation for registration of nurses is (we are 
authoritatively assured) the raising of the profession and 
the protection of the public, and not any desire on the part 
of nurses to rid themselves of the cheap competition of women 
who make no profession of training at all. 

Manitoba is the one province that has given to trained 
nurses the standing desired, by means of " An Act respecting 
The Manitoba Association of Graduate Nurses," which was 
assented to and came into force on February 15th, 1913. 
Under it a training of " at least three years within a recog 
nized hospital " is required, and all examinations shall be 
" conducted by and under the direction of the Council of the 
University of Manitoba." 

Nurses Associations. 

Queen Alexandra s Imperial Canadian National Ass n of 

Military Nursing 1 Service. Trained Nurses. Pres., Miss 

Canadian Permanent Army g p Wright Vancouver 

Medical Service, Nursing B.C. ; Sec., Miss Jean I. Gunn. 

Canadian Soc. of Superintend- c^^Tto^ S Mont 

ents of Training Schools for L. J 

Nurses. Pres., Miss Helen real.- Pres., Miss Phillips; 

Randal, Vancouver, B.C.; Sec., Miss H. A. Des Brisay, 

Sec., Miss Phillips, 43 Argyle 56 Sherbrooke Street West, 

Ave., Montreal, Montreal. 



Nova Scotia Grad. Nurses 
Ass n. Pres., Miss Pember- 
ton, " Restholm," Halifax; 
Sec., Miss Kirke, Supt. Vic 
toria Gen. Hasp., Halifax. 

Grad. Nurses Ass n. of Ontario. 
Pres., Mrs. Tilley; Sec., 
Miss I. F. Pringle, 310 
Brunswick Ave., Toronto. 

Victorian Order of Nurses. 
(See Section XIV.) 

Guild of St. Barnabas for 

Brockville Grad. Nurses Ass n. 
Pres., Mrs. V. A. Lott; 
Sec., Miss M. Ringer. 

Collingwood G. and M. Hosp. 
Alumnae Ass n. Pres., Miss 
E. M. Dawson; Sec., Miss J. 
E. Carr, Collingwood. 

Calgary Grad. Nurses Ass n. 
Pres., Miss McPhedran, Gen. 
Hosp.; Sec., Mrs. J. W. Hu- 
gill, 828 Royal Ave. 

Edmonton Grad. Nurses Ass n. 
Pres., Miss Mitchell; Sec., 
Miss Martin, 346 Victoria 

Ottawa Grad. Nurses Ass n. 
Pres., Miss Grace Moore; 
Sec., Mrs. Hawkins. 

Gait Gen. Hosp. Alumnae Ass n. 
Pres., Mrs. Wardlaw; Sec., 
Miss Adair. 

Guelph Gen. Hosp. Alumnae 
Ass n. Pres., Miss Arm 
strong; Sec., Miss Kropf, Gen. 

Hamilton City Hosp. Alumnae 
Ass n. Pres., Miss Brennan; 
Sec., Miss Bessie Sadler, 100 
Grant Ave. 

"London Victoria Hosp. Alumnae 
Ass n. Pre,s., Miss Gllchrist; 
Sec., Miss Mclntosh, Victoria 
Hospital, London, Ont. 

Kingston Gen. Hosp. Alumnae 
Ass n. Pres., Mrs. Nicol; 
Sec., Mrs. S. F. Campbell. 

Manitoba Ass n of Graduate 
Nurses. Pres., Mrs. Moody; 
Sec., Mrs. Willard J. Hill, 360 
Oakwood Ave., Winnipeg. 

Montreal Gen. Hosp. Alumnae 
Ass n. Pres., Miss Ethel 
Brown; Sec., Miss Ethel Lee, 
318 Grosvenor Ave., West- 

Montreal Royal Victoria Hosp. 
Alumnae Ass n. Pres., Mrs. 
Stanley; Sec., Mrs. Edward 
Roberts, 135 Colonial Ave., 

Ottawa Lady Stanley Institute 
Alumnae Ass n. Pres., Mrs. 
C. T. Ballantyne; Sec., Mrs. 
J. G. Smith. 

St. Catharines G. and M. Hosp. 
Alumnae Ass n. Pres., Mrs. 
Parnall; Sec., Miss E. M. El 

Toronto Central Registry of 
Grad. Nurses. Registrar, 
Miss Ewing, 295 Sherbourne 

Toronto Gen. Hosp. Alumnae 
Ass n. Pres., Miss Janet 
Neilson; Sec., Mrs. N. Aubin, 
505 Sherbourne Street. 

Toronto Grace Hosp. Alumnae 
Ass n. Pres. Miss L. Smith; 
Sec., Miss M. E. Henderson, 
552 Bathurst St. 

Toronto Grad. Nurses Club. 
Pres., Mrs. Struthers, 558 
Bathurst St. 

Toronto Hosp. for Sick Chil 
dren Alumnae Ass n. Pres., 
Miss Leta Teeter; Sec., Miss 
C. Cameron, 137 Macpherson 

Toronto Riverdale Isolation 
Hosp. Alumnae Ass n. Pres., 
Miss McNeill; Sec., Miss An 
nie Day, 86 Maitland St. 

Toronto St. Michael s Hosp. 
Alumnae Ass n. Pres., Miss 
O Connor; Sec., Miss Foy, 163 
Concord Ave. 

Toronto Western Hosp. Alum 
nae Ass n. Pres., Mrs. Val 
entine; Sec., Mrs. MacCon- 
nell, 514 Brunswick Ave. 

Winnipeg Gen. Hosp. Alumnae 
Ass n. Pres., Miss Hood; 
Sec., Miss M, F. Gray, Gen. 

Vancouver Grad. Nurses Ass n. 
Pres., Miss C. C. Trew; 
Sec., Miss Ruth Judge, 811 
Thurlow St. 

Vancouver Gen. HoiSp. Alumnae 
Ass n. Pres., Miss Ruth 
Judge; Sec., Miss H. Mackay, 
3476 Powell St. 

Victoria Trained Nurses Club. 
Pres., Miss E. H. Jones, 405 
Michigan St.; Sec., Miss Mor 
rison, 1442 Elford St., Vic 
toria, B.C. 

Florence Nightingale Ass n., 
Toronto. Pres., Miss I. F. 
Pringle; Sec., Miss J. C. War- 
dell, 113 Delaware Ave. 

Nicholl s Hosp. Alumnae Ass n., 
Peterboro. Pres., Miss Fer 
guson; Sec., Miss B. Mowry, 
Supt. Queen Mary Hospital. 


Canadian Public School Nurses Grad. Nurses Ass n. of Sarnia. 

Ass n. Pres., Mrs. Struthers; Pres., Miss Douglas; Sec. 

Sec., Miss E. M. Macallum. Miss Parry. 

Grad. Nurses Ass n. of Thun- Eastern Townships Graduate 

djer Bay. Pres., Mrs. J. W. Nurses Ass n. Pres., Miss 

Cook; Sec., Miss L. Regan, St. Orford; Sec., Miss Helen 

Joseph s Hosp., Port Arthur, Hetherington, 29 Queen St., 

Ont. Sherbrooke, Que. 

Medicine Hat Ass n. of Grad. Newfoundland Grad. Nurses 

Nurses. Pres., Miss V. L. Ass n. Pres., Miss South- 

Winslow; >Sec., Miss Ford, cott; Sec., Miss Borden, Gen. 

Gen. Ho,sp., Medicine Hat, Hosp., St. John s. 

Alta. New Brunswick Grad. Nurses 

Alumnae Ass n. of Ottawa Gen. Ass n. Pres., Mrs. M. Arrn- 

Hosp. Pres., Miss Margaret strong; Sec., Miss K. Holt. 

Brankin; Sec., Miss P. Red- Alumnae Ass n of >St Joseph s 

mond, 125 Nicholas St. Hosp., London. Pres., Miss 

Grad. Nurses Ass n. of Berlin Rankin; Sec., Miss H. Wool- 

and Waterloo. Pres., Mrs. son. 

Bilger; Sec., Miss Elsie Mas- Nurses Ass n of Brit. Colum- 

ters, 27 Ellen St. E., Berlin, bia. Pres., Miss S. P. Wright, 

Ont. 115 3rd St., New Westmin- 

New Westminster Graduate ster; Sec., Miss Breeze, 1032 

Nurses Ass n. Barclay St., Vancouver, B.C. 

(Above list, with one or two exceptions, supplied by 
courtesy of The Canadian Nurse. 

Women in the Civil Service are not by law debarred from 
any position, and may therefore be considered " eligible for 
all appointments," but in practice women are not promoted 
to the higher administrative positions, although a few women 
are " classed in the divisions which are usually considered 
as belonging to the executive and administrative work. . . . 
There are many widows in the service. All women receive 
the same rates of pay as men in similar positions and sit 
for the same examinations when there are any vacancies for 
women advertised." 

Women s Branch, Civil Service Ass n. Miss M. D. Doyle, 
Postmaster-General s Office, Ottawa. 

Women in Business. There are a number of women in 
Canada who, finding the secret of success has usually been 
a certain originality, joined with " sound common sense," 
attention to details, and " the studying of customers," have 
made marked successes of the business of catering and tea 
rooms; of dressmaking, millinery and other establishments. 
Besides these are women who earn large salaries as heads 
of departments in departmental stores, telephone offices, etc. 
Really accomplished saleswomen can make a good liveli 
hood, whilst women competent to act as designers in high* 


class dressmaking establishments get large incomes. There 
is usually a good demand for well-educated stenographers, 
clerks and bookkeepers. But it is the same in all these 
vocations training counts. At present facilities for busi 
ness training for girls are very limited but are rapidly 
increasing, now that many employers and educationists 
have become alive to the necessity, through the inquiries of 
the Royal Commission on Technical Education and other 

" The power," says Professor Carrie Derick, of McGill 
University (" the first woman in Canada to attain a full pro 
fessorship") " derived from training and the stimulus given 
by the opening of all the highest positions to women would 
combine to produce desirable changes in their economic and 
social condition which restriction could never secure." 

Business Women s Clubs. 

Calgary. Business Women s League, " actively engaged 
in securing better conditions for storeworkers and clerks." 

Montreal. Business Women s Association (Association 
des Femmes d Affaires), Pres., Mile. Champagne. It is stated 
that there are over 2,000 business women in Montreal, and 
for these a Commercial Course of fifteen lectures, by special 
ists, was given last year by Laval University, in the Univer 
sity itself. 

The Canadian Business Women s Club. Pres., Miss S. C. 
Stuart; Sec., Miss Jane Stuart; Club Rooms, 114% Yonge 
St., Toronto. " The object of the Club is to foster the spirit 
of true patriotism among business women; to secure for its 
members opportunities for hearing prominent speakers; to 
afford a means for the study of literature, science and art, 
and discussion of the public questions of the day; to promote 
as far as possible the interests of the business woman and 
provide social intercourse as a means of uniting them more 
closely. Any self-supporting woman who is in sympathy 
with the objects of the club is eligible for membership." 
The club-rooms are intended as " a centre for our own mem 
bers and for visiting business women." 

Miss Margaret M. Davidson, Director of Household Science 


and Art for the Toronto Technical Schools, " began some 
years ago a course of Friday evening lectures on Household 
Economics . . . From these monthly evening lectures 
may be said to have grown the Canadian Business Women s 
Club," says Miss Alice Wetherell, in The Canadian Courier. 
" Miss Davidson s pet theme is Efficiency and Thrift in house 
keeping. . . . She seems to consider the Canadian girl 
her personal charge." Some months ago, as an active mem 
ber of the Local Council of Women, Miss Davidson helped to 
plan a method of providing women with sanitary and com 
fortable rooms to live in at a reasonable expense, and under 
the supervision of a committee convened by her plans were 
made by the Toronto Housing Co. for a house for Business 



The Acts dealt with below are: The "Factories Act," B. C. 
Office Consolidation, 1913; The Manitoba Factories Act," C.S. 
1913; "The New Brunswick Factories Act, 1905," as amended, 
1912; "The Nova Scotia Factories Act," as amended, 1912; "The 
Factories, Shops and Office Buildings Act," R.S.O., 1914, as 
amended 3rd session, 1914; "Quebec Industrial Establishment 
Act," as amended 1910 and 1912; "The Factories Act" of Saskat 
chewan as amended 1911. The statement of conditions as fajc as 
dealt with is thus brought up to the present time. 

Note. There is " An Act relating to factories in Prince Edward 
Island, other than in any city therein," being chapter 11, of the 
Laws of 1881, but this does not deal with the condition of work 
ers. Alberta has no Factories Act. 

DEFINITIONS " Child " means a male person under 14 years 
and a female person under 15 years, according to the Factory 
Acts of British Columbia and Manitoba. In the other Provinces 
"child" means a boy or girl under 14 years. " Young girl" 
means a girl of 15 to 18, in British Columbia and Manitoba, and 
14 to 18 in the other Provinces. " Youth " is used in the Prov 
inces of Ontario and Saskatchewan with the significance of a 
boy from 14 to 16. In all the Provinces under the Factory Acts, 
"woman" means 18 or upwards. 

Under the above Acts the employment of a child (see 
definition) is forbidden in all but the excepted cases following. 

Child Labor is allowed under the conditions and in the 
employments mentioned below. 

British Columbia. " Children may be employed in the 
business of canning or curing fish, or fruit-packing, and the 
work incidental thereto, but only during the time of the 
several salmon-runs and runs of other classes of fish and 
during the respective fruit seasons." The limitations as to 
hours of labor as set forth in the Act. are expressly made, 


" within the time or times aforesaid," not binding upon the 
employers of any child, young girl, or woman employed as 
mentioned above. (See S. 4.) 

JVew Brunswick. No child is allowed to work in connec 
tion with any manufacturing or mechanical establishment, 
" except in special cases authorized in writing by the In 
spector." (S. 3.) 

Nora Scotia. Children may be employed during July, 
August, September and October in gathering in and preparing 
fruits or vegetables for canning or desiccating purposes. An 
apartment separate from the cooking operations must be pro 
vided. The hours are limited to 8 in one day and 4 on Satur 
day. (Sections 12 and 16.) 

Ontario. Children may be employed from June 15th to 
September 15th " in gathering and preparing fruits or vege 
tables for canning or desiccating purposes." A separate 
apartment must be provided. Children under 12 may be em 
ployed " solely out of doors," but by a strange omission in the 
Act no limit to the hours of employment of these young chil 
dren is fixed. By a recent amendment (3rd session, 1914) 
the hours of labor of children between 12 and 14 working 
inside the canning factory are reduced from 10 hours a day 
to 8. (Sections 26, 31, and 36.) 

In shops, children of 12 may be employed 10 hours a day, 
and 60 hours a week, but no child shall be employed during 
school hours unless such child shall have furnished to the 
employer a certificate issued in accordance with the Truancy 
Act. On Saturday and the day before a statutory holiday, 
and from December 14th to December 24th inclusive, any 
" child " may work from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. (Sections 27, 29 
32 and 33.) 

Regular Hours of Employment allowed for Young Girls, 
Youths and Women. N.B. A different apportionment of hours 
of labor per day is permitted " for the sole purpose of giving 
a shorter day s work on Saturday." For exemptions see later. 

British Columbia. For young girls and women: 8 hours 
per day and 48 per week. (S. 12.) 


Manitoba. For girl, 15-18, or woman: 9 hours per day 
and 54 per week. (S. 13.) 

New Brunswick. Girl, 14-18, and woman: 10 per day and 
60 per week. (S. 5.) 

NoTa Scotia. For boys and girls under 16 years: 8 per 
day, but only 4 on Saturday. For girls, 16-18: 9 per day. 
There is now no limitation set for the regular working hours 
of a woman. (S. 16.) 

Ontario. In both factories and shops, hours for girls, 
14-18, boys, 14-16, and women: 10 per day and 60 per week. 
(S. 32.) 

Quebec. For boys under 18, young girls and women, in 
establishments mentioned in Article 3830 R.S.Q., 1909: 10 
hours per day and 60 per week. (Article 3837 of R.S. of 1909 
as amended 1912.) No employer shall employ in an industrial 
establishment any boy or girl under 16 years, who is unable 
to read and write fluently. (See Article 3835 as amended 
1910.) In cotton and woolen factories, no boy under 18 years 
and no girl or woman shall be employed more than 10 hours 
a day, or more than 55 hours a week. (Article 3837a, Chapter 
36, 1912.) 

Saskatchewan. For boys, 14-16, girls, 14-18, and women: 
9 hours per day and 50 per week. (S. 8, as amended 1911.) 

By the Acts above, save that of P.E.I., the Lieutenant- 
Go Yernor-in- Council may prohibit the employment of boys 
under 16 and girls under 18 in factories the work in which is 
deemed by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council to be danger 
ous or unwholesome. 

Exemptions in Proyinces Mentioned Below. 

Subject to any regulations which may be made in that 
behalf by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council (in Ontario, 
"Subject to the Regulations"), an inspector may on due 
proof to his satisfaction of " accident, occurrence, custom, or 
exigency of trade," as denned in the Acts, grant such exemp 
tion from the observance of the foregoing provisions as will 
in his judgment fairly and equitably to the proprietors of 
such factory and to the youths, young girls or women em 
ployed therein make up for any loss of labor from such 


accident or occurrence or meet the requirements of such 
custom or exigency of trade. Such exemption shall not com 
prise more than 36 days in any twelve months, all overtime 
work being taken into account. For Quebec, see below. 

Limitation of Hours of labor during such exemption. 

British Columbia* For girls, 15-18, and women: 9 per day 
and 54 per week, between 7 a.m. and 8 p.m. (S. 14.) 

Manitoba. For girls, 15-18, and women: 12% per day and 
72% per week, between 7 a.m. and 10 p.m. (S. 15.) 

Sew Brunswick. For girls, 14-18, and women: 13% per 
day and 81 per week, between 6 a.m. and 10.30 p.m. (S. 7.) 

Noya Scotia. For girls, 14-18, and women: 12% per day 
and 72% per week, between 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. (S. 18.) 

Ontario. For boys, 14-16, girls, 14-18) and women: 12% 
per day and 72% per week, between 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. In 
shops, youths, young girls and women may be employed on 
Saturday and the day next before a statutory holiday, and 
from December 14th to December 24th, inclusive, for any 
number of hours between 7 a.m. and 10 p.m. (S. 33 and 34.) 

Saskatchewan. For boys, 14-16, girls, 14-18, and women: 
12% per day and 72% per week, between 7 a.m. and 10 p.m. 

Quebec. The Inspector " for sufficient reasons given to 
him and in order to make up lost time or to satisfy the exi 
gencies of trade, may, for a period not exceeding 6 weeks," 
extend the time of employment of children, girls and women 
to 12 hours per day and 72 per week, between 6 a.m. and 
9 p.m. (Article 3838, R.S.Q., 1909.) 

Special Regulations with regard to employment of young 
girls and women in curing and canning fish and fruit-packing. 

British Columbia. See under " Child Labor," above. 

Nova Scotia. Women may be employed later than 9 p.m. 
during July, August, September and October in any factory 
wherein the only operations carried on are necessary for 
the canning or desiccating of fruits or vegetables, for 20 days, 
every day on which any woman has been employed later than 
9 p.m. being counted. (S. 17.) 

Ontario. During July, August, September and October, 
women may be employed later than 6.30 p.m. (the regular 


factory closing hour in Ontario) in any factory where the 
only operations carried on are those necessary for the can 
ning or desiccating of fruits and vegetables. But the employ 
ment of women later than 9 p.m. is limited to 20 days, as in 
Nova Scotia. 

One hour at noon, and, if the employment is continued later 
than 7 p.m., an additional 45 minutes between 5 p.m. and 
8 p.m. is allowed for meals. In Quebec one hour at noon 
shall be allowed, " if the inspector so directs." The times 
allowed for meals shall not be counted as part of the working 
hours allowed. 

There are limitations of application of the Acts when no 
power other than manual labor is used, and when the workers 
are members of the same family. In some Provinces, also, 
when the numbers employed are very small. In Quebec the 
restrictions of the Statutes apply to a " Domestic workshop, 
when the employment is dangerous, unhealthy or incom 


By the Early Closing Acts of Alberta and New Brunswick, 
the councils of places of a certain population have restricted 
rights to pass by-laws regarding the closing of shops. The 
Shops Kegulation Acts of British Columbia and Manitoba con 
tain similar provisions, but these last mentioned Acts, as also 
the Nova Scotia Act (See below) and the Ontario Act (See 
under Factories Acts) make some definite restrictions, appal 
lingly inadequate though they are, as to hours of labor. 
They also provide that in shops where females are employed 
the employers shall provide a suitable seat for the use of 
every such female, and shall permit her to use such seat 
when not necessarily engaged in the work for which she is 
employed. For the opinion expressed by the Syndicate of 
the Employees of Commerce and Industry as to the strain of 
shop work, see under " Quebec," below. 

Note. The Shops Regulation Acts, as well as the Fac 
tories Acts, allow a different apportionment of the hours per 
day solely for the purpose of giving a shorter day s work 
on some other day. One hour is allowed to every young 
person so employed for the noon meal and an additional 


45 minutes for an evening meal betwen 5 and 8, when the 
employment continues later than 7 p.m. 

Alberta. The Early Closing Act (1912, c. 23) applies 
only to cities or towns with a population of 1,000 or over, 
incorporated by special Act or otherwise. The Council may, 
in the manner provided by this Act, fix the hour of closing 
of all shops or shops of a specified class throughout the whole 
area or in a specified part of the city or town. The hour for 
closing may not be earlier than 6 p.m., except on one day 
a week, when it may not be earlier than twelve noon. 
A petition for a closing by-law must be signed by the occu 
piers of two-thirds of the shops to be affected. (See s. 9.) 
The approval of the Lieutenant-Governor is required, and 
" the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council may at any time order 
that any closing by-law . . . shall be not longer in 
force." " If at any time it appears to the satisfaction of 
the Council that the occupiers of a majority of any class of 
shops to which a closing by-law applies, are opposed to the 
continuance of the by-law, such Council shall repeal the by 
law in so far as it affects that class of shops." 

British Columbia." The Shops Regulation Act," Office Con 
solidation, 1912. Maximum hours of labor of boys and girls 
under 16 years in or about shops (meal times are included) : 
66% per week; 13 hours on Saturday, and 11 hours on any 
other day (s. 21) The provisions of the above and the five 
sections following it do not apply " where the only persons 
employed . . . are at home" (s. 27). In bake-shops no 
employer shall permit any employee to work on Sunday or 
more than 12 hours a day, or 60 per week, "except by per 
mission of the Inspector, given in writing to the employer; 
and a copy of such permission shall be posted in a con 
spicuous place in the bake-shop." (s. 37). No person under 
14 shall be employed in any bake-shop. No person under 18 
shall be employed in any bake-shop between 9 p.m. and 5 a.m 
" It shall not be lawful to let or suffer to be occupied as a 
bake-shop, or to occupy as a bakeshop, any room or place 
situate in a cellar or underground " unless so let or occupied 
before April 1st, 1901. 


Manitoba. " The Shops Regulation Act," C.S.M. 180. The 
maximum hours of labor for a boy under 14 and a girl under 
16 in or about a shop: 74 hours per week, including meal 
times; 14 hours on Saturday (including meal times) ; 12 hours 
on any other day (including meal times). These limitations of 
hours do not apply to drivers (s. 19) or to any " shop where 
the only persons employed therein are at home." This Act 
also authorizes the passing of closing by-laws by municipal 
councils, including councils of rural municipalities. The 
by-laws may order any class of shops to be closed on any 
day of the week during any hours between 6 p.m. and 5 a.m. 
(s. 3). This may be done "with or without any petition 
therefor being presented to the council." " Any municipal 
council having passed any by-law, in pursuance of the pro 
visions of this Act, may from time to time, by by-law, amend 
the said by-law . . . and may repeal any by-law passed, 
and may pass any now by-law for closing the said shops or 
any other shops, either with or without any petition therefor 
being presented to the council." Signatures of three-fourths 
in number of the occupiers of shops belonging to the class or 
each of the classes to which such application relates, is 
required on such a petition. 

New Brunswick. " The Early Closing Act," 1911, c. 15. 
This Act gives power to the City, Common or Town Council 
to pass a by-law requiring that all shops or those engaged 
in a certain class of business within the City or Town shall 
remain closed on any days of the week except Saturday, 
during any hours between 6 p.m. and 5 a.m. of the next day 
(s. 5, as amended 1912). "The provisions of the last pre 
ceding section shall not apply to days preceding . . . Good 
Friday, Victoria Day, Dominion Day and Thanksgiving Day, 
or any day proclaimed a public holiday by lawful authority; 
nor shall the provisions of the said section apply to any days 
during the last three weeks of the month of December in each 
year " (s. 6). 

Nora Scotia. " The Closing of Shops and the Hours of 
Labor therein for Children and Young Persons" R.S., 1900, 
c. 124. Maximum hours of employment in or about a shop for 


boys under 14 and girls under 16 years: 72 per week, includ 
ing meal hours; 14 hours on Saturday, including meal times, 
and 12 hours during any other day, including meal times. 

Quebec. We quote from the Labor Gazette, December, 
1913: "The Syndicate of the Employees of Commerce and 
Industry (Le Syndicat des Employes du Commerce et de 
1 Industrie) adopted the following resolution at its last gen 
eral meeting: "Whereas, the work of women and children 
employed in stores is generally as trying as that of factory 
workers, and that it is often accomplished under less hygienic 
conditions, it is resolved: That the Provincial Government 
be respectfully requested to extend to these employees the 
benefits of article 3837 of the Revised Statutes of the Province 
of Quebec." (10 hours per day and 60 hours per week. See 
under Factories Acts.) Referring to the amendment to the 
" Early Closing Regulation " permitting all retail establish 
ments to remain open at night from December 17 to January 
1, the statement is made in the Labor Gazette, January, 1914, 
that the "great majority profited by this extension of time; 
others, however, did not place this extra tax upon their 

Saskatchewan has no Shops Regulation Act. 

Public Laundries. By the Factories, Shops and Office 
Buildings Act of Ontario, " every shop, building or room in 
which one or more persons are employed in doing public 
laundry work . . . shall be deemed a factory to which 
this Part applies " (s. 6). The regulations as to hours of 
employment in factories apply to employees in laundries. 
The Act provides for the inspection of office buildings, but the 
regulations as to hours of employment do not apply to people 
employed in offices. 

The hours of labor of employees in restaurants are fre 
quently extremely long. The Shops Regulation Acts of Brit 
ish Columbia and Manitoba are expressly made inapplicable 
to victualling houses and refreshment houses. 

Some Cheering Eeports. In Vancouver, the enforcing of 
the provisions of the Factories Act in tailor shops has brought 
about " an established 48-hour week for the women employed 


therein, also better lighting and sanitary conditions. (Labor 
Gazette, November, 1913.) 

In Quebec, "The law relating to the hours of labor for 
women and children employed in textile factories which came 
into force on January 1, 1912, has been accepted with good 
grace by employers, as there was reason to expect, and with 
great satisfaction by the employed. The reduction in work 
ing hours . . . has not affected wages, companies having 
granted an increase of 5 per cent, as compensation for the 
reduction in the hours of labor." (Labor Gazette, Jan., 1914, 
p. 786.) 

Fortunately the practice is frequently more humane than 
the law, as is illustrated by the following quotation from 
" The Work of Women and Girls in the Department Stores of 
Winnipeg," being the report of the Civic Committee of the 
University Women s Club of Winnipeg after a study of the 
condition of the work of women and girls in department stores. 
" The regular day in three of the stores is from 8.20 a.m. to 
6 p.m. In one store the day runs from 8.20 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. 
These hours are further shortened in the summer season by 
weekly half-holidays. One store closes for Saturday after 
noon during June, July and August. Two others close Satur 
day afternoon during July and August, and the fourth store, 
while remaining open Saturdays, gives each employee a half- 
day every w r eek, or, if preferred, a full day every second 

As instances of the very widespread demand for better 
legislation, we may cite the following: 

" An Act should be introduced absolutely prohibiting the 
employment of children under 14 in any capacity, and guard 
ing against the exploitation of children between the ages of 
14 and 16." (Annual Report, 1913, Dependent and Delinquent 
Children, Alberta.) It might be remarked that " The Mines 
Act " (1913, c. 4) absolutely prohibits employment of any 
woman or girl in or about a mine, above or below ground, 
except in an office above ground. No boy under 14 is allowed 
to work in or about a mine. A literate test is required of 


boys between 14 and 16. No boy under 16 is allowed to work 
below ground. 

Jfew Brunswick. Mr. Kenney, Inspector of Factories and 
Hotels, in his recent report says lie believes the present law 
in reference to child labor is very well observed by manufac 
turers, but states that he would like to see the age limit 
raised to 15 years. In connection with seats for Female 
Clerks he writes: "Last year I urged upon the Government 
the Passing of an Act requiring mercantile establishments to 
supply a sufficient number of seats for the use of their female 
clerks. My own observation has shown me that where female 
clerks were not actually engaged they were compelled to 
stand around without a place where they could rest. No 
action has been taken by the Legislature, but I am pleased 
to note that some proprietors have adopted the proposal." 

For Noya Scotia, see under " Retrograde Legislation." 

The Labor Gazette (April, 1913, page 1078), after noting 
the provisions, " detrimental to the interests of women and 

children," of the Factory and Shops Act then before the 
Ontario House for revision, concludes: "The contention is 
that women and children ought to be protected and ought to 
have an 8-hour day, that the age limit for children ought to 
be raised from 12 to 14, that children should be prohibited 
from employment during school hours, and there should be 
additional female factory inspectors, it being contended that 
two women factory inspectors cannot be expected to cover 
the field of inspecting, with seven men, 7,992 factories, and 
all the shops in the Province of Ontario. To this end the 
Toronto Local Council of Women, the Board of the Associated 
Charities, and the Toronto Playground Association have sent 
petitions to the Ontario Legislature, strongly urging the im 
portance of protecting children from overwork by amending 
the Factory and Shops Act, prohibiting the employment of 
girls under 14 in shops, and fixing a standard 8-hour day for 
women employees." The following issue of the Gazette 
records defeat of amendments. For recent amendment, see 

p. 169. Since that time two more men inspectors have been 


In addition to proper heating and ventilation of factory 
buildings in winter, it is also urged that some effort be made 
to maintain a uniform temperature inside the factory in hot 
weather to between 60 and 70 degrees. This can be arranged 
in different ways, one being the use of circulating water 
supply with fans, etc., to convey cooled air throughout the 
factory, which is greatly appreciated by those employed, and 
moreover adds not only to comfort but to the production." 
(Report of Mr. Burke, Chief Inspector of Factories, Ontario.) 

In Saskatchewan, the demand was made, Nov. 7, 1913, by a 
deputation of the Saskatchewan Executive of the Trades and 
Labor Congress of Canada, for "An Act to Regulate the 
Employment of Children under sixteen years of age." 

Age Certificates Often Unreliable." In the City of Mont 
real, with its very dense and very mixed population, the 
application of the law relative to the employment of minors 
and illiterate children offers almost insurmountable diffi 
culties. The age certificates of foreign children are very 
often prepared by complaisant neighbors, and the greater part 
of the time parents do not hesitate to have recourse to the 
most shameful deceptions in order to deceive manufacturers 
and inspectors." (Report of Mr. Guyon, chief inspector of 
industrial establishments, P.Q., Labor Gazette, Dec., 1913.) 

Retrograde Legislation. " By a recent Act of the legisla 
ture of Nova Scotia, the law regulating the hours of labor for 
women, young girls or boys, was amended by striking out 
the words " or women " from Section 16 of the law, thus 
depriving the women workers of the advantage of the nine- 
hour day provided by that section, and while I feel that it 
does not become me to criticise the acts of the legislature, 
yet from my knowledge of factory laws I must say that there 
is not any precedent for such action. . . . We have the 
distinction, then, of having factory laws from which one of 
the most important provisions of factory legislation has been 
eliminated. If women must take their place in the factories 
and workshops of the province, it is absolutely necessary, and 
in keeping with the spirit of the times, that the hours and 
conditions under which they labor should be regulated by 


law. Nearly all the large employers of women and girls are 
complaining about the shortage of this class of workers, and 
are consequently compelled to work long hours. ... To 
get Saturday afternoon off, the employees in some factories 
have to work eleven hours for the other five days of the 
week. It would be taxing your patience if in this age of the 
shorter work day, were I to dwell on the subject of eleven 
hours per day for women. Enough to know that women are 
working such long hours in the warm summer days to justify 
such legislation as will effectually stop it. There will con 
tinue to be a shortage of labor just so long as this condition 
prevails. When some employers make their working con 
ditions better, they will attract a more intelligent and efficient 
class of workers, who will be an important factor in solving 
the help problem." (Report of Factories Inspector of Nova 
Scotia, printed 1914.) 

In Manitoba and Saskatchewan the hours of labor for fac 
tories employees have been increased, not decreased. 

The JNeed for Inspectors. It " was called to the attention 
of the Commission here (The Royal Commission on Labor 
Conditions in British Columbia in its investigations at Kelson) 
that the Provincial law, which fixes 8 hours a day, or 48 hours 
a week as the maximum time of labor for women in factories, 
is not well observed. Employers, in fact, in some cities have 
been surprised to learn that there is such a law on the statute 
book. This situation has arisen apparently through the lack 
of an adequate number of factory inspectors." (Labor Gazette, 
page 591, November, 1913.) 

Mr Ring, Factories Inspector of Nova Scotia, after speak 
ing in his report of the " great variety of matters to be dealt 
with in the industrial establishments . . . of a debatable 
and contentious character," continues: "In these matters the 
factory inspector represents the workers for whom the law 
is intended. . . . Much which concerns the conditions 
under which approximately 30,000 factory workers earn their 
livelihood depends on the knowledge that the factory inspector 
possesses." When we thus consider the detailed nature of 
the work and the issues at stake, we wonder how our govern- 


ments throughout Canada can expect a work of such magni 
tude to be accomplished by so few inspectors, however 

Women Factory Inspectors. Manitoba. After persistent 
effort on the part of Mrs. Claude Nash, the Local Council of 
Women, and the Trades and Labor Council, a woman factory 
inspector has been appointed in Winnipeg. 

Ontario has two women factory inspectors, one taking the 
part of the province east of Yonge Street, and the other west 
of Yonge. We are informed, however, by Mr. Burke, Chief 
Inspector, that " They take just the same duty as the men- 
going right through the factories." 

Employment Agencies and Bureaus. " The universal cry 
of the producers is not for more charity but for more work, 
and it is an indictment against our modern civilization that 
we have been too indolent to do more than pauperize the 
laborer by giving him as a dole what he demands as a right. 
The effect of continuous unemployment on the worker and his 
dependents is seldom seriously considered, but it is a well- 
known fact among social workers and students of economics 
that long continued unemployment leads inevitably to the 
depletion of the physical, mental and moral vigor of the 
worker, the breaking down of his ambition and self-respect, 
and his gradual sinking from the ranks of the efficient, through 
the ranks of the casuals, to the ranks of the unemployable. 
. . . There are two chief ways in which the problem of 
unemployment can be effectively dealt with, viz., the estab 
lishment of a system of national, provincial and federal 
labor exchanges, and the evolution of a system of providing 
additional opportunity for production and equalizing the 
demand for labor throughout the year." (Horace L. Brittain, 
in the Canadian Municipal Journal, Nov., 1914.) 

Mr. Brittain suggests that " the police in most cities could 
readily make a census of the unemployed." 

" Walter Lincoln Sears ... . summed up the whole em 
ployment problem as being mainly one of practical, prudent 
distribution." (The Survey, Oct. 10th, 1914.) 


Notes on Employment Agency Acts and employment bur 
eaus will therefore be of deep interest to all thinking people. 

Kegulations for the Protection of Immigrants (Labor 
Gazette, page 1175, May, 1913). "An Order-in-Council has 
been passed . . . under the authority of Section 66 of the 
Immigration Act of Canada, and is designed to secure an 
effective oversight by the Federal Government throughout the 
Dominion and to protect immigrants against impositions and 
injustices at the hands of unscrupulous agents trading on 
their ignorance of conditions in this country. The effect of 
the regulations will be to bring all employment agencies hav 
ing dealings with immigrants under the direct supervision of 
the Superintendent of Immigration in Ottawa." License hold 
ers are required to record " the rate of wages to be paid, the 
rate of board, all deductions from wages, and other terms 
of engagement." The fee shall not exceed $1.00. In case 
" the immigrant is unable immediately upon arrival at the 
place where the work was represented to be to secure the 
promised employment at the wages and upon the terms repre 
sented at time of payment of fee," the agent shall refund the 
fee. The holder of the license must have in his possession 
a written and dated order from the employer of labor setting 
forth the number required, the nature of the work, etc. Such 
order must not be over two months old. 

There appears to be ample need for such protection. " Sev 
eral complaints were sent to Ottawa recently of local agents. 
. . . Inspector Reynolds was ordered to investigate. While 
conducting his rounds he found cases of wholesale plunder 
of recent arrivals. Some of the agents were working without 
licenses and charging six and seven hundred per cent, more 
than a legitimate agent has a right to. He pointed out that 
a newcomer is styled an immigrant until he has been in 
this country three years, and as such comes under the pro 
tection of the Dominion Immigration Act." (The Toronto 
Globe, May 22, 1914.) 

Quebec.- " An Act respecting the establishment of Em 
ployment Bureaus " was passed in 1910 and amended 1914. 
" The Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council may establish and main- 


tain in cities and towns employment bureaus for workmen," 
under control of the Minister of Public Works and Labor. 
No charge is made. 

The Act also provides for the granting by the Minister to 
private individuals of permits, " on a favorable report from 
the inspector." A license must also be obtained from the 
revenue collector of the district, unless the employment 
bureau is for women only. We also note the following restric 
tions with regard to employment bureaus: "Every person 
controlling an employment bureau, other than an employment 
bureau for women only, shall be responsible for conducting 
such bureau as required by law; and more particularly he 
must " keep a register, send monthly returns to the inspector, 
and forward, as required, a certificate as to the sanitary con 
ditions of the office given by the local board of health. These 
licensed agencies are not permitted to charge more than $3.00. 

Employment Agencies Acts were passed in British Colum 
bia, 1912, in Saskatchewan, 1913, and in Ontario, during the 
Third Session of the Legislature, 1914. In British Columbia 
the license must be obtained from the Superintendent of the 
Provincial Police. In Saskatchewan from the Council of the 
Municipality where such agency is situated, and in Ontario 
from the Provincial Secretary. 

Fees in Respect to the Hiring of Employees. In British 
Columbia a scale of fees is prescribed from time to time by 
Order-in-Council. In Saskatchewan, until the council of the 
municipality shall otherwise provide by by-law, the fee shall 
not exceed 5 per cent, of the first month s wages, where the 
employment is for one month or more; in all other cases 
$1.00 is the maximum fee. Employer and employee shall not 
both be charged. 

Safeguards. In British Columbia a certificate of character 
of the applicant for a license must be signed by a Justice of 
the Peace, or in the case of an agency for females, by two 
Justices of the Peace or the Mayor of the city in which he 
resides. In Saskatchewan a bond for $1,000 is required. 
Patrons of employment offices in British Columbia have the 
right to examine entries concerning themselves and take 


copies; in Saskatchewan the person securing employment 
receives a receipt showing the wages to be paid, etc. 

In Ontario many matters in connection with the Act will 
be regulated by proclamation. 

In British Columbia, " No company incorporated or unin 
corporated shall be granted a license under the provisions of 
this Act" 

Provincial Employment Bureaus. Manitoba- B. L. Bald- 
winson, Esq., Deputy Provincial Secretary, reports that " the 
Provincial Government has such offices in the city of Win 

F. Mathers, K.C., LL.B., reports that there is no system of 
Provincial Employment Offices in Nora Scotia, and the Gov 
ernment does not regulate private employment agencies. The 
Department of Industries and Immigration, however, acts to 
some extent as an employment office. 

Ontario. The free employment bureaus (6) operated by 
branches of the Provincial Bureau of Labor are at Berlin, 
Brantford, Hamilton, London, Ottawa and Walkerville. 

Quebec has Provincial employment bureaus at Montreal, 
Quebec and Shenbrooke. 

Municipal Employment Bureaus. Montreal ; New West 
minster, not quite free; Owen Sound; Port Arthur; St. Cath 
arines; Toronto, operated under supervision of Social Service 
Commission, 107 Adelaide St. W.; Vancouver, " Ass n of Idle 
or Unemployed." A "Municipal Free Employment Bureau" 
was opened in Winnipeg, Oct. 1st, 1913, under the supervision 
of Mr. Frank Kerr. At the instigation of the Women s Civic 
League of Winnipeg, the Local Council of Women of Winni 
peg has done a wonderful work through its Women s Employ 
ment Bureau at the Industrial Bureau. The Home Economics 
Societies co-operated and so obviated the great risk of plac 
ing women unsuitably in the country. The Industrial Bureau 
financed the publicity work, the Government gave telephone 
service, and all the railways co-operated. During a recent 
month the number of applicants totalled 793, of whom 180 
were sent to positions. Of these 60 went to the country. 
When C. F. Roland, Industrial Commissioner, and City Relief 


Officer Kerr were consulted about continuing the work, Mr. 
Roland declared, " You are putting into it a certain human 
touch that money cannot buy. Keep it up as long as it is 
needed." Mr. Kerr thought that " it would be a good idea if 
the women s department of the city office and the bureau 
could be connected up so that the city would get the value of 
the social service element." 

Women Correspondents to the Labor Gazette were ap 
pointed by Government in the spring of 1913, to make reports 
as to the conditions affecting female employees, in the four 
largest cities of Canada Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg and 
Vancouver. During the short time they have been at work 
these ladies have gathered a vast amount of information of 
very great interest to women. They were recommended to 
pay particular attention to conditions in certain employments 
" in which female workers are most frequently to be found." 
The list is given below. 

Employments of Women. 1 Domestic Service; 2 Fac 
tory Employment: (a) Garment-working establishments, in 
cluding white wear, glove, hat and cap, and fur garment 
making establishments; (b) Cotton factories; (c) Woollen 
mills: (d) Laundries; (e) Cigar and tobacco factories; (f) 
Bookbinders; (g) Boot and shoe factories; (h) Confectionery 
and biscuit factories; (i) Knitting mills; (j) Fruit and vege 
table canning establishments; (k) Mica-working establish 
ments. 3 Employment in Workshops, Retail Establishments 
and Offices: (a) Tailoresses; (b) Milliners; (c) Dressmakers 
and seamstresses; (d) Waitresses; (e) Retail clerks; (f) 
Stenographers, bookkeepers, etc.; (g) Telephone girls. 

Women in Domestic Service. About 55 per cent, of all 
women workers in Canada are " house workers," and accord 
ing to the investigations of Miss MacMurchy (" Future of the 
House Worker," Canadian Courier), the wages of general ser 
vants in Canada begin at $15 and $16, and in rare cases go 
up to $35. A fair average is $18 to $20. A good children s 
nurse can easily get $25 the month. (These estimates were 
made shortly before the war, which has greatly disturbed 
conditions, as many householders have endeavored to retrench 


by dismissing their servants.) Miss MacMurchy estimates the 
value of board, lodging, etc., to bring up the average value of 
a house worker s earnings to ten dollars the week. " Many 
stenographers get no more," but " Social disability, long hours, 
loneliness, inability to count on definite time off, are reasons 
urged by the girl wage earner against house work." Condi 
tions are equally unsatisfactory to the employer, and " the 
coming of the trained house worker is inevitable. When she 
comes she will be as great a blessing as the trained nurse. 
In all probability the trained house worker will be a greater 
blessing, since her work is needed by more people." 

" Working Scholarships." As we go to press comes news 
that the Toronto Technical School and Women s University 
Club of Toronto (See Section VIII) are co-operating in an 
interesting experiment. Beginning Jan. 1st, 1915, they are 
offering 20 " scholarships " of three months duration to un 
employed girls. These include " residence in a household to 
the work of which the holder of the scholarship will devote 
two-thirds of her time for a remuneration of from $5 to $10 
a month, the rest of her time, with allowance for recreation, 
being devoted to attending classes in cookery, cleaning and 
the ethics of housework at the Technical School." Pres. of 
Committee, Mrs. John Saul; Sec., Mrs. John Small. 

Average Wages of Factory Employees. The average wages 
of the 72,571 women wage-earners employed in the manufac 
turing industries of Canada in the year 1910 are shown by 
the Dominion census of manufactures to have been 83 cents 
a day, or $21.75 per month. These women were all over 16 
years of age, and many of them had children or parents to 
support. Upwards of 13,200 children under 16 years of age 
were also employed in the mills and factories of Canada in 
the same year and received 50 cents a day, or $13.25 a month. 
The 376,872 men working for wages in our great manufacture 
ing establishments received an average of $1.46 a day, or $38.33 
a month. (The Grain Growers Guide.) 

According to the Report of the Ontario Bureau of Labor 
for 1913, 822 manufacturing establishments, which sent in 
fairly complete returns, employed 61,637 persons, and the 


aggregate number of days in operation was 235,000; the pro 
duct was $156,712,991, and the wages were $37,806,066. " The 
average wage rate per year was $532.70, and per day $1.81." 
(See " Cost of Living," Section VI.) 

The Double Standard of Eemuneration. There are very 
few professions or trades in which the plan of equal pay for 
equal work prevails with regard to men and women. In 
Ontario this principle is followed so far as the two trades of 
printing and cigar-making are concerned, but in few other 
employments. For instance, in Toronto, in the case of assist 
ant teachers, in the fifth year of service and the same grades, 
the man " receives just double the salary of the woman." 
(Labor Gazette, 1913, p. 1077.) In Montreal, after the adop 
tion of a new scale of salaries, on May 9th, 1913, " we find 
women teachers preparing pupils for the same examinations 
as the masters do their boys, and still their salary remains at 
half that of male teachers." (Ibid., p. 1375.) Minimum weekly 
wage, City Hall cleaners, Toronto: Men, $16; women, $9. 

It is often asserted by employers that they prefer trained 
workers, and would gladly give girls more if they could earn 
it. There are some 40,000 women in industry in Toronto alone 
of whom the majority are said " to be inefficient from lack of 
training." But the labor men present the matter in a some 
what different light. For example, about a year ago, " the 
pants makers and garment workers " of Montreal complained 
to the Executive Committee of the Trades and Labor Council 
that " the ever increasing number of women employed in the 
making of garments was becoming an unfair and unacceptable 
competition. Wages were not kept up to the standard, as the 
work could now be done by women who were getting $6 or 
$8 a week, when the men were originally paid $18 to $20 per 
week." The remedy suggested was that the women should 
be asked to join the union. Similarly the Boot and Shoe 
Workers Union of Ste. Hyacinthe, Quebec, desired that " laws 
be enacted to protect the fathers of families against the ille 
gitimate competition of women s and children s labor." 

The Union from the Worker s Standpoint The following 
notes are from a conversation with the secretary of one of 


the unions in Toronto. He states that the men in the union 
referred to do their best to get the same rate for women 
as themselves, but that, " though the girls are just as 
strong as the men," it cannot be done, the women fearing 
that they would not get the work if it were insisted on. 
("Average earnings per week male, $14; female, $9; aver 
age earnings per hour male, 29c.; female, IQ^c." See 
Report, Ontario Bureau of Labor, 1913.) The men s price on 
men s riding breeches averages about $5.00; the women s 
price is about $3.00 to $3.50. Cash benefits of the union 
-Sickness, $5 per week for 10 weeks in any year; death, 
$100. The women pay 80c. and the men 90c. a month to the 

Vancouver " has about the best mixed union," and " where 
there is even a strong minority of women members in a 
meeting the tone is higher," and " evidence of the use of 
liquor " is not so marked. 

The cost of producing a good mechanic should be borne 
by industry. Nearly all men of about 18 to 20 years of age 
wish to be good mechanics. Wages are not of so much impor 
tance as conditions in the shop, as to light, sanitation, suffi 
cient air space, etc. In non-union shops, if a customer wants 
a garment in haste, an employee may take it home and work 
all night. The practice of husbands taking work home is 
the " curse of the trade," resulting in many cases of child 
labor. In union shops, all but apprentices must be members 
of the union, and only cripples may take work home. It is 
the custom of some employers to gauge the rates paid by the 
amount of work turned out by exceptionally quick piece 
workers. The result is long hours for the intermediate hands 
in order to make wages. 

Investigations as to Wages of Women. In the Report of 
the Commission on Technical Education, Mrs. F. W. Sexton, 
of Halifax, is quoted as saying that many of the girls not at 
school " drift about and go into unskilled undustries," or if 
they enter such a skilled industry as bootmaking, are " largely 
employed in the unskilled parts of the work." " Unskilled 


industries do not promise the money essential to an unmar- 
ded woman firms in Halifax offering only from $2 to $4 per 
week, with an average of $3 or $4 per week." 

In Vancouver, when the Commission visited that city before 
the recent period of great depression, the average wage of 
unskilled girls in manufacturing establishments was from 
$25 to $35 per month, and of skilled girls from $40 to $50. 

According to Professor Derrick, as quoted by Mr. J. S. 
Woodsworth at the Canadian Conference of Charities and 
Correction, 1913, " in a paper read before the National Council 
of Women last spring in Montreal, there are 72,571 women 
working in this country for an average wage of $251 a year, 
or $5 a week. From the year 1900 to the year 1910 the number 
of women earning an average of $447 a year rose from 2,151 
to 6,375; but during the same period the number of women 
earning an average of $261 a year increased from 61,220 to 
72,571. This means that, while we have a little over 6,000 
women who average about $8.50 a week, we have over 72,000 
who average only $5 a week; i.e., for every woman who earns 
$8.50 a week there are twelve who get only $5 a week." 

In Toronto telephone operators begin at $7, but the salary 
is raised at intervals till $10 is reached; and about every 
fifth girl has the chance of becoming a " supervisor," with a 
maximum salary of $12.50 weekly. " Saleswomen in Toronto 
get from $5, $6 or $8 up to $15 the week," according to Miss 
MacMurchy. " Waitresses may earn from $4 to $6 the week, 
with three meals a day in addition and some tips." 

In Winnipeg, according to the Report of the Civic Com 
mittee of the University Women s Club (referred to above), 
girls in the department stores in the " apprentice stage " earn 
from five to eight dollars the week. " There is at least one 
woman earning $50 the week," and probably half a dozen 
other " exceptional women may earn about that amount." 
" For the great mass of saleswomen the high point is prob 
ably $20 a week," with from $15 to $18 as a general average 
for efficient first grade saleswomen. One store has adopted 
a minimum wage scale. With regard to the figures, in only 
one case were the investigators " permitted actually to exam- 


ine the wage cards. In two other cases the wage figures 
were read " from the books of the company. 

The Minimum Wage. Some of the rates of pay mentioned 
above can hardly be described as a " living wage." Where 
adequate compensation for work performed is withheld there 
is a grave social injury to the whole community; which, says 
Mr. J. S. Woodsworth, " has been strikingly presented by Mrs. 
Webb through the illustration of parasitism. Those industries 
which do not pay wages sufficient for the physical efficiency 
and the reproduction of their workers, are called parasitic 
trades, because they draw part of their productive energy 
from the general stock of the nation, instead of from within 
themselves. We may distinguish two forms of industrial para 
sitism, the mild and the extreme. In the former, the workers 
of some of them are partly supported by their husbands, 
brothers, fathers, or other relatives, and thus are enabled to 
live at or near the normal standard. Those are for the most 
part women workers and child workers. In the extreme form 
of parasitism the underpaid workers do not receive from other 
sources sufficient assistance to maintain health, industrial 
efficiency, and the normal conditions of family life " ; and 
" the children born into these exploited classes are denied 
the conditions of healthy moral and physical development. 
. As a general rule an industry that is not self-sup 
porting has no valid reason for existence." 

" Objection is made that employers cannot afford to pay 
more, that the trade will not stand the additional charge 
involved. Employers will readily enough shift the additional 
cost on to the consumers, who to-day are really bearing the 
burden in the form of taxes for charitable institutions. But 
so long as fortunes are being piled up at such a rapid rate 
on this continent, this objection will bear careful investiga 
tion. All pay rolls and balance sheets ought to be open to 
public inspection. At the recent investigation concerning 
wages and vice conditions held in Illinois, the president of 
one of the large mail order firms testified to employing 4,732 
women at an average of $9.12 weekly. The minimum wage 
scale was $5 juvenile, $7 intermediate., and $8 adult. Yet the 


profits of this firm in 1911 were approximately $7,000,000. 
The company could have applied $2,000,000 on increased 
salaries and still have paid 7 per cent, interest on preferred 
and common stock." 

For "A Reply to the Critics of Minimum Wage Legislation," 
by Bertha Bradley Warbasse, see The Survey for April 11, 1914. 

In this connection it may be stated that some two years 
ago a meeting was called by a prominent business man of 
Winnipeg to consider the question of the minimum wage. It 
was attended by many heads of firms and practical social 
workers. As a result, three companies raised their minimum 

Conditions of Work. The conditions under which work has 
to be done are of importance not less than that of the remu 
neration. In the investigation of Winnipeg stores referred 
to above, means of ventilation and of protection from draughts 
were noted as deficient. To make matters worse, in one store 
where girls were " frequently away for three or four days at 
a time with severe colds," no wage is paid for this time. In 
some cases employees are obliged to take vacation without 
pay, especially in workrooms where the work is seasonal. 
On the other hand, it is by no means a fixed rule to allow 
vacations with pay, though this is usual in the case of em 
ployees of some years standing. In one of the stores no 
woman can be a manager of a department. 

Welfare Work. " With regard to welfare work, which is 
now so much recommended by social workers, only one store 
-the largest in Winnipeg has any organized service. This 
store maintains three nurses, of whom one has charge of the 
store hospital, and the other two visit the homes of employees 
who may be absent two days, or as soon as illness is reported. 
. . . In another store . . . help to sick employees was 
given frequently, but by their fellow-employees under the 
lead of the manager of the department. This is a practice 
much to be deplored, as tending to make too great a tax on 
the weekly wage." 

One of these stores gives a lunch at cost, which is really 
an " extension of the purchasing power of the wage." 


This plan is followed in other cases, for instance, by the 
Bell Telephone Company, of Toronto, which employs a good 
matron to look after the girls and has provided a recreation 
hall in which they may have concerts and dances amongst 

The MeClary Manufacturing -Company, in London, Ont. (to 
give but one instance more), makes great efforts to promote 
the comfort and well-being of its employees, providing a good 
library, lunches at cost, " sanitary drinking fountains, cloak 
rooms, lockers throughout the works for clothes, bathroom 
for women, where a bath may be had at the nominal cost 
of five cents," and a " shower bath free for the men working 
in the enamel rooms, where the heat is unavoidably great." 
The separate dining-rooms for men and women are supplied 
with pianos and magazines. There is a rest room for girls, 
and " Welfare Umbrellas " are " rented on rainy days to those 
needing them, for the sum of one cent." (See Canadian Nurse, 
October, 1914.) 

Women s Work Exchanges. The Labor Gazette reports 
the opening, late in 1913, of a Women s Exchange in Van 
couver, " where articles of all kinds made by women can be 
placed on sale." " Most of the women making use of the 
exchange are married, and do the work in their spare time 
. . . without leaving home and children. There is an excel 
lently managed Exchange in Halifax," Pres., Mrs. T. W. P. 
Plinn; Sec., Mrs. J. Norwood Duffus, 77 Inglis St. "All the 
money goes to consignors for their work, except what is 
necessary for running expenses." There is also one in 

Labor Unions Haying 1 Women Members. Some Local 
Branches. The wages and privileges are equal for both sexes 
in the: American Federation of Musicians, Ottawa, Sec., E. J. 
Cockburn, 423 Lisgar St.; Cigarmakers International Union, 
Hamilton, Pres., J. A. Sullivan, Locke St. N.; International 
Typographical Union, Ottawa, Sec., A. E. Sheppard, 159 Stan 
ley Ave. In others, of which the following are examples, the 
men s average wages are higher than the women s: Boot and 
Shoe Makers Union, Toronto, Sec., W. Brown, 22 Wascana 


Ave. ; Hotel and Restaurant Employees International Alliance, 
Hamilton (" a local union of cooks, chefs, waiters and wait 
resses.") ; Fur- Workers Union, Toronto, Sec., J. Weisbrod, 
63 Centre Ave.; International Brotherhood of Bookbinders, 
Hamilton, Sec., H. P. Iceley, 293 Jackson St. W.; Journeymen 
Tailors Union, Berlin, Miss C. Shoemaker, 70 Weber St. W.; 
United Garment Workers of America, Toronto, Sec., Miss M. 
Schria, 152 Booth Ave. 

The following have women-members only: International 
Ladies Garment Workers Union of America, held quarterly 
executive meeting (first in Canada) in March, in Montreal. 
" About 1,500 members of this union " in that ity. French- 
Canadian women have their own organization, affiliated to 
" La Federation Nationale." Aims of both organizations (1) 
Standardization and regulation of piecework payments; (2) 
reduction of working hours to 48 a week; (3) better sanitary 
conditions. The Home and Domestic Employees Union, Brit 
ish Columbia, Room 202, Labor Temple, cor. of Dunsmuir and 
Homer Sts., Vancouver, has for its definite objects a nine-hour 
day, a minimum wage, and recognition as a body of industrial 
workers. The membership creed is: "Believing that the 
home has a greater influence on the nation than the nation 
has on the home, we pledge ourselves, as members of the 
union, to do all in our power to dignify the labor pertaining 
thereto." Toronto and Winnipeg have union of cooks and 
waitresses organized by Trades and Labor Council, and Port 
Arthur and Fort William " have started labor leagues for 
women, designed somewhat on the lines of the women s labor 
leagues in Great Britain." 

Boarding-Houses for Girls 

(Auspices Religious Organizations, but take girls all creeds.) 
Church of England. All Saints Home, Edmonton. Geor- 
gina Houses Ass n, Toronto Foundress and Pres., Mrs. 
Broughall, 49 St. Albans St. Georgina House, 126 Beverley 
St., " a boarding-house for self-supporting business girls." 
Spadina Lodge, 184 Spadina Ave., a home for business girls 
" on half-time, unable to pay the usual rate for room and 
board," Supt, Miss Kennedy. Girls Friendly Society, Lodges 


at 109 Pembroke St., Toronto, at 148 River Ave., Winnipeg, 
and in Lloydminster, Sask. 

King s Daughters. Boarding Home, Prince William St., 
St. John. Lunch-rooms Owen Sound, Toronto, Yictoria. 

Methodist Church. Barbara House, 257 Jarvis St., Toronto, 
Supt, Miss Frances Withers; Sec., Miss A. Spencer. 

Roman Catholic. Montreal Killarney Working Girls 
Home, Grey Nuns, 311 W. Lagauchetiere St.; L Ave Maria, 
St. Hubert St.; Patronage d Youville, Grey Nuns, 138 St. 
Urbain St. (Employment Bureau and Home), Rosary Hall 
Ass n, Toronto, Pres., Miss Marie Macdonell, 419 Dundas St., 
Sec., Miss Kate Eraser, 157 Robert St. Rosary Hall, " a board 
ing-house under Catholic auspices for girls and women earn 
ing their own living." 

Women s Christian Temperance Union, Willard Hall, Ger- 
rard St. E., Toronto. 

Alberta. Calgary, 223 12-th Ave. W., Pres., Mrs. Thos. Un 
derwood; Supt., Miss Bush; Sec., Miss Glass. Edmonton, 526 
3rd St., Pres., Mrs Edwin Denby; Supt., Miss McRoberts; Sec., 
Miss A. Thompson. Medicine Hat, Cor. 6th and 4th Sts., Pres., 
Mrs. C. E. Smyth; Supt., Mrs. Hobson. 

British Columbia. Nelson, Pres., Mrs Wolverton; Supt., 
Mrs. I. Barker. New Westminster, 348 Columbia St., Pres., 
Mrs. W. T. Reid; Supt., Mrs. Ford. Vancouver, Pres., Mrs. 
C. J. Peter, 997 Dunsmuir St., Supt., Miss. R. M. Smith; 1008 
Eveleigh St., Supt., Miss I. Paul; Sec., Dr. Carson. Yictoria, 
Pres., Mrs. F. Adams; 912 Douglas St., Supt, Mrs. J. Leask; 
756 Courtney St., Supt, Mrs. Gilmore; Sec., Miss Bradshaw. 

Manitoba. Brandon, Pres., Mrs. McDiarmid, 117 10th St.; 
Sec., Miss Everard, 148 llth St.; Supt., Mrs. Agnes Simmons. 
Winnipeg, Pres., Mrs. Edward Brown; Ellice Ave., N., Supt, 
Mrs. H. Freeland; 35-37 Hargrave St., Supt, Miss G. Finlay; 
Logan and Martha Sts., Supt., Miss M. Munro; Sec., Miss G. 

Nova Scotia. Halifax, 66 Hollis St., Pres., Mrs. W. McNab; 
Supt, Mrs. H. Chittick; Sec., Miss Harrington. 

Ontario. Berlin; Brantford, Victoria Park, Pres., Mrs. 


John Ott; Supt, Miss Howell; Sec., Miss Best. Hamilton, 
17 Main St. W., Pres., Mrs. J. 0. Callaghan; Supt., Miss E. 
Moe; Sec., Miss I. Mackenzie. Kingston, 196 Johnson St., 
Pres., Mrs. Carr-Harris; Supt., Mrs. King; Sec., Miss L. K. 
Knowles. London, Pres., Mrs. G. M. Reid; 326 Dundas St., 
Supt., Miss Pringle; 510 Wellington St., Supt, Miss Suther 
land. Ottawa, 135 Metcalfe St., Pres., Mrs. M. A. Blackburn; 
Sec., Miss Sutcliffe. Peterborough, 230 Simcoe St., Supt., Mrs. 
S. Barnes; Sec., Miss A. Peacock. St. Thomas, 250 Talbot 
St., Pres., Miss H. E. McDougall; Supt., Miss B. K. Gunn. 
Toronto, Pres., Mrs. R. C. Douald; 18 Elm St., Supt, Miss C. P. 
Lugsden; 180 Simcoe St., Supt., Miss Leith; 248 Dufferin St., 
Supt., Mrs. Dunham; 76 Pembroke St., Supt., Miss J. Manson; 
"Alexandra House," 240 St. Patrick St., Supt, Miss Webb; 
698 Ontario St., Supt., Mrs. M. E. Henderson. Woodstock, 
Pres., Mrs. Jas. Hay; Sec., Miss M. Dignam. 

Quebec. Montreal, Pres., Mrs. Jas. Thorn, 502 Dorchester 
St. W., Supt., Mrs. Thompson; 151 Fairmount Ave., Sec. Miss 
B. Lukes. Quebec, 125 St. Anne St., Pres., Miss Glass; Supt, 
Miss Wilcox; Sec., Miss Townsend. Sherbrooke, 2 Moore St., 
Pres., Mrs. S. A. Jones; Supt., Miss Armstrong; Sec., Miss 

Saskatchewan. Moose Jaw, 26 Ominica St., Pres., Mrs. M. 
Alexander; Supt, Miss Lewis; Sec., Miss Palmetier. Prince 
Albert, 187 9th Ave., Pres., Miss Ella Newnham; Supt., Miss 
E. Austin. Regina, 1950 Lome Ave., Pres., Mrs. A. H. 
Tasker; Supt., Miss Morton. Saskatoon, 3rd Ave. and 24th 
St., Pres., Mrs. J. R. Wilson; Supt., Miss Lockie; Sec., Miss 

Calgary Women s Hostel, 120 4th Ave. W., Matron, Eliz 
abeth Thomas. 

Montreal, The "Foyer" (Girls Home). "An institution 
that has given most fruitful results." Five branches " includ 
ing the country house at St. Adele, where summer holidays 
can be spent at very small cost." 





[The writer of the following article needs no introduction to 
Canadians. She has contributed many special articles and stories 
to British, Canadian and United States magazines and newspapers, 
including a series on " The Coronation of King George," which she 
witnessed as one of the press representatives from Canada. For 
some years she has been Literary Editor of The News, Toronto, 
and has devoted much attention to the literature of her own 
country. But Miss MacMurchy does not live solely in the world 
of books. She has another special interest " the economics of 
women s work" and in the year just passed she has written sev 
eral series of articles for a syndicate of Canadian newspapers, the 
Canadian Courier, and other periodicals, upon " Notable Canadian 
Women," " The Education of Girls," and " Canadian Social Prob 
lems," ranging from " Prison Reform," to the " Cost of Living " 
and " The Future of the Houseworker." Miss MacMurchy was 
President of the Canadian Women s Press Club, 1909-13, and is 
Hon. President for 1913-16.] 

There is no doubt that the War and the slackening in 
business which for some time preceded the War have lessened 
the number of books by Canadian women writers which have 
been published this year. Last year, with Miss Pickthall s 
poems, Mrs. Sheard s " The Miracle and Other Poems," L. M. 
Montgomery s " The Golden Road," Marian Keith s " The End 
of the Rainbow," Miss Machar s " Stories of the British Em 
pire," and the final collection of Miss Pauline Johnson s 
poems, was a somewhat notable year for books by Canadian 
women. But 1914 has its own achievement which gives cause 
for a measure of satisfaction. 

In history, Miss Carnochan s " History of Niagara " is a 
storehouse of local history, a careful and faithful labor of 
love by one who has given years of study to the chronicles 
of Niagara. Miss Carnochan, as a teacher for many years, 
exerted a strong influence for the good of Canadian character 
and history. She has established a unique historical museum 
in the town of Niagara. Miss Agnes Laut s " The Adven 
turers of England on Hudson Bay " is one of the volumes in 
the new historical series, Chronicles of Canada, edited by 
Professor Wrong and Mr. H. H. Langton. The narrative Is 


written in Miss Laut s striking picturesque style and con 
tains some part of the result of her well-known ability in 
historical research. The Chronicles are illustrated with col 
ored pictures and contain valuable maps. 

Two other books of serious interest by Canadian women 
published this year are Miss Emily P. Weaver s " Canada and 
the British Immigrant," and Dr. Helen MacMurchy s " Aux 
iliary Classes." Miss Weaver s book is one of the most valu 
able works with information and advice for British people 
coming to settle in Canada which has yet been issued. Dr. 
Helen MacMurchy s " Auxiliary Classes," issued by the De 
partment of Education of Ontario, contains information and 
guidance to be used by parents and teachers in training and 
aiding all children who are handicapped by any physical or 
mental defect. 

Mrs. Arthur Murphy, who uses the pen-name, " Janey 
Canuck," in " Seeds of Pine," her third volume on Canada, 
has written a book on the borderland between fiction and a 
purely descriptive narrative of life in the country round 
about Edmonton. The spontaneity, vigor and good humor of 
Mrs. Murphy s work are attractive. She has a firm grasp of 
the meaning of Canadian life. Mrs. Cotes " His Royal Hap 
piness " is the best-known novel by a Canadian writer pub 
lished during the year. It is appearing as a serial in The 
Ladies Home Journal, of Philadelphia, and The Woman at 
Home, of London. Miss Annie Russell, with Mrs. Cotes aid in 
dramatizing the novel, has prepared " His Royal Happiness " 
to be put on as a play. The hero is a prince of the British 
royal house; the heroine is the daughter of an ex-President of 
the United States. Mrs. Cotes writes sympathetically of both 
countries. The novelist, using her art with the care which 
has always characterized her work, is thoroughly in earnest 
in her belief that the Anglo-American alliance which she 
foresees will help to bless the world with peace. Another 
Canadian novel of merit is " Flame of Frost," by Miss Alice 
Jones, whose father was at one time Governor of Nova Scotia. 
Mrs. Harrison, whose work has generally been published over 
the pen-name " Seranus," publishes this year her second 


novel, " Ringfield," a story of Quebec province. The heroine 
is an actress, a French-Canadian. The novel is strongly 
written, somewhat sombre in outcome, and able in treatment. 
It is a little old-fashioned in style. " Mrs. Brand " is a post 
humous novel by Mrs. Keays, of Hamilton, who in the last 
years of her life lived in Boston. Mrs. Keays work in fiction 
attained a good deal of popularity. Mrs. Glyn s latest novel 
is " The Man and the Moment." Mrs. Glyn s father and 
mother were both Canadians. A considerable part of her 
childhood was spent in Guelph. " Jane Stocking " is the pen- 
name of a new Canadian writer whose father is said by the 
publisher of her novel to be one of the directors of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway. " Via P. & O. " is a well-con 
structed little story, told in the form of letters. It is not at 
all the work of an amateur, and besides being interesting is 
not over-ambitious. Miss Fox-Smith, the author of " The 
City of Hope," is an Englishwoman living in British Columbia. 
She somewhat frequently contributes fine sea lyrics to peri 
odicals in Great Britain. " The City of Hope " is a disheart 
ening story of the experiences of the better class of British 
emigrants in the Canadian West. It is clever and well written. 
While the picture drawn by the author is in many aspects un 
deniably true, it should be pointed out that the values in such 
a book as " Seeds of Pine " are more accurately given. Mrs. 
McClung s stories also give a truer idea of life in the West. 
" Julia and I in Canada," by the author of " Daphne in the 
Fatherland," is a sprightly story of life in Montreal. The 
book is interesting and readable. While no doubt true as 
regards individual experiences, the narrative can hardly be 
regarded as typical of life in Montreal. 

Very little verse by Canadian women writers has been 
published this year. Miss Laura McCully s volume, " Mary 
Magdalene and Other Poems " contains a fine " Laus Patriae," 
of which the concluding lines are 

" Thine be the crowning glory 
To bring forth a race of men, though a few, to be poor in 

But great in spirit and rich in song and magnanimous in 

brotherly love." 


Mrs. Jessie Kerr Lawson s " Lays and Lyrics" is a collec 
tion of verse by a writer who has published many books of 
Scottish fiction. One of her sons is a distinguished artist, 
another is an almost equally distinguished geologist. " O to 
be gods in Babylon " is a poem of fine and moving quality. 
Our better-known song writers among Canadian women are 
not represented this year. Miss Marjorie Pickthall s sonnet, 
"Canada to England," which appeared in the London Times, 
August 10, 1914, is reprinted in " Songs and Sonnets for 
England in War Time" (John Lane). The Women s Cana 
dian Club, of Vancouver, are proposing to erect a memorial 
to Pauline Johnson in Stanley Park, and contributions are 
now being received for this purpose. Immediately before 
Christmas, " Grey Knitting," by Katherine Hale, a booklet of 
15 pages, containing as many poems, was published by William 
Briggs, Toronto. " Grey Knitting " is a war poem of ele 
vated feeling and imagination. Of it the Literary Digest has 
said that it is " exquisite in its simplicity and sincerity." 

By the Author of " Daphne in the Fatherland " " Julia 
and I in Canada" (McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart). 

Miss Janet Carnochan " History of Niagara " (Briggs) . 

Mrs. Everard Cotes "His Royal Happiness 1 (Musson). 

Miss C. Fox-Smith " The City of Hope" (Sidgwick & 
Jackson) . 

" Katherine Hale " " Grey Knitting " (William Briggs) . 

Mrs. Glyn " The Man and the Moment " (Thos. Langton) . 

Mrs. Harrison " Ringfield " (Musson Book Company). 

Miss Alice Jones " Flame of Frost " (McLeod & Allen). 

Mrs. Keays "Mrs. Brand" (McLeod & Allen). 

Miss Agnes C. Laut " Adventurers of England on Hudson 
Bay" (Glasgow Brooke Company). 

Mrs. J. K. Lawson "Lays and Lyrics" (William Briggs). 

Miss Laura McCully " Mary Magdalene and Other Poems" 
(Macmillan Co. of Canada). 

Dr. Helen MacMurchy " Auxiliary Classes " (Ontario 
Department of Education). 

Mrs. Arthur Murphy (" Janey Canuck ") " Seeds of Pine " 
(Musson Book Company). 


"Jane Stocking " " Via P. & O." (McClelland, Goodchild 
& Stewart). 

Miss Emily P. Weaver " Canada and the British Immi 
grant " (Religious Tract Society, England). 

Canadian Women s Press Club. 

Officers, 1913-16: Hon. Pres., Miss Marjory MacMurchy, 
Toronto, Ont; Pres., Mrs. Arthur Murphy, 514 Twelfth St., 
Edmonton, Alberta; Vice-Pres. for Alberta and British 
Columbia, Mrs. Isabel Ecclestone Mackay, Vancouver, B.C.; 
Vice-Pres. for Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Miss Cora Hind, 
Winnipeg, Man.; Vice-Pres. foi Ontario and Quebec, Miss 
Jane Wells Fraser, Toronto, Ont.; Vice-Pres. for Maritime 
Provinces, Miss Marshall Saunders, Halifax, N.S.; Rec. Sec., 
Miss Mary Mantell, Regina, Sask.; Cor. Sec., Mrs. Ambrose 
Dickins, "The Journal," Edmonton, Alberta; Treas., Mrs. 
Reginald G. Snaith, "The Journal," Edmonton, Alberta; His 
torian, Mrs. J. M. Sherk, Fort William, Ontario; Auditor, Mrs. 
Genevieve Lipsett-Skinner, Winnipeg, Man. 

Honorary Members. Mrs. Kathleen Coleman ("Kit"), 
Hamilton, Ont., Past President, Past Honorary President; 
Mrs. Kate Simpson Hayes, Winnipeg, Man., President, 1906-7; 
Mr. George H. Ham, C.P.R., Montreal, Que. ; Miss Agnes 
IVipule Machar, Kingston, Ont.; Mrs. Everard Cotes (Sara 
Jearmette Duncan), Simla, India; Miss Lily B. Dougall, Cutts 
Erd, Cumnor, Oxford, England. 

The Objects of this Club are: (a) Mutual sympathy, coun 
sel and helpfulness among press women for promoting and 
i - oteeting the personal and professional interests of its mem 
bers, and to maintain and improve the status of journalism 
as a profession for women. 

(b) The promoting of Canadian National sentiment in all 
papers or magazines with which members are connected. 

(c) The promotion of a higher standard of literary excel 
lence in newspaper writing. 

Branches of the C.W.P.C. Winnipeg (first to be organized) 
Pres., Mrs. Lipsett-Skinner, 3 Sharpe Apartments, Kennedy 
and Qu Appelle Streets; Toronto Pres., Miss Edith Mac- 
donald, 2 Bloor Street East; Port Arthur and Fort William 


Pres., Mrs. A. J. Barrie, 52 Court Street West, Port Arthur; 
Regina; Edmonton Pres., Mrs. Ernest Beaufort, P.O. Box 
711; Vancouver Pres., Miss Beatrice Nasmyth, 610 Jervis 
Street; Calgary Pres., Miss Eleanor MacLennan, Calgary 
Herald; Saskatoon; Victoria. There are also isolated mem 
bers in many other places. 

Women Editors. Many of the press women of the Domin 
ion are engaged in work that is at least partially editorial, 
but the line of work taken up in particular cases is difficult 
to trace on account of the fact that the workers are scat 
tered through so vast a country. Moreover, much editorial 
work is done by women who are in charge of very important 
departments of publications, which, in the main, are edited 
by men. We append the names of a few women-editors, hoping 
that in future issues of the Annual we shall be able to render 
the list much more complete. It will be noted that women 
often tend to undertake the more literary side of newspaper 
work; but one editor, Miss Cora Hind, has won marked 
success in a field most unusual for a Avoman. She has contri 
buted articles on commercial and agricultural topics to the 
financial supplement of the London Times, Monetary Times 
(Toronto) and Financial Times (Montreal) ; but her most 
important work is the estimating of the wheat crop of the 
Canadian West while it is growing. Her estimates, made in 
competition with the Provincial and Dominion Governments, 
have proved themselves the most accurate ever made. 

Mrs. Cochrane, Editor World-Wide, Montreal; Miss 
Crews, Assistant Editor Methodist Sunday School Publica 
tions, Toronto; Mrs. G. V. Cuppage, Editor and Manager, 
Ladies Review (Supplement to The Week), Victoria, B.C.; 
Miss Jane Wells Eraser, Associate Editor, Presbyterian Publi 
cations, Toronto; Miss E. Cora Hind, Commercial and Agricul 
tural Editor, Manitoba Free Press, Winnipeg; Mrs. B. Lan- 
gridge, Swan Lake Echo, Swan Lake, Manitoba; Miss Lily 
Laverock, Editor Women s Department, The Chronicle, Van 
couver; Miss Beatrice Levy, Editor, Levy s Magazine, Van 
couver; Mrs. McConnell, Editor, Walkerton Telescope, Walk- 
erton, Ont.; Miss Marjory MacMurchy, Literary Editor, The 


News, Toronto; Mrs. Elizabeth Parker, "The Bookman," 
Manitoba Free Press, Winnipeg; Mrs. Francis Fenwick Wil 
liams, Associate Editor of The Owl, Montreal. 

Mrs. Arvie Queeber, of Wetaskiwin, Alberta, admitted this 
year to the C.W.P.C., is its first Norwegian member. At pres 
ent, Mrs Queeber conducts a page on her husband s paper, 
The Tribunen. The woman s part is written in Swedish and 
the children s in English. Her pen-name is " Tante Anna." 

In addition to professional editors, many women, as a 
"labor of love," do excellent work in editing periodicals deal 
ing with religious or humanitarian interests. (See also below 
under " Periodicals for Women.") 

Periodicals for Women. Canadian Home Journal, Toronto. 
Ed., W. T. Rook. Associate Editors: Mrs. Seaman ("Jennie 
Allen Moore ") ; Department, " Around the Hearth," dealing 
with "problems which come to every homemaker"; Marion 
Harris Neil, Cookery Editor; Christine Frederick, Housekeep 
ing Dept., dealing with the " saving of time and energy in 
housekeeping," and "labor-saving methods and means"; Mrs. 
Gardner ("Cousin Clover"), The "Journal Juniors " Page, 
and an Observation Class, to which the children who belong 
send in drawings; Jean Graham (a noted authority on books), 
Book Dept. 

Woman s Century, Toronto. " Moral and Social Reform." 
Ed., Mrs. J. Campbell-Mclver. 

Canadian Courier, Woman s Supplement, monthly, Toronto. 

Saturday Night, Woman s Section, Toronto. Ed., Miss Jean 

Canadian Nurse, Toronto professional. Ed., Miss Belle 

Canada White Ribbon Bulletin, Ottawa (W.C.T.U.). Mrs. 
Gordon Wright, London, and Mrs. E. Edwards Cole, Clarence. 

Canadian White Ribbon Tidings, London (W.C.T.U.). Ed., 
Mrs. Lottie McAllister, Exeter, Ont, and Mrs. F. Y. Miller. 

Echoes, Toronto (I.O.D.E.) 

Letter Leaflet, Toronto (Church of England). Ed., Mrs. 
Willoughby Cummings, D.C.L. 


Missionary Leaflet, Montreal. Ed., Mrs. Mary M. Savage. 

Missionary Messenger, Toronto (Presbyterian). Mrs. J. 

Monthly Letter, Women s part of Missionary Outlook, To 
ronto (Methodist). Ed., Miss E. J. H. McGuffin. 

Palm Branch, Sackville, N.B. (Methodist Children s). Ed., 
Miss Harriet S. Stewart, M.A. (said to be the first woman 
M.A. in Canada). 

Young Women of Canada, Toronto (Y.W.C.A.). Ed., Miss 
Una Saunders. 

St. Joseph s Lilies and The Rainbow, Toronto, published 
by the Alumnae of different communities, are examples of the 
numerous Roman Catholic magazines for women. 


The Dominion Archives. Librarian, Dr. A. G. Doughty, 
C.M.G. The Dominion Archives building at Ottawa was 
opened on January 1st, 1908. It contains a magnificent col 
lection of historical documents, printed books, manuscripts, 
prints and other pictures relating to Canada and its history, 
all of which are at the service of the student, writer, lawyer, 
conveyancer or anyone else who chooses to make use of them. 
The Archives, it would seem, contains everything necessary 
for the making of a Canadian book, from the best sources of 
information to maps portraits and prints which may be repro 
duced as illustrations. The aim of those in control is to 
render its treasures as accessible and as complete as possible. 

Chapters might be written on the gathering of the vast 
collection the unceasing watch kept on dealers catalogues 
for wanted papers; the search amongst the official documents 
of France and England; the accidental discoveries in unex 
pected places; the unremitting toil of scholars, transcribers 
and translators, and lastly, the generosity with which private 
persons have presented family portraits and papers to fill 
gaps in the material already collected. 

Public Libraries. 

" No librarian ca*n be fully prepared to do largest and best 
service until he has fully realized the significance and great 
ness of the public library in the community life of to-day. 


" Though the books of a public library have a value beyond 
price, they must be regarded as tools rather than treasures. 
They are not to be hoarded upon the shelves, but to be 
scattered through the community, whatever the cost of wear. 
. . . It is as tools that they are most useful. 

" The public library is the university of the people. It is 
a mistaken notion that education ceases with the child s 
attendance at school. When education ceases mental paralysis 
sets in. ... . The library exists that the normal man may 
continue his education." C. W. Casson, Editor, Ottawa Citizen. 

In Ontario, public libraries, that is, libraries partly sup 
ported by the state, are classified as " free " and " association " 
libraries. Free libraries are supported chiefly by the muni 
cipalities, but " association " libraries also often receive con 
siderable grants from the municipalities. 

Free Public Libraries in Ontario. Acton, Ailsa Craig, Am- 
herstburg, Alton, Arnprior, Arthur, Aurora, Aylmer, Ayr. Bee- 
ton, Belleville, Berlin, Bothwell, Bracebridge, Brampton, Brant- 
ford, Brighton, Brockville, Brussels, Burk s Falls. Caledon, 
Campbellford, Cardinal, Carleton Place, Chatham, Chesley, 
Clifford, Clinton, Collingwood, Copper Cliff, Cornwall. Delhi, 
Deseronto, Drayton, Dundas, Durham. Elmira, Elora, Erin, 
Essex, Exeter. Fergus, Forest, Ft. William. Gait, Gananoque, 
Garden Island, Georgetown, Goderich, Grand Valley, Graven- 
hurst, Grimsby, Guelph. Hagersville, Hamilton, Hanover, Har- 
riston, Hensall, Hespeler. Ingersoll. Kemptville, Kenora, Kin 
cardine, Kingsville. Lakefield, Lanark, Lancaster, Leaming 
ton, Lindsay, Listowel, Little Britain, London. Markdale, 
Merritton, Midland, Millbrook, Milverton, Mitchell, Mt. Forest. 
New Liskeard, Newmarket, Niagara Falls, North Bay, North 
Toronto. Oakwood, Orangeville, Orillia, Oshawa, Ottawa, 
Otterville, Owen Sound. Paisley, Palmerston, Paris, Parkhill, 
Parry Sound, Pembroke, Penetanguishene, Perth, Peterboro, 
Picton, Port Arthur, Port Carling, Port Colborne, Port Elgin, 
Port Hope, Prescott, Preston. Renfrew, Richmond Hill. 
Sarnia, Sault Ste. Marie, Seaforth, Shelburne, Simcoe, Smith s 
Falls, Stayner, Stirling, Stouffville, Stratford, Streetsville, St. 
Catharines, St. Mary s, St. Thomas. Tara, Thorold, Tillson- 


burg, Toronto. Uxbridge. Walkerton, Walkerville, Wallace- 
burg, Waterloo, Watford, Weston, Whitby, Windsor, Wingham, 
Woodstock, Wroxeter. 

The Association Public Libraries of Ontario are at Admas- 
ton, Alma, Almonte, Angus, Arkona, Atwood, Auburn. Badge- 
ros, Barrie, Bath, Bayham, Baysville, Beachville, Beamsville, 
Beaverton, Belfountain, Belmont, Belwood, Blenheim, Blyth, 
Bobcaygeon, Bolton, Bowmanville, Bridgeburg, Brigden, Brook- 
lin, Brownsville, Brucefield, Burgessville, Burlington. Cam- 
bray, Camlachie, Canfield, Cannington, Cargill, Carp, Cayuga, 
Chatsworth, Cheapside, Chesterville, Claremont, Claude, Co- 
bourg, Colborne, Coldstream, Comber, Coplestone, Creemore. 
Dalhousie, Delta, Depot Harbour, Don, Dorchester, Drumbo, 
Duart, Dundalk, Dunnville, Dungannon, Dunvegan. Elk Lake, 
Elmvale, Elmwood, Embro, Ennotville, Ethel. Penelon Falls, 
Flesherton, Fonthill, Forester s Falls, Fort Erie, Fort Frances, 
Fullarton, Frankford. Glamis, Glanworth, Glenmorris, Gore 
Bay, Gore s Landing, Gorrie, Grafton. Haliburton, Harriets- 
ville, Harrington, Harrow, Hastings, Hawkesville, Highland 
Creek, Hillsdale, Hillview, Holstein, Honeywood, Huntsville. 
Inwood, Iroquois, Islington. Jarvis. Kars, Kemble, Kingston, 
Kinmount, Kintore, Kirkfield, Komoka. Lake Charles, Lefroy, 
Linwood, Lyn. Madoc, Mallorytown, Manilla, Manotick, Marks- 
ville, Matilda, Meaford, Melbourne, Merrickville, Mildmay, Mill- 
grove, Milton, Minden, Monkton, Mono Centre, Mono Mills, 
Mono Road, Morrisburg, Morriston, Mt. Albert, Mt. Brydges. 
Nanticoke, Napanee, Napier, Newburgh, Newbury, New Dundee, 
New Hamburg, Newington, Niagara, Norland, North Gower, 
Norwich, Norwood. Oakville, Odessa, Omemee, Orono. Paken- 
ham, Pickering, Pinkerton, Plattsville, Point Edward, Port 
Credit, Port Dover, Port Perry, Port Rowan, Port Stanley, 
Princeton. Queensville. Rainy River, Richmond, Ridgeway, 
Ridgetown, Ripley, Riversdale, Rockwood, Romney, Runny- 
mede, Russell. Saltfleet, Scarboro, Scotland, Shedden, Shet 
land, Singhampton, Smithville, Southampton, S. Mountain, 
South River, Speedside, Springfield, Stevensville, Strathroy, 
St. George, St. Helens, Sunderland, Sudbury, Sundridge, Sut- 
ton, Sydenham. Tavistock, Teeswater, Thamesford, Thames- 


ville, Thedford, Thornberry, Tilbury, Tottenham, Trout Creek, 
Tweed. Underwood, Unionville. Vankleek Hill, Victoria, Vic 
toria Mines, Victoria Road. Walton, Wardsville, Warkworth, 
Waterdown, Waterford, Welland, Wellesley, Westford, White 
Lake, Wiarton, Williamstown, Winchester, Woodbridge, Wood- 

British Columbia. Kelowna; Nelson; New Westminster, 
Librarian, Miss Anna T. O Meara; Vancouver, Librarian, 
Robert W. Douglas; Vernon; Victoria, Librarian, Miss Helen 
G. Stewart; Provincial Library at Victoria, Librarian, E. O. S. 

Alberta. Calgary, Librarian, Alexander Calhoun, M.A. ; 
Edmonton, Librarian, E. L. Hill, B.A., M.Sc.; Edmonton, Pro 
vincial Library, Librarian, John Blue; University of Alberta, 
Edmonton, Librarian, F. Bowers. 

Saskatchewan. Moose Jaw, Librarian, A. H. Gibbard, B.A. ; 
Prince Albert; Regina, Librarian, J. R. C. Honeyman; Carn- 
duff; Estevan; Sintaluta; Oxbow; Saskatoon; Provincial Lib 
rary at Regina, Librarian, John Hawkes. 

Manitoba. Winnipeg, Librarian, J. H. McCarthy; Provin 
cial Library at Winnipeg, Librarian, J. P. Robertson. 

Quebec. Abercorn; Knowlton (Pettes Memorial Library); 
Montreal (Fraser Institute), P. B. de Crevecoeur; Ormstown; 
Sherbrooke (Library and Art Union); Westmount; Provincial 
Library at Quebec, Librarian, N. E. Dionne, LL.D., F.R.S.E.; 
McGill University at Montreal, Librarian, C. H. Gould, M.A. 

New Brunswick. Moncton, St. John, Librarian, Miss Cath 
erine Martin ; Woodstock (Fisher Library) ; Provincial Library 
at Fredericton, Librarian, Abram Alward. 

IVoya Scotia. Halifax (Citizen s Free Library) ; Provincial 
Library at Halifax, Librarian, Miss Annie F. Donohae. 

Prince Edward Island. Provincial Library at Charlotte- 
town, Librarian, Wm. H. Croskill. 

Toronto Public Libraries. The Toronto Public Library is 
really thirteen public libraries, eleven of the branches being 
opened during the last six years. There are now over 40,000 bor 
rowers on the library list, and the number of books purchased 
in 1913 was " six times as large " as the number purchased 


five years earlier. At Doyercourt Library the interesting ex 
periment has been made of a " Garden Library," where people 
may sit and read in the open air, and men may smoke if they 
choose. Behind the great library on College St. is a lawn, 
kept in order by the city, and there last summer thirteen 
tennis clubs used to play, each having its special hours. 

The Reference Library at College St. is particularly rich 
in Canadiana, and students come from far and near to work 
there, the long summer vacation usually bringing a number 
of professors from United States Universities. It contains a 
most interesting collection of qver 20,000 rare Canadian his 
torical pictures, presented by Mr. J. Ross Robertson, the gen 
erous supporter of the " Sick Children s Hospital," Toronto. 

Special Libraries. 

Toronto is fortunate in possessing a number of special 
libraries, including the Parliamentary Library, Osgoode Hall 
Library, the Phillips-Stewart Law Library, the Library of the 
Department of Education, Canadian Institute, Academy of 
Medicine, Toronto Conservatory of Music, Toronto College of 
Music, and the Pharmaceutical, Dental, Veterinary, and York 
County Libraries. Of the last mentioned library Miss Ada 
Read, who gave " valuable assistance " in the preparation of 
the " Index to Dominion and Provincial Statutes," has been 
sole librarian since 1886. 

Travelling Libraries. 

In addition to the 371 libraries of Ontario which have a 
definite local habitation, 208 Travelling Libraries were sent 
out in 1913 from the Department of Education an increase of 
forty libraries over the previous year. There are from forty to 
sixty books in each case, and a total of over 10,000 volumes 
in the Travelling Libraries Branch. The only cost to the 
borrowers is the freight charges one way. The borrowers to 
whom ordinary Travelling Libraiies go are small, struggling 
libraries, groups of tax-payers living in hamlets, rural com 
munities, Women s and Farmers Institutes, mining, mill, and 
other industrial communities; also occasionally to poor 
schools not possessing a library. Libraries for special pur 
poses may be sent also to public libraries, study clubs, or 


individuals. It is perhaps of interest that in 1913, 140 of the 
208 libraries sent out went to Women s Institutes. 

Moreover, " arrangements are being made whereby teach 
ers, trustees and others interested in the problems of rural 
life and education may secure loans of books, bulletins and 
magazine articles relating to such matters as Consolidation, 
School Ground Improvement, School Decoration, Medical In 
spection, School Fairs, Play and Play Equipment, Children s 
School Clubs, Parents and Teachers Associations, School Im 
provement Associations, Rural Problems and the Schools Re 
lation Thereto, The Problem of the Rural Church, Rural Econ 
omics, Progress of Agricultural Education in Other Countries. 
Sets of lantern slides dealing with the work of the Rural 
School will be available also for loaning to Teachers Asso 
ciations, Women s Institutes, Farmers Clubs, and similar or 

Address the " Director of Elementary Agricultural Educa 
tion, Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph." 

Travelling Libraries are sent from McGill University 
to all parts of Canada. " Founded in 1900 as a mem 
orial to the late Mr. Hugh McLennan from his children, the 
libraries from McGill University were endowed in 1911 by 
their founders. These libraries contain, each, from thirty to 
forty carefully selected volumes; and are sent, on application, 
and on payment of a nominal fee of $3.00, to schools, to 
country libraries, to reading-clubs, and to small communities 
which possess no public library. Regulations and full par 
ticulars may be obtained from the Librarian of the University." 

British Columbia has had Travelling Libraries since 1898. 
They are sent out from the Provincial Library, and in 1913 
there were 12,133 volumes for the Travelling Library service, 
regular and special. One hundred and forty-seven libraries 
were circulated during the year. These books were borrowed 
by communities, individuals, libraries, Women s Institutes, 
Farmers Institutes, Schools, Prison Farm, Employees Clubs, 
Labor Union, R. R. Y. M. C. A., Pleasant Sunday Afternoon 
Organization, Men s Clubs (of church), Lighthouse Keeper. 
The University of Alberta has lately organized a system of 
Travelling Libraries. 


The Aberdeen Association. 

President, H.R.H. The Duchess of Connaught; 1st Vice- 

Pres., Lady Taylor, Hamilton; 2nd Vice-Pres., Lady Evelyn 
Farquhar; Treasurer, Col. Fred. White C.M.G., Ottawa; Sec 
retary, Mrs. W. B. Scarth, Dept. of Labor, Ottawa. 

Aim. For the distribution of good literature to settlers in 
isolated parts of Canada. 

Branches. Edmonton, Sec., John Blue. Esq., Provincial 
Library; Halifax, Sec , Miss Scott, The Kingsley, 32 South St.; 
Hamilton, Sec., Miss Florence I. Barker, 14 Arkledun Avenue; 
Kingson, Sec., Miss M. Reddan, 64 William St.; London, Sec., 
Miss M. McMillan, 230 Central Ave ; Montreal (English), Sec., 
Miss L. Dunlop, 299 Peel St.; Montreal (French), Sec., Mile. A. 
Roy, 75 rue Sherbrooke ouest; Ottawa, Sec., Miss H. E. Cart- 
wright, 276 O Connor St.; Regina, Sec., Mrs. Morell; Saska 
toon, Sec., Miss Irene Moore; St. John, Sec., Miss Myrtle Hay- 
ward, 83 Sewell St.; Toronto, Sec., Mrs. Frank Kenrick, 77 
Lonsdale Road; Victoria, Sec., Miss E. M. Lawson, 417 Simcoe 
St.; Winnipeg, Secretaries, Mrs. Featherstonhaugh, 801 Dor 
chester Avenue; Mrs. Kirby, 52 Edmonton St. 

The Canadian Free Library for the Blind, Cor. Medland and 
Annette Sts., West Toronto, Ontario. This institute is grow 
ing in usefulness. It was established November 9th, 1906, 
with 81 volumes. It now has 3,790 volumes and 1,340 pieces 
of music. All systems of raised print are on its shelves. The 
circulation of books and music, 1907, was 996; in 1913 it had 
increased to 6,716. The post office carries its books free to 
readers in every province. The value of the books, 3,675 in all, 
is placed at $3,300. Librarian, Mr. C. S. Swift, M.A.; Treas 
urer, Mr. E. W. Hermon; members, 284. "The Canadian 
Library for the Blind is worthy of wider recognition." 

Beading Camp Association, Ontario. Superintendent, Rev. 
Alfred Fitpatrick. In 1912 and 1913 a number of " Travelling 
Library Cases " were " donated by the Minister of Education, 
through the Inspector of Public Libraries, to the Reading 
Camp Association," for the benefit of men in the railway con 
struction camps. 


Women in Library Work. 

Library work is a great field for women, and in it they 
have proved especially successful. Dr. Locke, Chief Librarian 
of Toronto Public Library, says: "Women do detailed work 
more excellently than men," and much attention to detail 
is demanded in all the various branches of cataloguing, 
reference, circulating and children s work. For catalogu 
ing the would-be librarian must be well educated, and 
college-bred girls have an advantage in being used to books. 
Some girls are " born classifiers," having " mathematical and 
decisive minds"; others "are born cataloguers," of whom ex 
treme care is demanded. For the circulating and children s 
departments, a love of people is as great an asset as a love of 
books; and the success of a library depends largely upon the 
capabilities and enthusiasm of its librarian. For instance, 
the Public Library at Berlin has been fortunate in having a 
librarian whose knowledge of book lore was noticeably at the 
service of those " who did not know where to look " for the 
information wanted, and no doubt it was largely owing to the 
sympathetic understanding of this lady that an evening re 
ception was held at the library for industrial managers and 
foremen, and that lists of the technical books in the library, 
giving information concerning various industries, were sent 
out to be placed in the pay envelopes of workmen likely to be 

The Children s Librarian. It seems quite natural that the 
library workers set apart to care especially for the children 
should be women. Some little time ago Miss Jessie C. Potter, 
B.A., of the Dundas Library, in speaking of the Children s 
Librarian, quoted from Miss Olcott, Chief of the Children s 
Department in Pittsburg, that " she should have the following 
characteristics: Sympathy with and respect for children, 
strength of character, a genial nature, pleasing personality, 
instinct for reading character, adaptability and a strong sense 
of humor. Her home training should have given her a love 
and knowledge of books, a fund of general information, and a 
quick and accurate mind. The best is by no means too good 

for the children." 


The" Children s Librarian should have " a sunny, well-aired 
room, appropriately furnished and decorated, the furniture 
and pictures being carefully selected to attract the eye, enrich 
the mind, and suit the needs of the children. Such a room 
naturally attracts numbers of children, but the Children s 
Librarian makes use of every other artifice and device she 
can contrive to entice the children to this room," visiting the 
schools, talking to the children, " perhaps telling them a story 
to win their interest," inviting them to the library, and " de 
scribing to them its various attractions, among these being 
the story hour. The one aim of the Children s Librarian in 
her work is to induce the children to read good books, thereby 
forming the foundation of a love of literature to be developed 
through life. ... In the Children s department, there 
fore, no book should be purchased until it has been read and 
approved of by a competent judge. And in this selection it 
is much more advisable to be severe in criticism than to allow 
some mediocre, valueless book a place on the children s 
shelves. The average child must read, and if the poorer books 
are kept from him, and he is given the better class, he will 
readily learn to appreciate good literature." . . . 

" The Story Hour " we again quote Miss Potter " is one 
of the most important means to arouse the interest of the 
child in myth, legend, romance and history. Its object is not 
to teach moral truths, but simply to tell an interesting story 
of the best class, thereby inculcating in the child a desire to 
read such stories." 

In the College St. Library, Toronto, there is a Children s 
Department, " where they take care of 20,000 children a year." 
Miss S. Staton, who has charge of that work, says: "If you 
could drop in there during noon hour any time throughout 
the school season, you would find forty or more children; on 
Saturday afternoon we have about 100 children there, mostly 
Jewish children, for this blanch is situated in a Jewish com 
munity, and the interest taken in it is indeed a delight to those 
who are interested in the work with children. We find that 
the Jewish children are particularly interested in fairy tales, 
and they also ask for Bible stories, but fairy tales are their 
favorite stories, and we also find that the influence that the 


teachers have on the reading of the children is marvellous. 
They so often come and say to us: Please may we have such 
and such a story. Perhaps it is The King of the Golden River; 
perhaps it is Robinson Crusoe, or Pilgrim s Progress, which 
we find is still a great favorite with most of the children who 
come to us. We say, How is it you want that book? Why, 
teacher told us part of it, and they, of course, are very de 
sirous to read the whole story themselves." 

In connection with some American libraries, very success 
ful " story hours " have been held at " cottage libraries " in 
the poorer districts of towns; books and story-teller thus 
going to people who would never have gone to the library 

The Training of Librarians. 

The best librarians of Canada are not slow to avail them 
selves of the special instruction for their work, which may 
be gained at various institutions in the United States. By the 
way, Miss Stauffer, of the staff of the Toronto Public Library, 
" led the whole library school in Boston," in 1914, getting 95 
per cent, of possible marks. But Canada offers some courses 
of instruction for librarians. Acadia University, Wolfville, 
N.S., has a course in Library Science. (See Section VIII.) 

Summer Library Schools. "The first Summer School for 
Librarians, in Canada, was opened in Montreal in connection 
with McGill University, under the management of Mr. C. H. 
Gould, Librarian of McGill University," elected President of 
the American Library Association, 1908. He is still in con 
trol. Not a few Ontario librarians are indebted " to this 
school " for what they know and for their advancement." 

The session, lasting four weeks, is held in June and July. 
Anyone interested in library work is qualified for admission. 
The fee for tuition is $5. At this school the Cutter system of 
cataloguing is taught. The first Summer Library School in 
Ontario was held in 1911. In 1913 Miss Hester Young, B.A., 
of the University of Toronto Library, was instructor in charge, 
under the direction of the Inspector of Public Libraries, Mr. 
Walter R. Nursey. The course of study was planned " on 
practical rather than theoretical lines, hoping to meet the 
wants of the average library." Not only was there no fee for 


tuition, but necessary books and stationery were supplied 
free by instruction of the Minister of Education, and " free 
transportation to and from their homes was provided to all 
students resident in Ontario." At this school the Dewey 
Decimal system of classification is taught. 

Library Institutes. In 1903 Dr. Hardy, Secretary of the 
Ontario Library Association, suggested the establishment of 
" Library Institutes," similar in character to the teachers 
institutes, and in 1907, through the courtesy of the Brantford 
Public Library Board, the first Institute was held at Brant- 
ford. This was so successful that additional Institutes were 
planned for the following year, and the Ontario Public 
Libraries Act of 1909 authorized the Minister of Education to 
provide for the holding of these Institutes, and also provided 
for the expenses of one representative from each library. If, 
after receiving due notice of the Institute meeting, a library 
does not send a delegate, the Minister may withhold $5 from 
the next Government grant payable to the Board. In the pro 
grammes the needs of the small library are kept to the front. 
In the lists of officers the number of clergymen, doctors, and 
ladies is worthy of note. 

Including the Toronto District, of which the first Institute 
was held on October 24th, 1913, Ontario has been divided into 
fifteen districts, in each of which an annual Institute is held. 
The object of this is " to bring active library workers in con 
tact with each other, to afford opportunity for helpful discus 
sion of library problems, and also for the giving of instruction 
in library essentials. The business of the session lasts two 
days. The places of meeting within the district are changed 
from year to year, but some of the western delegates have had 
to travel over eleven hundred miles to be present." 

The Institutes are held under the formal direction of the 
Ontario Library Association. Pres., W. O. Carson, the Public 
Library, London; Secretary and Treasurer, E. A. Hardy, B.A., 
D.Paed., 81 Collier St., Toronto. 

In the West the interest in books and libraries is certainly 
growing. An organization on similar lines to that just men 
tioned is the Saskatchewan Library Association; Pres. A. W. 


Cameron, B.A., Moosejaw; Secretary-Treasurer, A. H. Gibbard, 
B.A., Moosejaw. 

Carnegie Gifts to Libraries in Canada. 

In the report of the Minister of Education of Ontario, 1914, 
it is told that 133 libraries in the Dominion (106 of these being 
in Ontario), have received promises of gifts from Mr. Andrew 
Carnegie, but " in some cases the buildings are only paid for 
in part, and in some no work has been done at all." The 
total amount promised from 1901 to 1913 (inclusive) was 

Note on Copyright. 

According to the Copyright Act (Revised Statutes, 1906, 
Chapter 70), "Any person domiciled in Canada or in any part 
of the British possessions, or any citizen of any country which 
has an international copyright treaty with the United King 
dom, in which Canada is included, who is the author of any 
book, map, chart or musical or literary composition, or of any 
original painting, drawing, statue, sculpture or photograph, 
or who invents, designs, etches, engraves or causes to be en 
graved, etched or made from his own design, any print or 
engraving, and the legal representatives of such person or 
citizen, shall, for the term of twenty-eight years from the 
time of recording the copyright thereof, have the sole and 
exclusive right and liberty of printing, reprinting, publishing, 
reproducing and vending such literary, scientific, musical or 
artistic work or composition, in whole or in part, and of allow 
ing translations of such literary work, from one language into 
other languages, to be printed or reprinted and sold in the 
manner and on the conditions, and subject to the restrictions 
hereinafter set forth." (S. 48.) 

The Act is too long to reprint in full, and anyone intending 
to apply for a copyright should write to The Minister of 
Agriculture (Trade Mark and Copyright Branch), Ottawa, for 
information as to conditions. 

" If, at the expiration of the said term of twenty-eight 
years, the author, or any of the authors when the work has 
been originally composed and made by more than one person, 
is still living, or if such author is dead and has left a widow 
or a child or children living, the same sole and exclusive 


right and liberty shall be continued to such author, or to 
such authors still living, or, it dead, then to such widow and 
child or children, as the case may be, for the further term of 
fourteen years; but in such case" a second registration, with 
all the original formalities, is required. 

In connection with the above (section 19) the following 
notes, courteously supplied by the Registrar of Copyrights, 
are of interest: 

"In registering renewal of copyright, the office would 
regard the word widow, in section 19 of the Copyright Act, 
as including widower. " 

" No renewal of copyright would be registrable if the 
author whether male or female died unmarried." 

The fee for registering a copyright of a book is $1.00 and 
for registering a temporary copyright of articles published in 
serial form, is 50c. The section (9) dealing with such tem 
porary copyrights runs as follows :- 

" Any literary work intended to be published in pamphlet or 
book form, but which is first published in separate articles in 
a newspaper or periodical, may be registered under this Act 
while it is so preliminarily published, if the title of the manu 
script and a short analysis of the work are deposited at the 
Department, and if every separate article so published is pre 
ceded by the words, Registered in accordance with the Copy 
right Act ; Provided that the work, when published in book 
or pamphlet form, shall be subject also to the other require 
ments of this Act." 

In section 7 of the Copyright Act it is expressly stated 
that " No literary, scientific or artistic work which is immoral, 
licentious, irreligious, or treasonable or seditious, shall be the 
legitimate subject of such registration or copyright." 
Literary and Historical Societies, etc. 

Most of the societies in the list below (which cannot pre-y 
tend to completeness, but suggests a line in which women are 
working), have women members, not a few have women offi 
cers, and some are wholly women s societies. The object of 
these societies is, in general, to collect and preserve (and in 
some instances to publish), records and documents of all 
kinds relating to or likely to throw light on the history of the 


country, the province, or the locality, including family his 
tories, old letters and other private papers, as well as public 
and official documents. They desire, further, to preserve 
objects of historic interest, such as Indian relics, old furniture 
of characteristic types, and articles which have been used by 
persons who have played important parts in the making of 
history; and they endeavor to keep alive the memory of his 
toric events in the localities where they occurred by means of 
the erection of monuments, tablets, or, in case of the greater 
events, by setting apart public parks, etc. They hold public 
meetings and conventions. Indeed, they strive in every pos 
sible way to Educate the people of the Dominion in the facts 
of their own history. 

New Brunswick Historical Society, St. John. 

Nova Scotia Historical Society, Halifax; Pres., Ven. Arch 
deacon Armitage. 

Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

Literary and Historical Society of Quebec. 

Antiquarian Society, Montreal Ladies Branch. Pres., Mrs. 
Wurtele, 336 Sherbrooke St. W. 

Vancouver Historical Society. 

Ontario Historical Society. Pres. Clarence M. Warner, 
Napanee; Sec. and Librarian, A. P. Hunter, M.A., Normal 
School Building, St. James Square, Toronto. 

With this Society the following associations are in affilia 
tion: Amherstburg Sec., Mrs. L. T. Bray. Brant County 
Pres., S. F. Passmore, M.A.; Sec., Mrs. J. Y. Brown, 
Brantford. Bowmanville Mrs. L. S. Senkler; Sec., Miss 
Edith A. Hillier, Bowmanville. Bruce County Sec., Norman 
Robertson, Walkerton. Elgin Hist, and Scientific Inst. Sec., 
W. W. Olmsted, St. Thomas. Elgin Women s Auxiliary Pres., 
Mrs. J. H. Wilson; Sec., Mrs. G. Symington, St. Thomas. 
Essex Sec., Andrew Braid, Windsor. Frontenac Sec., Prof. 
W. L. Grant, Kingston. Gaelic Society of Canada Sec., Rod 
erick Macdonald, Toronto. Grenville Pioneer and Hist. So 
ciety Sec., F. P. Smith. Grimsby Sec., Linus Woolverton, 
Grimsby. Huron Institute Sec., David Williams, Colling- 
wood. Kent Sec., W. N. Sexsmith, Chatham. Lennox and 
Addington Sec., John W. Robinson, Napanee. London and 


Middlesex Sec., Miss E. Evans, London. Lundy s Lane Sec., 
John H. Jackson, C.E., Niagara Falls. Niagara Pres., Miss 
Carnochan; Sec., J. Eckersley, Niagara-on-the-Lake. Norfolk 
-Sec., H. S. Macpherson, Simcoe. Oxford Sec., Thos. P. 
Hart, Woodstock. Simcoe County Sec., A. F. Hunter, Barrie. 
St. Thomas (Women s) Pres,, Mrs. J. H. Wilson; Sec., Mrs. 
Symington. Tecumseh Memorial Association Pres., Mrs. K. 
B. Coutts, Thamesville; Sec., Dr. R. N. Fraser. Thunder Bay- 
Sec., Miss Mary Black, Fort William. Toronto Hist. Society- 
Sec., E. J. Hathaway, Toronto. Waterloo Sec., Peter Fischer, 
Berlin. Wentworth Pres., J. H. Smith, I.P.S.; Sec., Mrs. C. 
Fessenden. The Women s Canadian Historical Society Pres., 
Mrs. Thos. Ahearn; Sec., Mrs. Braddish Billings, Ottawa. 
Women s Canadian Historical Society Pres., Miss Fitzgibbon; 
Sec., Mrs. Seymour Corley, Toronto. Women s Historical 
Society, Sarnia Pres., Mrs. T. W. Nisbett; Sec., Mrs. Keat 
ing. Women s Wentworth Historical Society Sec., Mrs. 
B. E. D. Smith, Hamilton. York Pioneers Sec., J. W. Miller, 

The United Empire Loyalists Association of Canada. 
Pres., Col. G. Sterling Ryerson. Hon. (5th) Vice-Pres. and 
Pres. Ladies Committee, Mrs. Dignam, 284 St. George St., 
Toronto; Hon. Sec., Miss Helen Merrill, 4 Prince Arthur Ave., 

The object of this Society is " to unite together, irrespec 
tive of creed or political party, the descendants of those 
families who, during the American Revolutionary War of 
1775 to 1783, sacrificed their homes in retaining their loyalty 
to the British crown, and to perpetuate this spirit of loyalty." 
The Association has from time to time published much valu 
able historical material in its transactions, therefore we list 
it here, instead of in Section III. 

Canadian Folk-Lore Society. General Secretary, Mr. W. J. 
Wurtemberg, Parliament Buildings, Ottawa; Assistant-Secre 
tary, Miss C. M. Storey, 46 Leopold St., Toronto. 

Objects " The promotion of interest in the study of folk 
lore in all its branches, and the collection, preservation, and 
publication of the folk-lore and mythology of Canada (1) of 
the various Indian tribes; (2) of the Eskimo; (3) of the native- 


born Canadians of English, Scotch, Irish, Welsh, French, or 
German extraction; (4) of the thousands of foreigners, of 
many nationalities, who annually come to this country; (5) of 
the descendants of Negro refugees from the United States. 
The Society hopes, as soon as funds permit, to publish an 
annual volume of transactions, or even a quarterly journal." 
Trayel Clubs are fast increasing in number, and from a 
note kindly given by Miss H. M. Hill, President of the " To 
ronto Travel Club," we take this brief account of the ideas in 

" While the travel clubs are primarily for the study of 
countries, which the membership hope to visit, or, having 
visited, wish to learn more of by study and preparation of 
papers on their art, literature and music, they have a very 
important secondary benefit, namely, the social side. Many 
ladies with households and families find a fortnightly meeting 
not only gives them the requisite mental pleasure, but the 
tea half-hour at the close brings them in touch with their 
friends socially. The influence of the clubs is good, and they 
often help, as a body, when called upon by other organiza 

Beading and Study Clubs, with the double aim of educa 
tion and sociability, organized in connection with settlements 
or churches, or meeting in private houses, are altogether too 
numerous to list, though there is work for many more of 
such societies, whether they lay particular emphasis on whole 
some recreation or serious study. 

The Dickens Fellowship was inaugurated in October, 1902. 
Mr. Henry F. Dickens, K.C., is Life President. Headquarters, 
33 Craven Street, Strand, London, W.C., England. Canadian 
Branches: Montreal, R. G. Ridout, 32 McGill College Avenue; 
Toronto, Miss May Bengough, 66 Charles Street East; Winni 
peg, H. G. Wade, 5 Vansittart Block. 

Objects, "(a) To knit together in a common bond of friend 
ship, lovers of that great master of humor and pathos, Charles 
Dickens, (b) To spread the love of humanity, which is the 
keynote of all his work, (c) To take such measures as may be 
expedient to remedy or ameliorate those existing social evils, 
which would have appealed so strongly to the heart of Charles 


Dickens, and to help in every possible direction the cause of 
the poor and the oppressed, (d) To assist in the preservation 
and purchase of buildings and objects associated with his 
name and mentioned in his works." 

The Fellowship " has enrolled upwards of 23,000 members 
in all parts of the world, and possesses over fifty Branches in 
the United Kingdom, America,- Canada, and Australia, all owing 
allegiance to the parent Society." The Branches have con 
tributed generously, and have given many entertainments for 
the benefit of sick and poor children. For instance, the 
" largest Branch, Toronto, with nearly a thousand members, 
maintains a Dickens Fellowship Cot in the Toronto Home for 
Incurable Children at an annual cost of $100, and is now 
endeavoring to raise $2,000 for its permanent endowment." 



The Eoyal Canadian Academy of Arts, Ottawa, was founded 
1880, by H.R.H. the Princess Louise and His Grace the Duke 
of Argyll, to centralize the efforts of " Canadian painters 
under an institution as nearly as possible akin to the English 
National Gallery." Sec., E. Dyonnet, 314 St. Catherine St. 
West, Montreal. The regulations have recently been changed 
to admit ladies as Academicians (R.C.A.), but none have yet 
been elected. Associates (A.R.C.A.) include 6 ladies: Miss 
Florence Carlyle, Crowboro ; Mrs. G. Spurr-Cutts, Miss C. S. 
Hagarty, Mrs. E. A. McG. Knowles, Toronto; Miss Laura 
Muntz, Montreal; Mrs. M. H. Reid, Toronto. 

The Ontario Society of Artists, instituted 1872. Annual 
Exhibition. Pres., C. W. Jeffreys; Sec., R. F. Gagen, 28 Col 
lege St., Toronto; Executive Council (7 members) 2 women, 
Mrs. Mary H. Reid and Miss M. E. Wrinch. According to 
Fergus Kyle, in " The Year Book of Canadian Art, 1913," in 
recent years " it has encouraged . . . the young men to 
whom we must look for the art of the near future, the majority 
of whom are working and living by the commonplace employ 
ments available through the wide use of art in commerce. A 
section of the exhibition is now open to acceptable works 
from these branches." A number of women are included in its 

Montreal Art Association. Sec., Mr. Abbott. Annual exhi 
bition. Ladies exhibit. Remarkably good gallery. 


Western Art Association, Winnipeg, has offered two schol 
arships for lady students at Winnipeg School of Art. 

The Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto. Sec., Dr. Orr, 
City Hall. Here pictures of Canadian artists are to be seen, 
beside notable pictures brought from Europe and the United 
States. The Graphic Arts Section has since 1908 been con 
trolled and arranged by the Graphic Arts Club, Toronto. 

Permanent Art Exhibitions. 

The National Gallery of Canada (connected with the Cana 
dian Academy of Arts), Ottawa. Director, Mr. Eric Brown. 
Women whose work is exhibited: Muriel C. Boulton, Florence 
Carlyle, Elizabeth McG. Knowles, H.R.H. Princess Louise, 
Laura Muntz, Mary H. Reid, Sydney Strickland Tully, Mary 
E. Wrinch, Edith Adela Stanhope Forbes, Caroline Helena 
Armington, Helen McNicoll. 

Other galleries: Hamilton, recently opened, first municipal 
art gallery in Ontario. The monthly exhibitions of the Art 
Club, Ltd., of Montreal (51 Victoria St.), a group of artists 
and architects; membership both professional and amateur. 
Toronto Museum of Art, of which the nucleus was " The 
Grange " and its contents, bequeathed to the city by Prof. 
Goldwin Smith, and having a city grant. Winnipeg 1 Art Gal 
lery, the first civic art gallery in Canada, built and presented 
to the city by members of the Industrial Bureau, assisted by 
a city grant. All exhibitions free to the public. 


Note. "Also C.N.E." or " O.S.A." below means that the 
ladies exhibited also at the Canadian National Exhibition or 
the Ontario Society of Artists. 

The 36th Annual Exhibition of the Royal Canadian Acad 
emy was held in the Art Museum, Toronto, in November, 1914. 
Twenty-nine ladies were among the exhibitors: Mrs. Mar 
guerite Allan, Montreal; H.R.H. Princess Patricia of Con- 
naught; Miss Emily Coonan, Montreal (awarded travelling 
scholarship of $1,000), also O.S.A. and C.N.E. ; Mrs. G. Spurr- 
Cutts, A.R.C.A., Montreal; Miss Rita Daly, Montreal, Miss 
Jeanne de Crevecoeur, Montreal; Miss Alice des Clayes, 
Montreal; Miss Berthe des Clayes, Montreal (also O.S.A.); 
Miss Gertrude des Clayes, Montreal (also C.N.E.) ; Mrs. Mary 
Clay Ewart, Winnipeg; Miss C. S. Hagarty, A.R.C.A., Toronto 
(also O.S.A.); Miss Marie O. Hewson, Amherst; Miss Marion 
E. Jack, St. John; Miss Estelle M. Kerr, Toronto (also O.S.A.) ; 
Mrs. E. McG. Knowles, A.R.C.A., Toronto (also O.S.A.) ; Miss 
H. Mabel May, Westmount (also O.S.A. and C.N.E.) ; Miss F. 
H. McGillivray, Ottawa; Miss Helen McNicoll, Westmount 
(also C.N.E.); Miss Kathlejen Jean Munn, Toronto; Miss 
Maida Parlow, Toronto; Miss Dorothy Stevens, Toronto (also 


O.S.A.); Miss Mary E. Wrinch, Toronto (also O.S.A.). Sculp 
ture. Miss Winnifred Kingsford, Toronto; Miss Florence 
Wyle, Toronto (also O.S.A.). Etchings, Drawings and Designs. 
Miss Harriett Ford, Toronto; Mrs. Edith L. Patterson, London. 
Exhibitors at the Canadian National Exhibition only: Miss 
Laura Muntz, Montreal; Miss Dorothea Sharpe, Westmount, 
Que. At the Ontario Society of Artists only: The Misses 
Florence Carlyle, Harriet Ford, Emily Fried, Toronto; Bea 
trice Hagarty, Toronto; H. Hancock, Toronto; Carrie Lea- 
royd Hillyard, Toronto; Minnie Kallmeyer, Toronto; Marion 
Long, Toronto; Mrs. Mary H. Reid; the Misses Theresa 
Wylde and Stella Grier. 

The Women s Art Association of Canada, Incorporated. 

(Kindly contributed by its founder and Advisory President, 

Mrs. Dignam.) 

The Women s Art Association of Canada has passed the 
quarter-century mark of its existence as a national body of 
women. In 1899, the practical work of encouraging home 
industries was begun by holding exhibitions and inaugurating 
a permanent depot in Toronto, and later in London, England. 
Thus ideals were developed and a purpose stimulated, and 
the home industries and crafts of Canada are now a large 
issue. The Association has lost no opportunity to kindle and 
keep alive artistic impulse, and has allied itself with every 
effort made to stimulate worthy artistic production, in paint 
ing, music, and the applied arts, and to awaken interest in 
the public mind by recitals, exhibitions, lectures and study. 

Many exhibitions of the works of the greatest foreign 
painters have been held at a cost and effort almost prohibi 
tive, stimulating an interest in art which has been a great 
benefit to Canadian art and artists. Practical and influential 
women in different parts of Canada and in other countries have 
allied themselves with the Association, and none of its under 
takings have lacked success or lagged. Studio Days, Art 
Leagues, Craft Clubs, affiliations with other societies such as 
the National Crafts Societies of Detroit and New York, the 
Women s Institute, London, Eng., the Guild of Civic Art, 
Archaeological Society, the National and Local Councils of 
Women in Canada all these have kept the Women s Art Asso 
ciation in close touch with other bodies working for the social 
uplift and the economic and artistic progress of our people. 
Hon. Sec., Miss Emily C. Cooper, 34 Howland Ave., Toronto. 

The Canadian Handicrafts Guild stretches from Prince 
Edward Island to Vancouver. Its aim is to " encourage, 
revive, retain and develop Canadian industries," especially 
in rural districts and amongst foreign immigrants. 


Art Education. 

Ontario Eoyal College of Art, Toronto (in connection with 
the Dept. of Education). Sec. of Council and Principal, G. A. 
Reid, R.C.A.. Opened 1912. Objects: the training (1) of 
students in the Fine Arts, including Drawing, Painting, De 
signing, Modelling and Sculpture, and in all branches of 
Applied Arts, and (2) of teachers in the Fine and Applied 
Arts. " A spring session of 10 weeks and a summer session 
of 5 weeks arranged for teachers." One lady on Council, Mrs. 
Agar Adamson (representing Canadian Society of Applied 
Art,) Other art schools are the Victoria Academy of Art and 
Design, Halifax, and the School of Art and Design, Winnipeg 
(in connection with Art Gallery) . Also many artists take pupils 
in their own studios. The Technical and Normal Schools 
under the provincial departments of education give some 
training in art and craft work. Miss Jessie Semple, of 
Toronto, was the first Art Supervisor in Canada, but now 
other cities have art supervisors, including Halifax, Hamil 
ton, London, Ottawa, Regina, Saskatoon, Vancouver. Miss 
Auta Powell, of Toronto Normal School, who is enthu 
siastic on the subject, says that " art training in the common 
schools should cause every woman to dress better, have better 
home surroundings, appreciate the work of good artists, and 
be able to enjoy the beauty which is free to all." In this con 
nection we may note the Rosedale (Toronto) League of School 
Art (Pres., Mrs. Rutter), which aims to beautify school sur 


" No doubt about it, there is at present, and will be for a 
long while to come, a huge wave of musical development all 
over this country. . . . Music is no longer the cult of a 
learned and mysterious clique. It is the pastime of the people. 
. . . On this basis Canada may be called a musical country. 
So far we have not got much beyond that. We have not yet 
a grand chain of symphony orchestras; but we have at least 
five permanent organizations of that kind. . . . We have a 
circuit of grand opera, for the first time in 1913 and 1914, a 
company growing out of the Montreal Opera Company, giving 
performances all through the west as well as in the east. We 
have not a school of Canadian composers. We have a number 
of people who rank as producers of original works. . . . 
But we are a long way yet from being a musical country in 
the same sense as Germany is, or Russia. Our people do not 
sing folk songs, unless we except the chansons. Some day 
they may." (Augustus Bridle, in Canadian Courier.) 

Musical Education. In relation to music, there is in the 
Dominion a really remarkable demand for education. It 


is said that in Ontario alone there are 90,000 students of 
music. Of these by far the greatest proportion are girls and 
women. A vast amount of money is spent on music tuition, 
and everywhere, all over the country, colleges and conserva 
tories of music are increasing in number or being enlarged. 

Music and the Universities. McGill University, Montreal, 
the University of Toronto, and the University of Bishop s Col 
lege, Lennoxville, confer the degrees of Bachelor of Music and 
Doctor of Music upon students who comply with the pre 
scribed requirements of the curriculum. Dalhousie Univer 
sity, Halifax, Acadia University, Wolfville, and Mount Allison, 
University, Sackville, also confer the degree of Bachelor of 
Music. In connection with McGill and Toronto Universities, 
public local examinations are now held yearly at different 
centres throughout the Dominion. 

Colleges and Conservatories of Music. Halifax Conserva 
tory of Music; Director, Harry Dean. Hamilton Conserva 
tory of Music, in affiliation with the University of Toronto; 
Managing Director, Bruce A. Carey. London Conservatory 
of Music and School of Elocution, Ltd., London, Ont.; 
Prin., Mr. F. L. Willgoose, A.R.C.O., Mus.Bac. Ottawa Cana 
dian Conservatory of Music, Ltd.; Musical Director, H. 
Puddicombe. Toronto Canadian Academy of Music, Ltd.; 
Musical Director, Peter C. Kennedy; 1 branch. Hambourg 
Conservatory of Music (the Russian School) ; Directors, 
Michael, Jan and Boris Hambourg; 3 branches; Women s 
residence, Supt, Miss Falconbridge. Toronto College of 
Music (in affiliation with the University of Toronto) ; Musical 
Director, F. H. Torrington, Mus.Doc. (Tor.) ; 2 branches. 
Holds local examinations at different centres throughout 
Canada; Stanstead Wesleyan College, Stanstead, Quebec, is 
in affiliation with the above. Toronto Conservatory of Music; 
Musical Director, A. S. Vogt, Mus.Doc. ; 11 branches of school; 
holds local examinations in different parts of the Dominion; 
Women s residence, Supt., Miss L. A. Wilson. Winnipeg- 
Columbian Conservatory of Music, 135 Hargrave St., Winnipeg; 
Director, Mr. S. L. Barrowclough; one branch in Montreal. 

In connection with most of these are Schools of Expression 
or Dramatic Art; and many of them give instruction in 
" Classical, National and Folk Dances." And in Toronto is 
the Margaret Eaton School of Literature and Expression, 
North St.; Prin., Mrs. Scott Raff. 

Canadian Women in Music. From time to time Canadian 
women have achieved great things in the interpretation of 
music. Amongst these may be mentioned " de Chambly girl," 
Marie Lajeunesse (better known as Madame Albani), and the 
Russian Jewess, Madame Pauline Seveilhac or " Donalda," 


who, born and educated in Montreal, went to Europe and 
returned to her native city as so famous a singer of grand 
opera that the Mayor and Council presented her with an 
address. Canada can claim also two women violinists of 
international reputation, Nora Clench, and Kathleen Parlow, 
who was born at Calgary in 1890, studied at San Francisco 
and St. Petersburg, and has played before many of " the 
crowned heads " of Europe. Mrs. Gena Branscombe Tenney, 
born in Picton, Ontario, now living in New York, is a com 
poser of songs " worthy of her native land and sung by 
great artists." Another Canadian woman, Mrs. Evelyn 
Fletcher Copip, of Brookline, Mass., has done excellent work 
for music in a different line in originating the Fletcher Music 
Method, which, through the varied materials used, appeals 
" to the play instinct of the child," making " music-study a 
joy instead of a drudgery." She believes that "the need for 
music is inherent in every child." 

We regret that owing to lack of space we cannot list the 
many musical clubs and societies in which women take so 
large a part. 

Choral Music. " Choral singing has the great advantage of 
providing an endeavor in which large numbers can contribute 
their simple neighborly parts toward the creation of a beauti 
ful whole. And, sooner or later, the chorus demands skilled 
direction, an orchestra, new literature, original composition." 
(The Canadian Journal of Music.) 

During the iseason two of Ontario s choirs visited the 
United States. One of thes was the famous " Mendelssohn 
Choir," of Toronto, founded and conducted by Dr. Vogt, 
which was intending in 1915 to make a European tour, to 
include London, Paris and Berlin, but the outbreak of the war 
has obliged indefinite postponement of the plan. The second 
choir referred to above was the " Elgar Choir," of Hamilton, 
which is winning laurels under the able leadership of Mr. 
Bruce A. Carey. Mr Carey also conducted the " Thousand- 
Voice Choir " which sang at the Hamilton Industrial Expo 
sition of 1914. The choirmasters of the city were invited to 
bring their choirs together, and this " largest attempt " of 
the kind ever made in Canada proved a most gratifying 

Mentioning only a few of the Dominion s numerous choirs, 
Toronto has also the National Chorus," conducted by Dr. 
Albert Ham; the " Oratorio Society," conducted by Dr. Edward 
Broome; the " Schubert Choir," conducted by H. M. Fletcher; 
the " Hambourg Choral Society," conducted by G. M. Sher 
lock. Ottawa has its " Choral Society," conducted by J. Edgar 


Birch, and Peterborough its " St. George s Choral Society," 
conducted by R. J. Devey. The city of Quebec has three 
French choirs, " L Union Musicale," " L Union Chorale Pales- 
trine," and " L Union L Ambillotte." In New Brunswick there 
is the "St. John Choral Society," and Halifax has its 
; Orpheus Club," organized thirty years ago. Nor is the West 
less interested in music. 

Musical Festivals. Under the auspices of the Winnipeg 
" Oratorio Society," conducted by John J. Moncrieff, is held 
annually a three-days Musical Festival, for which soloists of 
distinction and " the admirable Minneapolis Symphony Or 
chestra," conducted by Emil Oeberhoffer, are engaged. 

The seventh Annual Festival of the Alberta Musical Com 
petition Association (Sec., Claude Hughes) was held at 
Edmonton last May. The Festival Chorus and Orchestra was 
conducted by W. Harry Watts. There were musical contests 
in eighteen classes. The adjudicators were Dr. A. S. Vogt, 
of Toronto (who thinks music in the West greatly improving), 
and W. H. Hewlett, of Hamilton. 

The Saskatchewan Musical Festival (Sec., N. G. Palmer), 
which, having taken place in Regina, Prince Albert and Sas 
katoon, has been described as a " travelling festival," was 
held in the last-mentioned city in 1914. The judges of the 
contestants were Dr. Vogt, Mr. Hewlett and Mr. Rhys Thomas, 
of Winnipeg. The Festival Chorus was conducted by Mr. Izon. 

During 1914 several meetings were held in London to 
inaugurate the " Western Ontario Musical Festival Associa 
tion " (Pres., Rev. Canon Tucker; Sec., J. H. C. Woodward), 
with a view to holding a competition in May, 1915. These 
musical competitions awaken immense interest, and are 
surely doing much to cultivate the spirit of music in Canada. 

Children s Choirs. Some very good juvenile choirs com 
peted at the Western Festivals, and in Ontario greatly 
increased attention has been given recently to the teaching 
of singing in the public schools. In Toronto, annually on 
Empire Day, the " public schools compete for a choral ban 
ner." Mr. A. T. Cringan, Mus.Bac., is director of music in 
the public schools of Toronto, and teaches music in the 
Normal and Model Schools. 

Canadian Orchestras. Chief of these is the Toronto Sym 
phony Orchestra, founded and conducted by Mr. Frank S. 
Welsman. In this orchestra all its 75 players are profes 
sional. In the west, the Calgary Symphony Orchestra was 
organized in 1913; Conductor, Max Weil. 

Throughout Canada free music for the people is supplied 
chiefly by bands, military and civilian; and by organ recitals 
in some of the city churches. 


The Toronto Musical Protectiye Association (in affiliation 
with the " American Federation of Musicians ") . To this be 
long " practically the whole " of the 700 musicians of Toronto, 
who earn a living wholly or in part by music, and are mem 
bers of the eight military bands, the twenty professional 
orchestras connected with the theatres or moving picture 
houses, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra and some outside 
professional orchestras. The association is open to ladies as 
well as gentlemen, " who can pass a qualifying examination 
on their instruments," but the former are not at present 
eligible for the sick benefit branch, though relief is always 
given to any in need, irrespective of isex. 

There are similar musical associations at Montreal, Ottawa, 
Peterborough, Lindsay, Barrie, Hamilton, Brantford, St. Cath 
arines, London, Berlin, Preston, Waterloo, Stratford, St. 
Mary s, Windsor, Port Arthur, Fort William, Winnipeg, Bran 
don, Portage la Prairie, Saskatoon, Moose Jaw, Calgary, Ed 
monton, Vancouver, Victoria, Address, The Secretary, " Musi 
cal Protective Association," etc. 

(The above information was kindly supplied by Lieut. 
Slatter, Bandmaster, "48th Highlanders.") 

Canadian Actresses. 

By Miss Lucy Swanton Doyle (Dramatic Critic, The Evening 

Telegram, Toronto). 

Canada haw been ruthlessly assailed this last year by those 
who point to her as a nation without a drama. But while it 
may be granted that as yet there is no school of dramatists 
in the Dominion, her daughters attainments in drama s 
realm show them worthy of the greatest. For has not our 
own Margaret Anglin been referred to by Madame Sarah 
Bernhardt herself as " one of the few dramatic geniuses of 
the day." And not only has Miss Anglin won distinction in 
emotional and classical roles, but her success has ranged 
from modern comedy to "Antigone," which she produced at 
California s Greek Theatre in 1911. 

Nobly has Miss Anglin sustained the splendid traditions 
of our mothers day, when Clara Morris, another Toronto girl, 
was considered one of the greatest emotional actresses. 

Julia Arthur, who gave a single performance for a Boston 
war benefit in November in her old r61e in Thomas Aldrich s 
Mercedes," recalls yet another Canadian girl who reached 
the very heights of dramatic fame. And before her retire 
ment on her marriage to Mr. Benjamin Cheney, of Boston, 
Miss Arthur was declared by critics to have no rival on the 
American stage. Her " Juliet " was a noteworthy one. And 
still another Canadian girl whose portrayal of Shakesperian 



heroines places her among the famous stage queens of this 
continent, is Miss Viola Allen. 

Among the noted comediennes Canada can sjiow such 
names as May Irwin, Marie Dressier and Rose Stahl; while 
to many it may come as a surprise that Quebec can claim 
Eva Tanguay, that musical comedy artist, famed as " the 
highest paid actress Qn the stage to-day." Then, while men 
tioning musical comedy, we might point out that Miss Christie 
Macdqnald and Miss Alice Yorke are both Canadians. Pass 
ing to grand opera, we find Madame Beatrice La Palme 
and Madame Louise Edvina. The latter Paris critics this 
year voted as the greatest " Louise " of the day, and her 
" Tosca " also was declared to be rivalled by none. 

To return to the drama, we find Mrs. Stuart Robson and 
Miss Margaret Robinson established figures, while Miss Kath 
leen Macdonell and Miss Catharine Proctor appear as two of 
the most promising younger Canadian actresses, whose gifts 
have already been recognized. In character work Miss Maud 
Eburne scored such a distinct success last winter in New 
York that her name deserves mention among the best. 

Heliconian Club, Toronto Pres., Mrs. Agar Adamson; 
Sec., Miss Lucy S. Doyle, 45 MacLean Ave. ; Clubrooms, north 
west cor. Young and Grosvenor Sts. Object: To promote a 
comradeship amongst women engaged in the professions of 
music, art and literature, and to develop these professions. 



Some facts as to the depletion of the rural population 
in many districts of the Dominion were referred to in Sec 
tion II. The little space at our command in this section 
we should like chiefly to devote to the consideration of the 
means that are being used to bring about healthier conditions 
in our national life. 

Inyestigation of the Problem. It is hopeful that people 
are beginning to study the facts. A short time ago Rev. John 
MacDougall, of Spencerville, Ontario, was requested by the 
Board of Social Service of the Presbyterian Church " to pre 
pare for a Summer School a short course of lectures dealing 
with the problem of the Country Church." The result was 
the publication of " Rural Life in Canada," a volume throwing 
a flood of light on conditions in the country. He points 
out that the problems of the country to-day are rural depopu 
lation and its economic causes " the decay of village crafts, 


the modern industrial system, unscientific husbandry, lack 
of credit, uneconomic taxation," and so forth,, while in the 
Fourth Chapter, on " the social causes of unrest," he enters 
on questions that touch women particularly closely the long 
hours of labor, the scanty labor-saving devices in the houses, 
the lack of efficient assistance, of social life and healthful 
recreation. Mr. MacDougall points out that the social life of 
pione-er days was richer because " the essential operations 
of the farm brought people together," in logging and other 
" bees." " The use of machines has made it possible for 
men to labor more alone . . . while the needs of the social 
life are forgotten in eager pursuit of the material god," 
but he believes that " the newer and better agriculture is 
richer by far in potentialities of social satisfaction through 
collaboration than was the earlier primitive farm." 

A Rural Surrey. In December and January, 1913-14, the 
first Canadian rural survey was made in Huron County, by 
" co-operating organizations of the Presbyterian and Meth 
odist Churches," with Rev. George Jewitt as president and 
Rev. Samuel F. Sharp, B.D., as secretary-treasurer. " The 
actual field work was done under the direction of Rev. Walter 
A. Riddell, B.D.," an " expert in Social Survey work." (See 
" Social Service Boards," Section XIX.) 

The aim was to bring out the facts, good or bad, and 
" make clear a programme or policy for the future." Three 
points emphasized are: (1) "The supreme importance of the 
development, in children and young people, of the highest 
character through education and training." (2) " That no 
one institution or movement will solve the country problem, 
but that all forces must unite and co-operate for that end. 
Much can be done through the public school; much through 
farmers organizations; much through Governmental action, 
as in a progressive immigration policy or tariff reform; much 
through the Church; but no one alone is sufficient." (3) That 
(for many reasons) " the Church is the organization that is 
best qualified to lead in the rehabilitation of the country." 

Education for Country Life. The importance of school 
gardening, nature study, and " vocational education for coun 
try people and country children," is now generally recognized; 
many people look to the country school, reorganized, to stem 
the tide of population flowing from the rural to the urban 
districts. Referring to this point at the recent Social Service 
Congress in Ottawa, Rev. John MacDougall said: "A satis 
factory farm life must be not only based on economic justice 
and opportunity, but must also be built up in industrial busi 
ness efficiency. . . . Agricultural education of the most 
thorough kind is afforded a limited number through our 
agricultural colleges, and effective guidance is afforded to 


many through the various extensive agencies; the problem 
now is to afford it to all. The plan for a most effective 
general agency is available in that splendid document, the 
recommendations of the Commission on Industrial Training 
and Technical Education." 

These are (in part) Intermediate Rural Classes (or 
Schools), Rural High Schools; Resident or Travelling 
Instructors and Instructresses; County or District Agricul 
tural and Housekeeping Schools; Young People s Social Ser 
vice Schools; Schools for Agricultural Apprentices and Agri 
cultural Colleges. To quote Mr. MacDougall again, " There 
is an imperative call for education in the country which shall 
not only train the youth for the occupation of agriculture, but 
which shall hold them with magnetic interest in the schools 
until trained for life as well as for occupation." (In this 
connection, see notes on Macdonald Institute in Section VIII.) 

Training of Teachers. At the present stage a great diffi 
culty in every province is the supplying of teachers for the 
rural schools, who are capable of giving the children the 
kind of education suggested above. Says Inspector McGuire, 
of the Central Division of Manitoba (quoted in Report on In 
dustrial Training, etc., IV, 2237), "We want nature study; we 
want school gardening; we want industrial work in our rural 
schools; and we want the teachers to recognize that the 
ordinary school arts can be better taught through these sub 
jects than by books alone. . . . When these ideas have 
been emphasized in the teacher s education they will be 
emphasized in the teacher s work, and not before." 

On the other hand, it is wonderful how much many a 
young girl succeeds in doing for her school and the neigh 
borhood; and it may be cheering to some overworked school 
teachers to read the following lines from the report of a 
Nova Scotia school inspector, Mr. C. Stanley Bruce: "I could 
name off-hand upwards of fifty teachers in the rural schools 
of this Division, the thoroughness of whose work under most 
trying conditions is quite remarkable. It is no uncommon 
thing to find a young girl handling every grade from I to X 
in a school of upwards of thirty children; managing the 
parents at the same time, which is a much harder thing to 
do; raising money to buy a library or apparatus; taking 
a leading part in the religious and social life of the village; 
and doing all these things well for perhaps $175.00 a year." 

Summer Schools for Teachers. Many teachers, moreover, 
are eager to improve, as is shown by the large numbers 
attending Summer Schools of the different provinces during 
the vacation. For instance, in 1913, in little Prince Edward 
Island no less than 267 pupil-teachers (most of them girls) 
attended a summer school In agriculture. 


In British Columbia, "approximately 500 school-teachers, 
three-fifths of whom were women," took a four weeks course 
at Victoria of instruction in music, domestic science, rural 
and manual training, " in order to fit them for the pre-voca- 
tional training of children" now being introduced into the 

The School Garden " provides for exercise in the open 
air, which is a benefit physically. It meets that requirement 
which child-nature demands something to do with the hands. 
It helps to create a school spirit. This is important. It is 
the beginning of a community spirit, or the working together 
of persons for the good of the community." 

Added to all this, it may help vastly in teaching country 
children to appreciate " country values." There are not yet 
so many school gardens as there ought to be, but in every 
province they are increasing in number. 

In Quebec, in 1912-13, 234 schools, situated in 35 counties, 
cultivated school gardens, 7,740 children receiving instruction 
in horticulture. 

School Progress Clubs are an institution in Ontario. Their 
membership is amongst the pupils in the higher classes, and 
they are distinguished by such names as " The Wide Awake 
Club " and " The Better Poultry Club." Some of the schools 
interested in the raising of fowls " are being supplied from 
the Poultry Department of the Agricultural College with eggs 
from an improved egg-laying strain of Barred Rocks . . . 
with the condition that the following spring the school receiv 
ing the settings will furnish an equal number of settings to 
a near-by school free on the same conditions. By this means 
the schools throughout the province may become active in 
promoting improvements in poultry." 

" We have several types of Children s Progress Clubs," 
writes Mr. W. J. Hustin, one of Ontario s " Field Agents in 
Agricultural Education." " Several are testing new varieties 
of grains or potatoes; others have for their object the gen 
eral improvement of the school and school grounds. Domes 
tic Science Clubs have interested the girls in cooking and the 
care of the home. All the clubs are organized, and have 
officers appointed the same as any co-operative society. The 
general results of Children s Clubs show: (1) A much deeper 
interest on the part of the pupil for both school and home; 
(2) a more kindly feeling among the children, and a greater 
confidence between teacher and pupil; (3) a vast improve 
ment in oral composition and puplic speaking, as well as a 
better understanding of business affairs." 

The School Fair. " The object of the School Fair is to 
create in the pupils attending the rural school a deeper 
interest for things on the farm, that will enable them in 


after life to cope with the difficulties and enjoy the pleasures 
of country life. The Department of Agriculture supplies 
seeds of the very best varieties of the different crops to be 
planted at home by the pupils. In growing these crops the 
pupils are afforded an excellent opportunity for studying 
the varieties of crops, preparation of the soil, and methods 
of cultivation." 


w For Home and Country." 

A Recently-Discovered Force, largely available for the 
uplift of country life, is womanhood, organized into " Women s 
Institutes " and " Homemakers Clubs " organizations which, 
according to the " Rural Survey " (referred to above) have 
proved far more " successful and influential " than " similar 
men s organizations." 

" The task the women of these clubs have given them 
selves is to elevate the conditions and the atmosphere of 
home life, thus creating a high standard of home and civic 
life; in short, to surround the young, impressionable ones 
with everything that will serve to make of them, as far as 
human perfection can go, beings morally, mentally and phy 
sically equipped." (Farm and Ranch Review, Calgary.) 

From Ontario comes this note: "There is a growing 
tendency among Institutes to undertake some special line of 
social work. The sanitation of the rural school, the estab 
lishment of libraries, the consideration of social problems, 
child-welfare, dental and medical inspection of rural school 
pupils are receiving due consideration." 

Women s Institutes have indeed been " of great assistance 
to schools in many districts, helping to beautify them, help 
ing to commence school gardening and provide for the care 
of the garden during vacation, assisting at school fairs and 
Arbor Day celebrations." One Ontario Institute, that of 
Belleville High School, was organized " by the teachers and 
mothers connected with the High School," later the " Public 
School mothers asked to be taken in." 

What Club Life is Doing for the Country Woman. Besides 
the wives and mothers, there are in the Institutes "scores 
of other women, business women, teachers and lecturers." 
We quote the above from a paper by Mrs. W. Bertrand, 
of Queenstown, Alberta, in the Farm and Ranch Review: 
"Amongst these women are those working hard for 
their sisters who are suffering helplessly for assistance. 
Some are working hard for a dower law, others for temper 
ance, many for equal political rights and still others for 
educational reforms. They are a noble class these women 
toiling for protection and justice for their sisters who are 


not in a position to toil for themselves, and I am glad they 
are among our womenfolk." This large sisterhood includes 
women of many races. " They have brought from their country 
their best; let us give to them our best. Then shall Canada 
respect and admire our womenfolk. : 

In New Ontario the Institutes are filling a need in the lives 
of lonely pioneer women, and the following note from Temis- 
kaming (which is the largest district, and has the greatest 
number of branches), is well worth quoting, for the idea it 
gives of the variety of activities which the Institute women 
of one district find for themselves. Mrs. H. W. Parsons, who, 
by the way, has been on the lecture staff of the Ontario 
Women s Institutes for some years, taking up social, literary, 
religious and educational topics, is District President of 

" In the last few months 8 new branches have been formed, 
bringing the total up to 24. 

" The interests that have engaged the attention of these 
good northern women are child welfare, school fairs, medical 
rural school inspection, etc. The North Cobalt women have a 
public library. The ambition of the women of little Earlton 
led them to erect a hall; Monteith has purchased first aid 
and maternity outfits to be at the service of the com 
munity; Cochrane distributes good literature among the 
settlers. The wave of patriotism has not left the North un 
touched. Every branch has tried to do its duty. Elk Lake, 
the " newest baby," is providing comforts for her own twenty 
men that go to the front. 

" The Frederick House branch is worthy of remark in 
that it is the first organization of any kind to be instituted 
on the National Transcontinental R. R. Mrs. Holden (nee 
Merrill), is its first president. We do not claim that Temis 
kaming has done better work or more work than other parts, 
but it has given undoubted proof of the fact of its existence, 
and that the ideals for home and country are of vital import 

ance. 5 

Agriculture for Women.- ( This," said Mr. W. E. Scott, 
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, and Superintendent of In 
stitutes, British Columbia, at a recent conference, " is work 
which we should take up in our Institutes. There is no doubt 
whatever in my mind that there are many opportunities for 
women in the lighter phases of agriculture. I see some ladies 
before me, who, I know, are getting good financial returns 
from the lighter phases of farming, such as poultry raising, 
flower and bulb culture, market gardening, small fruits, and 
bee-keeping. I saw a lady the other day in the Upper Country 
who, out of poultry keeping, was netting very satisfactory 
profits. What one person has done, another can, and I just 


instance that to show what can be done by the adoption of 
right methods." The same applies to women in other pro 

The Lome Park Hostel An Interesting Experiment- In 

the fruit growing districts of Ontario, there has been a diffi 
culty for the growers, owing to the scarcity of pickers in the 
fruit season. In view of this an experiment was made in 
1912 which is developing in an interesting way. In order to 
help the growers of the district in which she lives, and to 
place out-door work within the reach of town girls, Mrs. L. A. 
Hamilton opened a hostel for girls at Lome Park, Ont, 
fifteen miles from Toronto, where girls of all classes are 
received through the ten to twelve weeks of the season. 

" The first year the hostel had twenty-six beds, and has 
now closed its third successful season, during which as many 
as thirty-five girls were accommodated at one time, the build 
ing being quite full for the greater part of the season. The 
girls included stenographers, graduate nurses, factory hands, 
girls from stores, house-workers, teachers, etc. The majority 
came as fruit pickers, while some made use of the hostel 
merely as a holiday resort. Each year has brought develop 
ment and added comfort. The original small house and 
shack have been abandoned and the buildings now occupied 
are a comfortable group of houses. Farmers to the number 
of sixteen were supplied in larger and smaller numbers with 
pickers. In this district, where labor of this kind has hitherto 
been very scarce, the certainty of obtaining even a few steady, 
reliable workers has relieved the pressure considerably. The 
popularity of the life in the country under the conditions 
pointed out above has steadily increased year by year, so 
that in 1914 Mrs. Hamilton was reluctantly obliged to refuse 
a number of applications from lack of space. The fruit pick 
ing, though not highly lucrative, offers an opportunity for a 
country outing to many a girl who might otherwise not be 
able to take one. The buildings are within easy reach of Lake 
Ontario. Bathing parties are very frequent, and the happy, 
sunburnt faces testify to the health-giving benefits of this 
enterprise. At a uniform charge of $3.00 a week for board 
and lodging, the hostel pays its way, allowing a little for im 
provement year by year. 

" While in the past many women have done fruit picking, 
the advantage of this class of hostel lies in the fact that 
under the management the girls have proper chaperonage 
and comfortable board and meals. Many girls who would 
otherwise go into the country districts are reluctant, or their 
parents are reluctant for them, to undertake the work, where 
this superintendency and chaperonage is not given. The day 
begins with breakfast at 6.30, and at 7 o clock the farm 


waggons take the pickers to their work in the various places. 
They carry their lunch pails with them, and are brought back 
at 6 in the evening to a good dinner. Saturday afternoon is 
free, and this is the day when many bathing parties and 
picnics are indulged in. Amongst those who have availed 
themselves of this opportunity of learning something of farm 
ing life is a large number of girls with a certain amount of 
agricultural experience, who would like themselves to become 
agriculturists. For them it is absolutely necessary that farm 
colonies should be established, and Mrs. Hamilton hopes to 
see something of the kind growing, perhaps, out of this very 

Superintendents of Women s Institutes. 

Alberta. Mrs. C. E. Lewis, Department of Agriculture, 

British Columbia. Advisory Board of Women s Institutes: 
Pres., Mrs. M. V. Davies, Chilliwack, P.O. Box 267; Mrs. R. L. 
Lipsett, Summerland; Mrs. John F. Kilby (L.H.), Nelson; 
Sec., Mrs. A. T. Watt (H.R.), William Head, Vancouver Island; 
Lecturer, Miss Alice Ravenhill, Fellow of the Royal Sanitary 
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, and author of many 
books and articles on sanitary and health subjects. In 1900 
she " was sent to investigate methods of teaching hygiene 
and the domestic arts in the schools and colleges of the 
United States, on behalf of the Board of Education of Great 
Britain and Ireland." 

In the last report of the Advisory Board a most valuable 
and suggestive publication 34 Institutes were listed, of 
which nine were on Vancouver Island. 

Manitoba (Provincial Home Economics Societies) ; address, 
Manitoba Agricultural College. Pres., W. J. Black, Managing 
Director of Extension Work; Mrs. E. Charlton-Salisbury, 
Supt. of Prov. Home Economics Societies; Miss Hattie M. 
Gowsell, Extension Lecturer. Convention is usually held 
some time in February; local societies hold their annual 
meetings in December. Mrs. Charlton-Salisbury reports: 
We have at present thirty Home Economics Societies in 
this province, with a total membership of about 1,200. These 
societies are scattered pretty well over the province, so that 
their influence is felt through the country." 

New Brunswick. Supervisor, Miss Hazel E. Winter, 
Fredericton; Sec., Miss I. Johnston, Fredericton. Thirty-nine 
branches; 982 members. Special bulletins prepared by Miss 
Jean B. Peacock. 

Nova Scotia. Superintendent, Miss Jennie E. Fraser, New 
Glasgow. Since July, 1913, when the organization was begun, 
Prof. M. Gumming, Secretary for Agriculture, says in his last 
report: "Fourteen Institutes have already been organized; 


the first annual convention has been held, and preparations 
are now under way for extending the organization through 
out the whole province," while Miss Praser estimates that 
the average number of members of each Institute is 25. 

Ontario. Superintendent, Mr. Geo. A. Putnam, Dept. of 
Agriculture, Toronto. There are this year in the province 
98 districts, containing 835 branches, and over 25,000 mem 
bers. Lectures are given by: Miss Margaret A. Allan, Dr. 
Annie Backus, Mrs. J. E. Brethour, Dr. Caroline Brown, Miss 
Susie Campbell, Miss E. M. Chapman, Miss E. M. Collins, 
Miss Edna M. Cowling, Miss Anna J. Coutts, Mrs. W. Dawson, 
Miss B. .Gilholm, Miss Mabel Govenlock, Miss G. Gray, Mrs. 
G. H. Greer, Miss E. J. Guest, Dr. L. M. Hamilton, Miss Marion 
Hill, Mrs. J. J. Lowe, Mrs. M. McQueen, Miss M. M. MacTavish, 
Dr. Margaret McAlpine, Mrs. E. B. McTurk, Miss Mary E. 
Murdock, Mrs. M. N. Norman, Mrs. L. M. Parsons, Dr. Margaret 
Patterson, Miss M. V. Powell, Miss Janet M. Preston, Miss 
Lulu Reynolds, Miss Ethel Robson, Miss F. D. Saunders, Dr. 
Jennie Smillie, Miss Jean Cameron-Smith, Mrs. Laura Rose 
Stephen, Miss Davina M. Sutherland, Miss N. C. French, Mrs. 
F. W. Watts, Mrs. M. L. Woelard, Miss Agnes M. Young. 

Prince Edward Island. Supervisor Women s Institutes, 
Miss Katherine James. Twenty-one Institutes in 1913. 

Quebec Homemakers Clubs. Miss Frederica Campbell, 
Macdonald College, P.Q., a trained demonstrator, assists in 
organizing homemakers clubs and co-operative societies, 
in planning and arranging for meetings, and gives lectures 
and demonstrations on the homemakers problems. 

Saskatchewan. Homemakers Clubs, Supt., Miss Abbie De- 
Lury, University of Saskatchewan Extension Dept., Saskatoon. 
She writes bulletins on health, etc. Clubs, 53. Here, as at 
Macdonald Institute, Guelph, and the Department of Agricul 
ture, Alberta, there is a circulating library consisting of bul 
letins, pamphlets and magazine clippings, which may be used 
in preparing programmes for club meetings. 

Saskatchewan Women Grain Growers* Association. 
Executive officers: Mrs. John McNaughtan, Piche, president; 
Miss Erma Stocking, Delisle, secretary-treasurer; Mrs. John 
Ames, Hanley, director District 8. This auxiliary to the men s 
" Grain Growers Association " was formed in February, 1913. 
At its second convention in 1914 the Association adopted the 
constitution of the men s section, with some additional clauses 
regarding the establishment of libraries, arranging of lec 
tures, encouragement of co-operation, etc. The platform of 
the Women Grain Growers is as follows: First and foremost, 
to further those causes they are advocating, making such 
causes planks in the platform of the Women Grain Growers 
Association, namely, the Banish the Bar Movement, Woman s 


Franchise, Policy of Peace, Rural Education, Co-operation 
and Establishment of Social Centres; secondly, to help and 
strengthen the men s organization. 


" The individual is more or less powerless, if the com 
munity conscience has not been awakened, insomuch as no 
man liveth to himself. A community is but a large family. 
The individual may rigidly observe all the laws of sanitation, 
but his neighbors by their reckless neglect may in many ways 
endanger his life. . . . The members of the great human 
family are bound together by a thousand secret ties of whose 
existence the world in general little dreams, and he who has 
never yet been connected with his poorer neighbor by deeds 
of charity or love may one day find, when it is too late, that 
he is connected with him by a bond which will bring them 
both at once to a -common grave." Dr. Hastings. 

Commission of Conservation. 

Chairman, Hon. Clifford Sifton; Assistant to Chairman, 
James White, F.R.G.S. ; Chairmen of Committees: Fisheries, 
Game and Fur-bearing animals, Dr. C. C. Jones; Forests, 
Senator W. C. Edwards; Lands, Dr. J. W. Robertson; Min 
erals, Dr. F. D. Adams; Press and Co-operating Organiza 
tions, J. F. McKay; Public Health, Sir Edmund B. Osier; Water 
and Water-Powers, Hon. H. S. Beland; Agriculturist, F. C. 
Nunnick, B.S.A.; Forester, Clyde Leavitt, B.A., M.Sc.F.; 
Hydro-Electric Engineer, Leo. G. Denis, B.Sc. ; Medical Ad 
viser, Chas. A. Hodgetts. M.D.; Mining Engineer, W. J. Dick, 
M.Sc. ; Librarian, H. A. Grange, B.A. ; Chief Draughtsman, 
Thomas Grindlay. Office, Ottawa. Annual Meeting in Jan 
uary each year. 

" The Canadian Commission of Conservation was formed 
in 1909 in response to the strong and growing public senti 
ment demanding a saner system of national economy respect 
ing the development of Canada s natural resources. The Act 
of Parliament authorizing the creation of the Commission 
. . . (Section 10) reads as follows: It shall be the duty 
of the Commission to take into consideration all questions 
relating to the conservation and the better utilization of the 
natural resources of Canada, to make such inventories, col 
lect and disseminate such information, conduct such investi 
gations inside and outside of Canada as may seem conducive 
to the accomplishment of that end. Purely an advisory 
body, the Commission aims to secure, through co-operation 


with the various executive departments of the federal, pro 
vincial and municipal governments, full knowledge of the 
extent and wise methods in the administration of Canada s 
natural wealth. In composition and personnel the Commis 
sion is as truly representative as it is national in its outlook 
and purpose, combining in its membership a high degree of 
scholarship, of scientific knowledge and of administrative 
experience. . . . The Commission has already made sub 
stantial progress in forwarding the work of conserving our 
natural resources. . . . Experts possessing experience 
and technical training are applying themselves to the work 
of estimating, as far as is practicable, the extent of the 
Dominion s wealth in forests, minerals, water-powers, game, 
fisheries, and other resources. At the same time, the neces 
sity for a sound system in developing resources has been 
constantly urged; every effort has been made to eliminate 
waste due to extravagant mining operations, to careless and 
unintelligent agriculture, to the annual ravages of forest fires. 
Advice has been given to executive departments in respect 
to problems of administration. . . . Opinions have been 
expressed concerning proposed legislation and, in connection 
with the incorporation of companies, the Committee has, on 
several occasions, successfully opposed the granting of char 
ters subversive of the public interests. The most important 
branch of all, the conservation of human life, has received 
the attention it merits." (See Section XIV.) " At the present 
time special investigations into questions of town-planning 
are being conducted. Finally, every effort has been made 
. to make the public fully conversant with the work 
undertaken and the results achieved. Through the publica 
tion and wide distribution of reports and bulletins, through 
addresses by the Chairman and other officials of the Commis 
sion before representative bodies, and, above all, through the 
hearty co-operation of the press, the Canadian people have 
been kept fully informed of the progress made toward the 
attainment of a wise and efficient administration of their 
national domain." (Official memorandum.) 

Winnipeg Town-Planning Commission Chairman, W. 
Sanford Evans, Esq. was organized in 1911. Through one 
of its committees the Commission conducted a Social Survey, 
so far as the funds at its disposal would allow. With the 
co-operation of the Winnipeg Industrial Bureau it brought 
about also the meeting, in July, 1912, of 

The First Canadian Housing and Town-Planning Congress, 

the object of which was the education, first, of those " who 
took positions of leadership in the movement, and in the 
second place, and no less important, of the general public, 
since it was absolutely essential to have a body of enlight- 


ened public opinion in support of any recommendations that 
might be made." 

Social Suryeys. Within the last two years, the Board of 
Temperance and Moral Reform of the Methodist Church and 
the Board of Social Service and Evangelism of the Presby 
terian Church have made investigations of a preliminary 
character into social conditions in Port Arthur, Port William, 
Hamilton, Sydney, Regina, Vancouver, London (prepared for 
the " Men s Federation " of London), and Huron County. (See 
Section XII.) Many of the facts in this section are taken 
from these surveys, of which the purpose is thus stated :- 

" The City, like the individual, may be the builder of her 
own destiny. . . . Until very recently, and it is true of 
the vast majority still, the great desideratum of our cities 
was bigness. They pressed on to this goal blindly, regardless 
of the waste of life and property and the other evils which 
attended such a mad career. ... A few have found a 
new ideal that of being better places in which to live. . . . 
Canada stands to gain much from the survey idea. Our 
cities are young, and if they set about to know themselves in 
their youth, even if that does involve facing some unpleasant 
facts, they will be able to frame a future far more grand 
than anything that will come if they remain in complacency. 
The same is true of our rural communities. . . . Indeed, 
it is likely that in time we shall be so impressed with the 
necessity of social investigation that each large city will 
have its bureau of social research making that continuous 
study which is the only basis for intelligent action for civic 

The City and Suburbs Plans Act. From the viewpoint 
of the Town-Planner, this is "perhaps one of the most useful 
pieces of legislation that the Ontario Government has passed 
in years." The Act, which became effective May 4th, 1912, 
" places power in the city s hands to control the layout of 
all subdivisions within five miles of the city limits, with 
respect to the width and number of streets and the direction 
in which they run, and the width and depth of lots." At 
present the City Surveyor of Toronto " is engaged in pre 
paring block plans of the entire five-mile area." (Toronto 
Civic Guild Bulletin, Jan., 1914.) 

City Planning is " good sense and forethought applied to 
the building of cities." " Each ity is an individual problem/ 
" Wise city planning assures the greatest good to the greatest 
number. It is the substitution of order for chaos. It helps 
to satisfy the eight basic desires of mankind with which 
government chiefly concerns itself: health, wealth, safety, 
companionship, education, righteousness, convenience and 
beauty. It is one of the chief essentials of twentieth century 


progress in municipal development." (Pamphlet " City Plan 
ning Exhibition," American City Bureau, New York.) 

It happens that 1914 is an eventful year in town planning 
for Canada, as the American " National Conference of City 
Planning " had accepted an invitation to meet in Toronto in 
May. Inasmuch as many Canadian delegates joined in the 
deliberations, it has often been referred to as the First In 
ternational Conference on City Planning. The hosts of the 
conference were the Commission of Conservation, the Pro 
vince of Ontario, the City of Toronto, the Toronto Board of 
Trade, and the Toronto Harbor Commissioners. The discus 
sions touched all phases of town planning, and many speakers 
emphasized the fact that the first concern of town-planning 
is the health and convenience of the people, not monumental 
structures. It was pointed out that it stabilizes values, pre 
vents loss occasioned by the frequent tearing down of costly 
structures; that without it, transportation facilities tend to 
form new congested areas; but, that legislation is needed to 
" keep the plan on the map," and prevent its being upset by 
some individual who thinks he sees a chance to make money. 

Town Planning Acts. The first draft of a "Town Plan 
ning Act " for the Canadian provinces was submitted to the 
Conference for criticism and suggestion. Referring to this 
bill, Dr. C. A. Hodgetts said : " The problem, so far as Canada 
is concerned, is one that cannot be solved by any legislation 
of the Dominion Government, as the power to enact laws 
having bearing upon municipal affairs is a function of the 
provincial legislatures. With the object of securing co-opera 
tion along the lines just indicated and the enabling legislation 
necessary, the Commission of Conservation appointed a Com 
mittee to draft a Town-planning Bill, also a Housing Bill, 
which, with necessary variations, would be applicable to each 
province, and after it has been submitted to the Attorney- 
Generals for their consideration, it will be finally approved 
and then recommended for enactment by the several legis 
latures. It is quite true there exists legislation in some of 
the provinces upon town-planning, as in New Brunswick, Nova 
Scotia and Alberta, for instance, but they lack in some essen 
tials, the chief one being in the failure on the part of the 
Provincial Government to provide the central authority which 
must control, and in a sense supervise and direct, munici 
palities in all that appertains -to town-planning." 

Dr. Hodgetts is urgent that Canadians, while aiming at 
" the City Beautiful," should not neglect to pay attention to 
" the Town Healthy." Ontario has a City-Planning Act, but 
it has been criticized as beini applicable only to cities having 
a population of 50,000 or over. 


Town-Plaiming and Civic Improvement Organizations. 

" A City Beautiful Association was formed at Vancouver in 
1912, and its first work was the protection of Stanley Park, 
a park with an area of 1,000 acies. A certain section in the 
City were agitating for the cutting down of the trees and 
converting the park into an open space. This the Associa 
tion was successful in preventing." 

The Association was also successful in creating a great 
deal of public interest in the plans for a causeway and 
entrance into the Park to replace an old wooden bridge, and 
" in having the Park Board clean up a lot of shacks along 
English Bay and open up the ground for the people. 

" All this has slowly led up to the idea of a Civic Centre 
for Vancouver, and in 1913 a committee representing all the 
public bodies was formed and a preliminary plan was sug 
gested. Through the generosity of a leading citizen, a $1,500 
prize is now offered to the architect submitting the best plan 
of a Civic Centre. Seventy architects and engineers from 
every part of Canada and the United States have entered the 
competition and a splendid result is looked for." 

The following are a few examples of societies for the pur 
pose of municipal improvement: 

Union of Canadian Municipalities. Pres., C. M. R. Graham, 
Esq., Mayor of London, Ont.; Hon. Sec., W. D. Lighthall; 
Asst. Sec., G. S. Wilson; Bureau of Information, 402 Coristine 
Bldg., Montreal. 

Ontario Association of Architects has a Civic Improvement 

Calgary. City-Planning Commission. Sec., A. Calhoun, 
Public Library, Calgary. Citizens appointed by Mayor " to 
act in an advisory capacity," in order " to make Calgary a 
better city to come to, to live in, to work in, and to move 
about in." 

Halifax. Civic Improvement League. Pres., R. M. Hattie; 
Sec., E. T. Kelly. " The promotion of city-planning, civic art, 
and the improvement of various public services." 

Hamilton. City Improvement Society. 

Montreal. City Improvement League. Sec., Dr. Atherton, 
20 St. Nicholas St. This organization and the Local Council 
of women some years ago inaugurated a " Clean-up " cam 
paign in Montreal. Since then " no less than two hundred 
cities and towns in Canada have followed suit." Montreal 
Tenants Protective Association united with Trades and Labor 
Council to attempt to abolish yearly lease system. 

Ottawa. City-Planning Commission. Chairman, H. S. 
Holt, Esq., Montreal. The members of this commission for 
beautifying the capital city were chosen from different parts 
of the Dominion. 


Toronto. Association of Architects has Civic Committee; 
Board of Trade Civic and Social Service Committee, Chairman, 
K. J. Duncan, 26 Adelaide St. W.; Municipal Improvement 
Association, Lumsden Building, Pres., A. M. Ivey; Sec., W. 
J. A. Donald. Objects To support good city government, 
and when and where necessary to improve on the old; in 
short, to elect to the City Council men of broad, constructive 
and executive ability. Toronto Bureau of Municipal Research, 
Pres., John Macdonald; Director, Dr. H. C. Brittain. Objects 
(a) To keep alive between election times interest in the reasons 
for good government and to provide non-partisan, non-politi 
cal, continuous emphasis upon the methods, acts and results 
as distinct from personalities and politics of public busi 
ness, (b) To promote efficient and economic government; 
to promote the adoption of scientific methods of accounting 
and reporting the details of public business, with a view to 
facilitating the work of public officials; to secure construc 
tive publicity in matters pertaining to public problems; and 
to these ends, to collect, to classify, to analyze, to correlate, 
to interpret and to publish facts as to the administration of 
government Guild of Civic Art, Pres., C. M. Mitchell, C.E.; 
Sec., Frederick L. Riggs, office, Traders Bank Bldg. Toronto 
Harbor Commission, Chairman, Lionel H. Clarke; Sec., Alex. 
C. Lewis, 25 Spruce St. Toronto Improvement Conference, a 
conference of twenty-two Ratepayers Associations within the 

Vancouver. City-Planning and Beautifying Commission, 
Commissioner, D. M. Stewart. 

Weston Town-Improvement Society (exclusively women). 
Pres., Mrs. Dawson, Weston, Ont. 

Winnipeg 1 . Town-Planning Committee of Industrial Bu 
reau, Chairman, Wm. Pearson. 

The Housing Problem. Recent information comes that 
" the housing problem in St. John is very acute at the present 
time. Three or four real estate companies have commenced 
erecting houses, but these are middle-class houses, and the 
workingman s house is still needed." 

The correspondents of the Labor Gazette have reported 
a lack of housing accommodation at Halifax, Predericton, 
Welland, and other places. (See also rents, under " Cost of 
Living," Section VI.) But to say that in many of our towns 
there is an insufficient number of houses by no means tells 
the story to the person who is not familiar with the over 
crowded districts. In the " Social Surveys " referred to above 
it appears that of Port Arthur " the most congested section of 
the city is subdivision 2-1 of ward 2. In 800 acres in the 
central portion of the city it is estimated by the city officials 
that there are 12,000 of the city s 16,000 people, In the resi- 


dential area, it is estimated there are about 30 people to an 
acre; and in the more congested districts, 40; the total 
average being about 10." 

In Fort William, " one house of five rooms sheltered 18 
Bukowinians; another of nine very small rooms housed 17 
Greeks. Seventeen Italians were found in a house of six 
rooms, and 13 Italians in a house of three rooms." 

At Hamilton, 16 Italians were found in seven rooms, paying 
$22.00 rent. In eighteen houses, with fifty-eight rooms, in 
London, there were more " than two lodgers in twenty-five 
of the rooms; more than three in eighteen rooms; more than 
four in six rooms; and six lodgers in one room," 

In the Winnipeg City-Planning Commission Report it is 
stated that " there are hundreds of rooms into which sunlight 
can never enter, and, therefore, those engaged in fighting the 
white plague find not only the old breeding places of the dis 
ease, but that new breeding places are being built every day." 
There is " also the moral danger which threatens the rising 
generation, as the figures show there is very frequent indis 
criminate mixing of sexes in sleeping apartments, there being 
too many cases where several men, women and children 
occupy the same bedroom." 

The Slums a Breeding-Place for Disease and Immorality. 

" The crowded habitations, the filthy environments of the slums, 
constitute a fertile soil in which to bring the germs of disease 
and vice to fruition. Here are found the settings of the stage 
on which the child of the slum acts her juvenile parts acts 
them so well that she glides into her predestined place in the 
patchwork of crime and prostitution. A child born and 
reared amidst such environments has almost the same chances 
of evading a life of shame and crime as would have an un- 
vaccinated baby confined in a pest-house of escaping small 

" Placed in the same or similar circumstances, how many 
children would turn out any better than those that emanate 
from the slums? As Dr. Russell, of Glasgow, in his address 
on the Lodger Evil, expresses it, I ask you to imagine 
yourselves, with all your appetites and passions, your bodily 
necessities and functions, your feelings of modesty and your 
sense of propriety, your births, your sickness, deaths, your 
children in short, your lives in the whole round of your 
relationship with the seen and the unseen suddenly shriv 
elled and shrunk into such conditions of space: I might ask 
you, I do ask you, to consider and honestly confess, what 
would be the result to you? " 

" In all countries great men have come alike from hall 
and from hut, often from poverty, but rarely from destitution. 
House, feed and teach children decently, and we shall find 


geniuses, if we note history correct, in all conditions of men. 
When to all children we have given a fair chance, then we 
may see what we have to fight in heredity." (Dr. Hastings, on 
" Euthenics or the Science of Right Living.") 

The Ontario Housing Act, of 1913, was passed by the 
unanimous consent of the House and enables all cities and 
towns in Ontario to guarantee the bonds of a housing com 
pany, organized to improve housing and not for profit, to the 
extent of 85% of the money required, the remaining 15% 
to be stock of the Company paid in cash. Dividend on stock 
is limited to 6% per annum. " A Council which guarantees 
the . bonds of such a company may be represented on the 
Board of Directors by one member of the Board." Any pro 
fits remaining after paying dividends and " providing a rea 
sonable contingent fund shall be expended in acquiring more 
lands, improving the housing accommodation or redeeming 
the capital stock. The shares so redeemed shall not become 
extinct, but shall be held by a Board of Trustees." 

Quebec s "Better Housing Bill" was passed in 1914, to 
authorize municipalities to subsidize companies formed " to 
undertake the construction of suitable and sanitary houses 
for the working classes at a reasonable rental." 

The Toronto Housing Company, Pres., G. Frank Beer, Esq. 
This Company is not a philanthropy or a charity. It was 
organized to help to solve the housing problem in Toronto 
upon sound economic principles. After eight months study 
of the problem and the local conditions, the Company was 
organized in May, 1912, by a joint committee representing the 
City Council, the Board of Trade, the Civic Guild and the 
Manufacturers Association. " A few weeks after the Act was 
passed the City Council authorized a guarantee of the Com 
pany s bonds to the extent of $850,000, which with $150,000 of 
stock " (a small portion of which is yet to be subscribed) 
provided " an initial building programme of $1,000,000." 

The Company has purchased land in the northwest section 
of the city on which houses will be built for sale to workmen 
on easy terms; and also a farm of 200 acres splendidly situ 
ated near the city, which as soon as transportation facilities 
are provided will be developed as a " garden suburb." 

Besides these preparations for the future, the work of the 
Housing Company has been well begun, with the building on 
Bain Avenue of 154 very pleasant cottage flats. Of these 
118 are rented, while 62 more are almost ready for occupation. 
The flats are of six types, but each one " has its own front 
door, its own bathroom, its separate balcony. Tt is heated, 
and hot water is supplied all the year round. Gas stoves, 
electric fixtures and blinds are installed," and the grass of 
the courts between the cottages, which serve as delightful 


playgrounds for the small children, is kept in order free of 

In addition, a house has been built to accommodate one 
hundred business girls. (See under Section IX.) 

Traffic Problems in cities are intimately connected with 
the height of buildings. Hon. Lawrence Purdy, Pres. Board 
of Assessment and Apportionment of New York City, is quoted 
in the Toronto Civic Guild Bulletin as saying that " a piece 
of property on lower Broadway, 25 ft. wide and 100 ft. deep, 
recently sold for $1,250,000. The highest price for a lot of 
the same size 1,000 feet either east or west of Broadway is 
$25,000." Mr. Purdy added that if there had been a proper 
limitation to the height of buildings in New York no lot could 
attain to the value of one and a quarter million dollars. It 
would mean, further, " a spreading out of the crowds and the 
avoiding of congestion. There would be no dense crowds in 
streets too narrow to accommodate the people, and it would 
not be necessary to arrange luncheon hours in order that 
there might be room in the streets for the workers." Cana 
dian cities should take warning in time. 

Ontario Safety League. Pres., James L. Hughes, LL.D. ; 
Sec., R. B. Morley, Toronto. The League is an educational 
organization formed late in 1913 upon the suggestion of the 
Ontario Railway and Municipal Board: To safeguard and 
protect the public, especially children, from the dangers of 
automobiles, railroads, street railways and all forms of vehi 
cular traffic on the public highways in this Province. To 
educate the public through schools, churches, literature and 
all channels of publicity upon matters pertinent to public 
safety. To minimize the injuring and killing of persons em 
ployed in stores, factories, workshops and all departments of 
industrial and mercantile activity, by instilling into the minds 
of employer and employee the full meaning of " Safety First." 
To co-operate, so far as lies in the power of the League, in 
preventing the useless destruction of life and property by 
fire. To advocate and secure possible remedies and preven- 
tatives, and to assist in the enactment and enforcement of 
ordinances requisite to carry out the foregoing. 

One thousand seven hundred street-car conductors joined 
the League within a few days. 

Legislation in Interests of " Safety." Ontario "Motor 
Vehicles Act" amended by provision for appointment of " auto 
mobile constables," and by requiring properly certificated 
drivers. Amendment (1914) to Dominion "Railway Act" 
making appropriation " to aid actual construction work . . . 
for the protection, safety and convenience of the public in 
respect of highway crossings of railways at rail level." 
An Act to regulate the manufacture, testing, storage and 


importation of Explosives, 1914. Act to amend the law relat 
ing to Merchant Shipping, 1914 (with regard to the respon 
sibility resting on vessels in collision, and the liability of the 
owners in case of " loss of life or personal injury," and regu 
lations as to ralvage). Act introduced requiring that no rail 
way, except in cases of emergency, " shall permit any em 
ployee to be on duty for a longer period than 14 consecutive 

Municipal Parks. " It is extremely interesting to learn 
that statisticians have found that the death rate of the larger 
cities of the continent is in direct proportion to the area of 
breathing spaces. 

" Dr. Alphonse Bertillon has stated that six per cent, of 
the Paris households live in an atmosphere dangerous to 
health, and more than 1,000,000 inhabitants lack fresh air 
and light. In consequence of these statements an insistent 
demand is being made in Paris for a greater number of open 

It is pointed out that lack of air and light is practically 
a synonym for tuberculosis. The death rate from this disease 
is almost in proportion of the open space to inhabited space. 
It is shown that, Berlin has about twice as much breathing 
space as Paris, and London three times, while the proportion 
of deaths from consumption is 4.5 per 1,000 in Paris, 2.2 in 
Berlin, and 1.5 in London." (Toronto Civic Guild Bulletin.) 

The proportion of park areas in the following cities is: 
Calgary, area 40% sq. m.; 10 parks, 577% acres. Fredericton, 
15 sq. m.; parks and greens, about 100 acres; Hamilton, area 
6,430 acres; 13 parks, 300 acres, and 100 acres outside city; 
Keglna, area, 8,640 acres; parks, 257 acres. St. John, area 
about 21 sq. m. ; parks, about 500 acres. Saskatoon, area 14 
sq. m. ; 14 parks, 400 acres. Sydney, area 5.83 sq. m.; 1 park, 
26 acres, loaned to city. Toronto, 33 sq. m. ; parks, 1,858.79 
acres. Vancouver, 13% sq. m. ; 23 parks, 1,415 acres. 

(For Playgrounds, Bathing Beaches, etc., see under " Re 
creation," Section XV.) 



" The physical strength of the people is the resource from 
which all others derive value. Extreme and scrupulous 
regard for the lives and health of the population may be taken 
as the best criterion of the degree of real civilization and 
refinement to which a country has attained." Hon. Clifford 



Public Health Copmittee, Commission of Conservation. 

" The Committee on Public Health has investigated housing 
conditions and such municipal problems as sewage systems, 
garbage disposal, pollution of waterways. In 1910 a Con 
ference of Dominion and Provincial Health Officers held "In 
Ottawa, under the auspices of the Commission of Conserva 
tion, recommended the establishment of a National Public 
Health Laboratory and the creation of a Central Council of 
Health. These recommendations have been approved by the 
Dominion Government." (Official Memorandum.) 

The head of the Health Department of the Commission, 
Dr. C. A. Hodgetts, has delivered public addresses throughout 
the Dominion from East to West, on " housing, town-planning, 
infantile mortality, the care of the feeble-minded, tuberculosis, 
and many other public health questions." Dr. Hodgetts urges 
that steps should be taken to " secure uniformity throughout 
the Dominion " with regard to vital statistics, and desires 
Federal legislation " which would unify and co-ordinate this 
important branch of public health work, under a well-organ 
ized Federal department of health." In August last the Com 
mission began to issue a bi-monthly publication with the 
suggestive title, " Conservation of Life." 

Provincial Boards of Health. 

Alberta. Prov. M.O.H., W. C. Laidlaw, M.D., Edmonton. 
British Columbia. Act g Sec. Board, W. Bafty, M.D., Victoria. 
Manitoba. Sec., E. M. Wood, Winnipeg. 

Nova Scotia. Prov. Health Officer, W. H. Hattie, M.D., Halifax. 
Ontario. Sec. and Chief Health Officer, John W. S. McCul- 

lough, M.D., Toronto. 

Quebec. Sec., E. Pelletier, M.D., 9 Rue St. Jacques, Montreal. 
Saskatchewan. Com. Pub. H., M. M. Seymour, M.D., Regina. 

The social ills which require the services of a public 
health official are one and the same as those which brought 
private social welfare agencies into existence." S. Howard 
T. Falk. 

Life Saving through Health Work. Death rate from tuber 
culosis in Toronto, per 100,000, 1906, 163; 1913,96. The death 
rate from typhoid fever has been reduced 80 per cent, in three 
years as follows (per 100,000 population): 1910, 40.8; 1911, 
20.0; 1912, 12.1; 1913, 10.4. "The means employed: Water 
filtered and sterilized; sewage sedimented and sterilized; 
milk inspected all pasteurized; free laboratory diagnosis; 
privy pits abolished; anti-fly crusades; other educational cam 
paigns." (By kindness of Mr. R. E. Mills, Dept. of Health.) 

The economy of having an Efficient Health Department is 
strikingly shown by the following extract from the Toronto 
Health Bulletin, of April, 1912. " The total amount of milk 
sold in Toronto daily is 96,000 quarts. Nine months ago, 


41.5% of the total milk sold was watered, and, on an average. 
20% of water was added. At the present time 5% of the 
total milk sold is watered, and the average amount of water 
added is 10%. Nine months ago, 7,968 quarts of water, which 
had been added as an adulterant, were sold daily as milk at 
9 cents per quart, which amounted to $717.12. At the present 
time, 480 quarts of water are being sold daily as milk, at 
9 cents a quart, which amounts to a total of $43.20. There 
fore the saving for one day to buyers of milk is $673.92, which 
for 365 days means a total saving of $245,980.80. The organ 
ization which has accomplished this has cost about $3,000. 
. What the obtaining of cleaner and purer milk has 
meant in the saving of sickness and life, which is the real 
purpose of the Health Department, we have no data to submit. 
We know that from now on Toronto will be saved at least a 
quarter of a million dollars annually by not buying water 
instead of milk. ... In other words, the saving on one 
universal article of diet, in dollars, to the citizens of Toronto 
by the scientific control of the milk problem, has more than 
paid for the total cost of maintenance of the Department of 


With date of establishment, number of graduate nurses on 
staff,, number of years training, etc. " Pupils " means pupil- 
nurses; and " Supt." means "Superintendent of Nurses," 
unless "(Hosp.)" is added, when it stands for " Superintendent 
of Hospital." 

Province of Alberta. 

Edmonton General Hospital. 1894; Sisters of Charity in 
charge; beds, 100; grad. nurses, 10; pupils, 22; 2% yrs. 

Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton. 1912; Supt., Miss 
H. B. Tairservice; beds, 122; grad. nurses, 8; pupils, 44; 3 yrs. 

General Hospital, Medicine Hat. 1889; Supt. (Hosp.), Dr. 
C. E. Smyth; Supt. (Nurses), Victoria L. Winslow; beds, 110; 
grad. nurses, 5; pupils, 25; 3 yrs. 

City of Edmonton Isolation Hospital. 1907; Supt. (Hosp.), 
Dr. T. H. Whitelaw; Supt., Miss J. Macdonald; beds, 60; 
grad. nurses, 5; pupils, 3; 4 months post-grad, course. 

Strathcona General Hospital. - 1906; Supt, Helena M. Ven- 
borne; beds, 15; grad. nurses, 5; 2% yrs. 

The Gait Hospital, Lethbridge. 1891; Med. Supt., F. H. 
Mewburn; Miss A Forgie, R.N. ; beds, 70; grad nurses, 12; 
pupils, 8; 3 yrs. 

Province of British Columbia. 

Vancouver General Hospital. 1902; Supt. (Hosp.), Dr. W. 
A. Whitelaw; Supt. (Nurses), Miss A. Macfarlane; beds, 275 
in Gen., 60 in Isol.; grad. nurses, 9; pupils, 75; 3 yrs. 


St. Joseph s Hospital, Victoria. 1876; Supt, Sr. Mary 
Bridget; beds, 210; grad. nurses, 9; pupils, 38; 3 yrs. 

Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital, Victoria. 1891; Supt. 
(Hosp.), Dr. E. Hasell; Supt. (Nurses), M. C. Macdonald; beds, 
100; grad. nurses, 3; pupils 28; 2% yrs. 

The Jubilee Hospital, Vernon. 1897; Supt., M. Katherine 
Gallaher; beds, 75; grad. nurses, 3; pupils, 12; 3 yrs. 

Fernie General Hospital. 1909; Supt. (Hosp.), Dr. Carson; 
Supt. (Nurses), Miss Erant; grad. nurses, 4; pupils, 5; 3 yrs. 

Kootenay Lake General Hospital, Nelson. 1893; Supt, 
Edith E. Lumsden; beds, 45; grad. nurses, 3; pupils, 11; 2 yrs. 

Prince Rupert General Hospital. 1909; Supt, Miss K. E. 
McTavish; beds, 36; grad. nurses, 5; pupils, 3; 3 yrs. 

Mater Misericordia Hospital, Rossland. 1904; beds, 25; 
grad. nurses, 5. 

Province of Manitoba. 

Winnipeg General. 1882; Supt. (Nurses), Miss Frederica 
Wilson; beds, 260; grad. nurses, 15; pupils, 95; 3 yrs. 

Brandon General Hospital. 1892; Supt, Mary E. Birtles; 
beds, 120; grad. nurses, 5; pupils, 30; 3 yrs. 

Children s Hospital, Winniqeg. 1909; Supt., J. T. Ramsay, 
R.N. ; beds, 100; grad. nurses, 4; pupils, 24; 3 yrs. 

General Hospital, Portage la Prairie. 1900; Supt, Miss 
C. M. Bowman; beds v 75; grad. nurses, 2; pupils, 12; 3 yrs. 

Selkirk General. 1908; Supt., Ada Janet Ross, R.N. ; beds, 
25; pupils, 3; 3 yrs. 

Dauphin General Hospital. 1900; Supt. A. Isabel Laidlaw; 
beds, 2;; pupils, 7; 3 yrs. 

The Freemasons Hospital, Morden. 1893; Supt, Evelyn 
M. Whitney; beds, 23; pupils, 9; 3 yrs. 

Misericordia Hospital, 20 Sherbrooke St., Winnipeg. Supt., 
Sr. St. Aime; beds, 175. 

North Winnipeg Hospital, Winnipeg. 

General Hospital, St. Boniface. Supt., Sr. Lupien; beds, 
200; 52 Sisters (Grey Nuns), 50 nurses. 

Grace Hospital, Winnipeg (See Section XVI). 

Province of New Brunswick. 

Victoria Public Hospital, Fredericton. Supt., Mabel O. 
Dumphy Richards; beds, 45; grad. nurse, 1; pupils, 10; 3 yrs. 

Chipman Memorial Hospital, Saint Stephen. 1902; Supt., 
\rthuretta Branscombe; beds, 34; grad. nurses, 2; pupils, 10; 
3 yrs. 

Province of Nova Scotia. 

Nova Scotia Hospital, Dartmouth. 1854; Supt. (Hosp.), Dr. 
W. H. Hattie; Supt. (Nurses), Harriet Sampson; beds, 420; 
grad. nurses, 10; pupils, 40; 2 yrs. 

Victoria General Hospital, Halifax. 1866; Supt. (Hosp.), 


Mr. W. W. Kenny; Supt (Nurses), Violet L. Kirke; beds, 170; 
grad. nurses, 10; pupils, 32; 2 yrs. 

St. Joseph s Hospital, Glace Bay. 1902; Miss Janet E. 
Cameron; beds, 90; grad. nurses, 4; pupils, 28; 3 yrs. 

Aberdeen Hospital, New Glasgow, 1897; Supt., Miss Jessie 
M. Sheraton; beds, 40; grad. nurses, 2; pupils, 12; 3 yrs. 

Halifax Infirmary. 1908; Supt., Sr. Francis Joseph; beds, 
35; grad. nurses, 3; pupils, 9; 3 yrs. 

All Saints Springhill Cottage Hospital. 1893; Supt. 
(Hosp.), Rev. Canon Wilson; Supt. (Nurses), Miss Margaret 
McKenzie; beds, 33; grad. nurses, 1; pupils, 6; 2 yrs. 

Brooklands Hospital, Sydney. 1901; Supt, Miss Putanham; 
beds, 30; grad. nurses, 4; no training-school for nurses. 

Halifax Children s Hospital. 1909; Supt., Miss P. M. 
Fraser, R.N. ; beds, 26; grad. nurses, 3; pupils, 3; 3 yrs. 

The Hamilton Hospital, North Sydney. 1908; Supt, Sr. 
Mary Austin; beds, 24; grad. nurses, 2; pupils, 3; 3 yrs. 

Harbour View, Sydney Mines, 1908; Supt, Miss Calder; 
beds, 20, a wing being built for 30 beds; grad. nurses 5; not 
a training-school. 

Payzant Memorial Hospital, Windsor. 1905; Supt, Miss 
Helen McKay; beds, 15; pupils, 3; 3 yrs. 

The Truro Hospital. 1909; Supt., Mrs. Margaret Johnsen; 
beds, 10; grad. nurses, 3; 3 attendants. 

Province of Ontario. 

Toronto General Hospital. 1817; Supt (Hosp.), Dr. C. 
K. Clarke; Supt (Nurses), Jean I. Gunn; beds, 715; grad. 
nurses, 27; pupils, 182; 3 yrs. 

St. Michael s Hospital, Toronto. 1892; Supt. (Hosp.) M. 
M.Victoria; Supt (Nurses), Sr. M. Attracta; beds, 375; grad. 
nurses, 110; 3 yrs. 

The City Hospital, Hamilton. 1860; Supt (Hosp.), Dr. 
W. F. Langrill; Supt. (Nurses), Kate Madden, R.N.; beds, 
366; grad. nurses, 4, and Dietician; pupils, 80; 3 yrs. 

Ottawa General Hospital. 1845; Supt. (Hosp.), Sr. Mary 
du Sauveur; Supt (Nurses), Sr. St. Josaphat; beds, 300; 
grad. nurses, 12; pupils, 45; 3 yrs. 

Victoria Hospital, London. Incor. 1882; Supt. (Hosp.) 
Thos. H. Heard; Supt. (Nurses), Margaret E. Stanley; beds, 
300; grad. nurses, 7, and Dietitian; pupils, 85; 3 yrs. 

Toronto Western Hospital. 1896; Supt. (Hosp.), Mr. H. C. 
Tomlin; Supt (Nurses), Miss S. L. Bell; beds, 253; grad. 
nurses, 3, and Dietist; pupils, 55; 3 yrs. 

Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. 1875; Supt, Florence 
I. Potts; beds, 180; grad. nurses, 4; pupils, 60; 3 yrs., 4 mos. 

Riverdale Hospital, Toronto. 1895 ; Supt, Kate Mathieson; 
beds, 174; grad. nurses, 3; pupils, 20; 3 yrs. 


The County of Carleton General Protestant Hospital, Ot 
tawa. Training-School, 1890; Supt (Hosp.), Donald McDon 
ald Robertson, M.D.; Supt. (Nurses), Mary A. Catton; beds, 
135; grad. nurses, 3; pupils, 47; 3 yrs. 

Grace General Hospital, Toronto. 1893 ; Supt., Georgia L. 
Rowan; beds, 112; pupils, 41; 3 yrs. 

Sault Ste. Marie General Hospital. 1898; Supt. (Hosp.) 
Sr. Howlay; Supt. (Nurses), Sr. M. Dorothea; beds, 90; pupils, 
14; 3 yrs. 

St. Joseph s Hospital, Port Arthur. 1885 ; Supt. (Hosp.), 
Mother Monica; Supt (Nurses), Eliz. Regan; beds, 85; grad. 
nurses (sisters), 4; pupils, 15; 3 yrs. 

Guelph General. 1888; Supt., Miss Rukie; beds, 85; 
grad. nurse, 1; pupils, 30; 3 yrs. 

St. Vincent De Paul Hospital, Brockville. 1904; Supt. 
(Hosp.), Sr. M. Clement; Supt. (Nurses), Sr. M. Sulalia; beds, 
80; grad. nurses on staff, 10 Sisters; pupils, 6 Sisters, 11 
secular nurses; 3 yrs. 

General and Marine Hospital, St. Catharines (First train 
ing-school in Ontario). 1865; Supt, L. I. Uren; beds, 80; grad. 
nurses, 2; pupils, 20; 3 yrs. 

St. Luke s General Hospital, Ottawa. 1898; Supt., Emily 
S. Maxwell; beds, 80; grad. nurses, 2; pupils, 28; 3 yrs. 

St. Joseph s Hosp., London. 1889; Supt. (Hosp.), Mother 
M. Michtilde; Supt. (Nurses), Sr. M. St. Roch; beds, 80; grad. 
nurses, 5; pupils, 43; 3 yrs. 

General Marine, Owen Sound. 1892; Supt., Maud M. Red 
mond; beds, 79; pupils, 14; 2 yrs. 

The Belleville General. 1886; Supt. Miss C. H. Greene; 
beds, 75; grad. nurses, 2; pupils, 15; 3 yrs. 

St. Joseph s Hospital, Guelph. 1861; Supt. (Hosp.), Sr. 
Martina; Supt. (Nurses), Sr. Bernardine; beds, 70; grad. 
nurses, 5; pupils, 18; 3 yrs. 

Stratford General Hospital. 1891; Supt., Lola M. Weldon; 
beds, 66; grad. nurse, 1; pupils, 18; 3 yrs. 

The John H. Stratford Hospital, Brantford. 1884; Supt, 
Margaret M. Carson; beds, 60; grad. nurse, 1; pupils, 18; 
3 yrs. 

Brockville General Hospital. 1888; Supt, Gertrude M. 
Bennett; beds, 60; grad. nurse, 1; pupils, 16; 3 yrs. 

Railway, Marine and General Hospital, Port Arthur. 1909; 
Supt., Louisa Patterson; beds, 50; grad. nurses, 3; pupils, 
9; 3 yrs. 

General and Marine, Collingwood (Training-School) . 
1908; Supt, Martha E. Morton; beds, 50; pupils, 15; 3 yrs. 

Sarnia General Hospital. 1895; Supt, Eliz. Dulmagh; 
beds, 50; grad. nurse, 1; pupils, 14; 2 yrs. 


Cornwall General Hospital. 1897; Supt., Miss G. Plewes 
Stork; beds, 50; grad. nurses, 12; 3 yrs. 

St. Joseph s Hospital., Peterborough. 1888; Supt. (Hosp.), 
Sr. M. Antoinette; Supt. (Nurses), Sr. St. Joseph; beds, 47; 
grad. nurses, 6; pupils, 8; 3 yrs. 

St. Joseph s Hospital, Chatham. 1890; Supt. (Hosp.), 
Mother M. Sophia; Supt. (Nurses), Sr. M. Philomena; beds, 
47; grad. nurses, 7; pupils, 17; 3 yrs. 

Lady Grey Hospital, Ottawa. 1910; Supt. (Hosp.), Dr. J. 
K. M. Gordon; Supt. (Nurses), Miss J. K. Argue; beds, 45; 
grad. nurse, 1; pupils, 9; 3 yrs. 

Woodstock General Hospital. 1895; Supt., Frances Sharpe; 
beds, 40; grad nurse, 1; pupils, 10; 3 yrs. 

The Nicholls Hospital, Peterborough. 1886; Supt, E. M. 
Beamish, R.N.; beds, 40; grad. nurse, 1; pupils, 16; 3 yrs. 

The Ross Memorial, Lindsay. 1902; Supt, Nellie M. 
Miller; beds, 32; grad. nurse, 1; pupils, 12; 3 yrs. 

Province of Saskatchewan. 

Regina General. 1899; Med. Supt., Dr. Dakin; Supt 
(Nurses), E. G. Clearihue; beds, 125; grad. nurses, 8; pupils, 
20; 3 yrs. 

Moose Jaw General. 1906; Supt, A. B. Clarke; beds, 100; 
grad. nurses, 4; pupils, 14; 3 yrs. 

City Hospital, Saskatoon. 1909; Supt. (Hosp.), J. Ryan; 
Supt. (Nurses), E. B. Whyte; beds, 85; grad. nurses, 6; pupils, 
30; 3 yrs. 

St. Paul s Hospital, Saskatoon. 1907; Supt. (Hosp.), Sr. 
St. Ligouri; Supt. (Nurses), Sr. C. Wagner; beds, 55; grad. 
nurses, 7; pupils, 12; 2 1 /& yrs. 

Queen Victoria Hospital, Yorkton. 1902; Supt., Helen S. 
Walker; beds, 35; grad. nurses, 2; pupils, 5; 3 yrs. 

Lady Minto Hospital, Melfort. 1907; Supt., Lillian 
Sweeney; beds, 30; grad. nurses, 3; no training-school. 

Maple Creek General Hospital. 1904; Supt, Miss Edith 
P. Cacey; beds, 24; grad. nurses, 2; pupils, 3; 3 yrs. 

Indian Head General Hospital. 1905; Supt., Grace Cooper, 
R.N. ; beds, 20; grad. nurse, 1; pupils, 3; 3 yrs. 

Moosomin General. 1903; Supt., Miss Eliz. Brown; beds, 
15; grad. nurses, 2; pupils, 2; no graduation. 

Lashburn Cottage Hospital. 1909; Supt. (Hosp.) Dr. L. 

Hurlburt; Matron, C. Marion Stile; beds, 11; grad. nurses, 2. 

-By the courtesy of Miss B. Crosby, Editor of Canadian Nurse. 

Province of Quebec. 

Children s Memorial Hospital, Montreal. General Hospital, 
Montreal; Homeopathic Hospital Phillips Training School, 
Supt., Mrs. Helen Pocock; Hotel-Dieu; Montreal Foundling 
and Sick Baby Hospital; Montreal Maternity Hospital; Notre 
Dame Hospital; St. Justine Hospital; Western Hospital. 


General Hospital, Quebec. Supt., M. St. Ignace de Loyola; 
Sisters, 80; beds, 250. Hotel-Dieu of the Precious Blood, Que 
bec. Supr., M. St. Dominique; beds, 200; sisters, 100. 
Social Service Work in Hospitals. 

" Before the Social Worker was established, the splendid 
convalescent equipment of the Moore Home was seldom used 
by the General Hospital, and the total number of patients from 
all sources admitted in a single year was but 16. Last year 
the Social Service Department of the General Hospital alone 
sent the Moore Home 24 cases." (Report, Jan. 1913-14, Social 
Service Department, Montreal General Hospital.) 

The need was there, and the provision for the need, but 
there was failure of connection, resulting in misery and eco 
nomic loss. The same report shows 198 patients " Trans 
ferred from the General Hospital to Other Resident Institu 
tions," and 314 " Referred to Charitable Agencies." What 
would have become of these cases if there had been no Social 
Service nurse? 

From the physician s standpoint: " Many difficult cases are 
cleared up and help afforded by the Service or the proper 
Society or Institution, and the physician is not driven to the 
hopeless task of attempting to cure starvation or defects due 
to environment by advice and drugs." (Report, Dr. Goldie, 
Chief, Dec., 1913, of the Medical Out-Patient Dept, Toronto 
Gen. Hospital.) " A most rapidly developing department of 
the General Hospital is the Social Service Department. This, 
though in its infancy, is doing a grand work not only in the 
Hospital but in the home when the breadwinner of the family 
is on the sick-bed receiving the hospital care. This depart 
ment is maintained by the Women s Auxiliary, and they are 
to be congratulated for such philanthropic work." (Report, 
1913, of Supt. Malcolm T. MacEachern, M.D., Vancouver Gen. 

The benefit to co-operating societies in saving of time and 
effectiveness of work cannot be dealt with here. 

The Hospital as a Friend: " By her entrance to the homes 
the nurse can be of much assistance in building up the eye, 
ear, nose and throat clinics and thus doing another large piece 
of preventive work. How often in the homes of the poor are 
these serious disorders considered of minor importance, and 
only by much urging will they consent to come to the Out- 
Patient Department for treatment. The nurses go into the 
homes to see one patient and the whole family at once become 
her concern crossed eyes, mouth breathers, skin lesions, 
deformities, feeble-mindedness, all require treatment, and 
when the hospital has become the friend of one member of 
the family, all the rest come easily." (Jane Grant, Head 
Worker, Social Service Department of the Toronto General 


Hospital Social Service Departments. 

Montreal General Hospital. President, Rev. John Loch- 
head, M.A.; Sec., Miss Grace Waterston; Salaried Worker, 
Mrs. Emma J. Foulis. 

Melville Church Hospital Workers Association. Pres., Rev. 
John Lochhead, M.A., 351 Melville Ave., Westmount, Que.; 
Sec., Miss Grace Waterston. " The Society was the means of 
starting Social Service in the General Hospital, and still is 
its chief support." 

The Western Hospital, Montreal, Social Service was started 
this year by the Westmount Branch of the Victorian Order of 
Nurses. The worker is paid by the V.O. and reports to them, 
but is under the Hospital. 

Toronto General Hospital Social Service. A distinct De 
partment, in charge of a committee of ladies, acting in co 
operation with the Hospital staff. Pres., Mrs. D. A. Dunlap; 
Sec., Miss Clara Flavelle; Head of Social Service Dept, Miss 
Grant; 2 assistant nurses, and 1 sent by City to take charge 
of tuberculosis department. 

Vancouver General Hospital Women s Auxiliary maintains 
the Social Service Department. Pres., Mrs. A. H. Wallbridge, 
1300 Bute St.; Sec., Mrs. J. A. Dewar, 1145 Bidwell St.; Con 
vener of S.S. Committee, Mrs. R. B. Boucher, 13th and Alder 
Sts.; Practical Worker, Miss Winnifred G. MacLeod, R.N. 

Winnipeg General Hospital was the first hospital in Canada 
to inaugurate a Social Service Department. This was done 
under the sympathetic management of Miss Ida Bradshaw. 
The nurse in charge is on the staff of the Hospital. 

Public Health Nurses. The 20 Public Health Nurses of 
Toronto visit in connection with the Tuberculosis Clinics 
established by the Toronto General Hospital, St. Michael s 
Hospital, Hospital for Sick Children and the University Settle 
ment; and with the Baby Consultations established by seven 
Social Agencies. The medical work in connection with them 
is affiliated with that of the Hospital for Sick Children. 

Ladies Hospital Aid Societies, under slightly varying 
names, do much good work as volunteers in " purchasing 
linen, bedding, etc., and small comforts for the sick," and 
assisting in every possible way. One society (Brantford) 
" purchased an ambulance, built and equipped a laundry, in 
stalled an elevator," and assisted largely in the erection and 
furnishing of a nurse s residence. 

Brandon, Pres., Mrs. F. T. Lee, 1216 Victoria Ave.; Brant- 
ford, Pres., Mrs. J. G. Waterous, 163 Eagle Ave.; Edmonton, 
Pres., Mrs. Morgan, 393 8th St.; Fort William, Pres., Mrs., G. 
A. Coslett, Front St.; London, Pres., Mrs. John Stevely, 567 
Green Ave.; New Westminster, Pres., Mrs. C. Balmer McAllis 
ter, 303 3rd Ave. ; Ottawa, Mrs. W. P. Davis, 407 Willbrod St., 


and Mrs. Parkin, 92 McLaren St.; Port Arthur, Pres., Mrs. 
T. N. Andrew, 288 Harrington St.; Strathcona, Pres., Mrs. 
Hotson, 93rd St. N.E.; Sudbury, Pres., Mrs. M. Stipcich; Vic 
toria, Pres., Mrs. Hasell. 

Nursing Missions. 

The St. Elizabeth Visiting Nurses Association, 570 Sher- 
bourne Street, Toronto. Hon. Presidents, Lady Falconbridge, 
Lady Mackenzie; Pres., Mrs. J. McLean French; Cor. Sec., 
Mrs. D. A. O Sullivan. Object " To provide nurses for the 
sick of the city, who cannot secure trained nurses and cannot 
be sent from their homes." The work is supported by dona 
tions (many annual), membership dues (50 cents the month 
or $6.00 the year) and fees collected by nurses in exceptional 
cases. Five nurses at present. 

The Nursing Mission, 55 Beverley St., Toronto. Pres., Mrs. 
J. Hunter Brown, 255 Sherbourne St.; Sec., Miss Dana, 22 
South Drive. Aim " The alleviation of human suffering and 
spiritual necessity." 

Nursing-at-Home Mission, 76 Hayter St., Toronto. Pres., 
Mrs. W. H. Peacock, 71 Crescent Rd.; Sec., Mrs. John Turn- 
bull, 149 Crescent Rd. Aim " To help, regardless of creed." 

The Margaret Scott Nursing Mission, 99 George St., Win 
nipeg. Hon. Pres., Mrs. Scott; Pres., Mrs. E. M. Wood; Sec., 
Mrs. Matheson. " No charge is made to patients. Donations 
are received from those able and wishful to do something to 
help. Patients, however, who can pay certain small charges 
are turned over to the Victorian Order of Nurses. Although 
Mrs. Scott has always refused to allow any solicitation for 
support or any publicity campaign, the needed money has 
always come in response to faith." 

The Canadian Association for the Prevention of Tuberculosis. 

Hon. Pres., Field-Marshal His Royal Highness The Gover 
nor-General. Hon. Vice-Presidents, The Lieut.-Governors of 
all the Provinces. Pres., Not yet appointed, after Col. Bur- 
land s sudden death. Sec., Geo. D. Porter, M.B., Toronto. 
Headquarters, Bank St. Chambers, Ottawa. 

[Below we give some facts from the Report of the Executive 
Council of the Association, read by the Secretary, Dr. Porter, at 
the Fourteenth Annual Meeting-, held in Halifax, July 13 and 14, 
1914. The Report shows that the campaign against tuberculosis 
is making " steady progress."] 

Over ten thousand of the last Annual Reports, and much 
literature in English and French, besides some in other lan 
guages, has been distributed during the year, partly through 
the co-operation of the Canadian Insurance Companies, who 
have undertaken to send to all their policy holders some of 
our leaflets. Many requests for further information follow 
the receipt of these, and there are an increasing number of 


inquiries from foreign countries regarding the educational 
methods of Canada. 

During the year lectures have been delivered in different 
provinces before societies, clubs, schools and at public meet 
ings; ten new societies have been organized; an Order-in- 
Council has been passed authorizing regulations providing for 
the co-operation of the Federal authorities, and cities and 
towns all over Canada, for the eradication of bovine tuber 
culosis from herds supplying milk to such municipalities, and 
" no less than nine institutions for the tuberculous have been 
formally opened," and the erection of others has been under 
taken; 1913 was indeed "the record year for such work in 

There " is a great advance over conditions some twelve 
years ago, when there was practically no legislation regarding 
tuberculosis, and only one institution for the tuberculous 
in Canada, with about 100 beds. Now we have much 
useful legislation and some thirty institutions with over 1,500 
beds available." In Nova Scotia legislation is being passed 
whereby medical examiners are to be appointed in various 
parts of the Province to detect the presence of tuberculosis. 

" The average cost for each patient per diem in the twelve 
sanatoria reporting on this matter is $1.55, or $10.85 per week. 
The maintenance grant from the various Provincial Govern 
ments . . . is as follows: British Columbia, $7.00 per 
week for advanced cases, and $4.55 for incipient cases. Sas 
katchewan, $3.50 per week. Manitoba allows $2.80 per week, 
while Ontario gives $3.00, and the municipalities are obliged to 
contribute $4.90. Neither Quebec nor Prince Edward Island 
has a maintenance grant, but in New Brunswick the patient 
pays $7.00 per week and the Government pays the balance, 
supporting the sanatorium at River Glade, and Nova Scotia 
makes up the deficit at Kentville amounting to something over 
$7.00 per week. These Provincial subsidies average in all 
$4.40 per week. (In Nova Scotia the Sanatorium was built 
and equipped entirely by the Government.)" 

" It must not be supposed that the mere multiplication of 
hospitals, sanatoria and dispensaries, however necessary, are 
sufficient weapons against tuberculosis; for, while the proper 
care of the tuberculous is of the utmost importance, and the 
segregation of advanced cases imperative, ... we must 
have pure food, pure water and clean milk, proper ventilation 
and light in the homes, schools and workshops," and more 
sanitary conditions in cities, towns and farm-houses, and 
" better housing conditions must prevail if our present death 
rate from tuberculosis is to be materially reduced. 
The extension of the domiciliary visits by district nurses is 
a noteworthy improvement in this campaign. Some of these 


nurses are under the auspices of the Local Anti-tuberculosis 
Societies, others under the local Boards of Health, others again 
belong to the Victorian Order of Nurses, who are doing such 
splendid work over the whole Dominion. In conclusion, we 
take pleasure in commending the great fresh-air campaigns 
instituted and kept up largely by the many Canadian news 

Sanatoria and Hospitals. 
(Prom above Report; those marked " opened this year) 

Alberta. Calgary Temp. Hosp. for Tuberculosis cases. 

British Columbia Kamloops Riverside Cottage. Tran- 
quille King Edward Sanatorium. 

Manitoba. Ninette Manitoba Sanatorium for Consump 
tives. Winnipeg The King Edward Tuberculosis Hospital, 
and Trudeau Home. 

New Brunswick. *River Glade Jordan Mem. Institution. 

Nova Scotia. Kentville Provincial Sanatorium. *Halifax 
-The Hazelwood Hospital for Advanced Cases. 

Ontario. *Brantford Hospital for Advanced Cases. Gra- 
venhurst The Minnewaska; Muskoka Cottage Sanatorium 
(1896) : Muskoka Free Hospital for Consumptives. Hamilton 
The Mountain Sanatorium (May 28, 1905) ; Southam Home 
for Advanced Cases; Preventorium. Kingston The Sir Oliver 
Mowat Memorial. *London (Byron P.O.) The Queen Alex 
andra Sanatorium. Ottawa The Royal Ottawa Sanatorium 
combining The " Lady Grey " Hospital ; The *" Perley Memor 
ial." St. Catharines St. Catharines Consumptives Sanator 
ium. Toronto Heather Club Pavilion for Tuberculous Chil 
dren; *Preventorium of the Daughters of Empire; King- 
Edward Sanatorium for Consumptives (Weston P.O.) ; Night 
Camp, Weston P.O. (for working men) ; *Queen Mary Hospital 
for Consumptive Children (Weston P.O.) ; Toronto Free Hos 
pital for Consumptives (Weston P.O.). *Union-on-the-Lake- 
Essex County Tuberculosis Hospital. 

Prince Edward Island. Charlottetown Home for Advanced 

Quebec. Lake Edward Sanatorium (October 1, 1901). 
Montreal The Grace Dart Home, Hospital for Destitute In 
curables; Preventorium St. Victor de Beloeil. Montreal, Ste. 
Agathe Des Monts Brehmer Rest Preventorium.; Laurentian 
Sanatorium for the Treatment of Incipient Tuberculosis. 
*Mount Sinai Sanatorium. 


New Brunswick. St. John Anti-Tuberculosis Society Dis 

Manitoba. Winnipeg Dispensary at the Hospital. 

Ontario. Hamilton Dispensary of the Health Association. 
Ottawa The May Court Club Dispensary. Toronto 1. Tuber- 


culosis Clinic, Toronto General Hospital (1906) ; 2. Tubercu 
losis Dispensary and Clinic, St. Michael s Hospital; 3, Dispen 
sary at Sick Children s Hospital; 4. Dispensary at National 
Sanatorium Headquarters. London Tuberculosis Dispensary 
and Clinic, Victoria Hospital. 

Prince Edward Island. Charlottetown Dispensary under 
control of Charlottetown Anti-Tuberculosis Society. 

Quebec. Montreal Royal Edward Institute of Montreal 
(Successor to the Montreal Tuberculosis League) ; L Institut 
Bruchesi. Quebec Anti-Tuberculosis Society Dispensary. 

Associations for the Prevention of Tuberculosis. 

Note. In the following list A. T. Anti-Tuberculosis. 

Alberta. Alberta Association for the Prevention of Tuber 
culosis, Sec., J. H. Hanna, Calgary. Calgary A. T. Soc., Sec., 
Mrs. H. Riley, Hounsfield Heights. Edmonton, Sec., Dr. Thos. 
Whitelaw. Claresholm, Pres., Mr. Cornwell. High River, 
Sec., A. J. H. Koch. Lethbridge, Committee, Mrs. F. A. 
Stoltze, Mrs. Geo. W. Robinson, and Mrs. J. F. Simpson. Mac 
Leod, Sec., E. T. Mitchell. Medicine Hat, Sec., W. Cousins. 
Olds, Sec., J. W. Hughes. Red Deer, Sec., Rev. W. Brown. 
Stettler, Sec., Rev. J. Coulter. 

British Columbia. Provincial Association The British 
Columbia A. T. Society (1904), Secretary, Dr. A. P. Proctor, 
Victoria. Branches Comox, Sec., Miss E. Wilson. Kam- 
loops Branch, Sec., Isabel Costley. Mission City Branch, 
Pres., Mrs. A. J. Stewart. New Westminster Branch, Sec., 
M. L. R. Clute. Vancouver Association for the Prevention of 
Tuberculosis, Pres., Catharine Harrison. Victoria (1) A. T. 
Society, Sec., Nan Tye, 2631 Douglas St.; (2) Victoria Junior 
Branch, Sec., Elinor H. Hannington, 2327 Beach Drive. 

Manitoba. The Winnipeg A. T. Ass n, Sec., H. J. Mc- 
Dermid, School for the Deaf; Women s Aux., Sec., Mrs. L. B. 
Copeland, 112 Walnut St. 

New Brunswick. The New Brunswick A. T. Ass n, Sec., 
Rev. T. Hunter Boyd. Fredericton, The York County A. T. 
League, Sec., Dr. W. H. Irvine. St. John Ass n for Prevention 
of Tuberculosis, Sec., Miss Hellen Sidney Smith, 126 Duke St., 
St. John. Moncton A. T. League, Sec., Dr. L. C. Hains. 

Nova Scotia. Amherst A. T. League, Sec., E. J. Lay. An- 
tigonish, Tri-County A. T. League, Sec., John W. MacLeod, 
Antigonish. Antigonish County League, Sec., J. W. MacLeod. 
Baddeck A. T. Soc., Sec., Mr. J. S. Dunlop. Canso A. T. 
League, Sec., Dr. P. A. McGarry. Cape Breton Ass n for Pre 
vention of Tuberculosis, Sec., Dr. R. J. MacDonald, Cape 
Breton. Colchester County Ass n for Prevention of Tubercu 
losis, Sec., Dr. Smith L. Walker. Truro, Dominion A. T. 
League, Sec., Mr. F. Stevenson. Glace Bay A. T. League, Sec., 
Mr. F. B. A. Chipman. Mulgrave A. T. League, Sec., Mr. J. L. 


Shanahan. Halifax County A. T. League, Sec., Mrs. William 
Schon, 83 Morris Street, Halifax. Inverness A. T. League, 
Sec., Dr. James A. Proudfoot. Inverness County A. T. League, 
Sec., Mr. J. D. Doucet, Port Hood. Louisburg A. T. League, 
Sec., Dr. D. A. Morrison. North Sydney A. T. League, Sec., 
Dr. M. T. MacLean. Pictou County League, Sec., Miss Car- 
michael, New Glasgow. Port Hood A. T. League, Sec., Dr. R. 
St. J. MacDonald. The Reserve A. T. League, Sec., Mr. J. J. 
Smith. Stellarton A. T. League, Sec., N. A. Osborne. Sydney 
Women s A. T. Ass n, Sec., Mrs. John Morgan. Sydney Mines 
A. T. League, Sec., Mr. D. C. MacDonald. Windsor A. T. 
League, Sec., O. B. Keddy. Victoria County A. T. League, Sec., 
Dr. J. H. Mclves. 

Ontario. Almonte A. T. Ass n, Sec., Dr. J. F. Hanley. Arn- 
prior Ass n for Prevention of Tuberculosis, Sec., Charles Mc- 
Namara. The Berlin Anti-Consumption League, Sec., Dr. G. 
H. Bowlby. Brant A. T. Ass n, Sec., Kenneth V. Bunnell. The 
Brockville A. T. League, Sec., William Shearer. Chatham, 
Kent County A. T. League, Sec., Charles Austin. Fort William 
A. T. Soc., Sec., Dr. Ed. B. Oliver. Gait A. T. League, Sec., 
John R. Blake, J.P. Goderich A. T. League, Sec., Dr. A. C. 
Hunter. Guelph A. T. Soc., Sec., Dr. W. O. Stewart. Hamil 
ton Health Ass n, Sec., W. J. Southam. Lambton County A. T. 
Ass n, Sec., Dr. Reid, Wyoming. Kingston Health Ass n, 
Sec., Miss E. A. Hunter. London Health Ass n, Sec., D. M. 
Cameron. Ottawa A. T. Ass n, Sec., Walter Tucker, James 
Street. Owen Sound A. T. Soc., Sec., Dr. H. G. Murray. Pem 
broke A. T. League, Sec., A. J. Fortier. Peterboro Health 
Ass n, Sec., Mrs. R. W. Travers. Port Arthur A. T. Soc., Sec., H. 
S. H. Goodier. Renfrew A. T. League, Sec., Hon. A. Gravelle. 
Sault Ste. Marie A. T. Soc., Sec., Dr. A. S. McCaig. Smith s 
Falls A. T. Ass n, Sec., Dr. C. L. B. Stammers. Toronto, 
Heather Chapter, Daughters of Empire, Sec., Miss M. L. Bar 
nard, 581 Jarvis St.; Samaritan Club, Sec., Miss E. Blackwell, 
596 Jarvis St. Waterloo A. T. League, Sec., Dr. W. L. Hilliard. 
Windsor, Essex Health Ass n, Sec., Mrs. E. J. Baxter. Wood 
stock A. T. League, Sec., Dr. Mackenzie Mackay. 

Prince Edward Island. Charlottetown Soc. for Prevention 
of Tuberculosis, Sec., Mrs. W. E. Bentley. Queen s and King 
County Branch, Sec., Gertrude De Blois. Summerside, West 
ern Association of Prince Edward Island, Sec., Dr. Jno. Jar- 
dine. West Prince Association, Sec., F. L. Duogan, Esq. 

Quebec. St. Agathe, Laurentian Society for the Treatment 
and Control of Tuberculosis, Sec., Gordon MacFarlane; 
Ladies Committee of Brehmer Rest, Sec., Mrs. A. W. Gifford, 
355 Kensington Ave., Westmount. Lake Edward Sanatorium 
Ass n, Sec., A. J. Price; Ladies Branch, Sec., Mrs. Hinds. 
Montreal, Royal Edward Institute, Sec., Dr. E. S. Harding. 


A. T. League of Quebec, DiC Adjutor Savard, 133 Boulevard 
Langelier, Quebec. Sherbrooke, District of St. Francis A. T. 
League (July, 1903), Sec., Dr. E. J. Williams. Three Rivers 
A. T. League, Sec., Aug. Desilets. 

Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan A. T. League, Sec., Dr. W. 
H. Hart, Regina. Abernethy A. T. League, Pres., Hon. Mr. 
Motherwell. Battleford A. T. League, Sec., W. R. Kingston. 
Carnduff A. T. League, Pres., Dr. W. F. Lockhart. Davidson 
A. T. League, Sec., Dr. F. Hutchinson. Estevan A. T. League, 
Sec., L. A. Duncan. Fleming A. T. League, Pres., Dr. D. D. 
Ellis. Grenfell A. T. League, Sec., Harry Laver. Hanley A. T. 
League, Sec., F. Kilpatrick. Indian Head A. T. League, Sec., 
R. S. Campbell. Lumsden A. T. League, Sec., W. R. Jamieson. 
Milestone A. T. League, Sec., J. Murphy. Moosejaw A. T. 
League, Pres., E. J. Chegivin. Moosomin A. T. League, Sec., 
A. Whyte. Prince Albert A. T-. League, Sec., Dr. B. A. Hop 
kins. Regina A. T. League, Sec., A. L. Gordon. Saskatoon 
A. T. League, Sec., Prof. George H. Ling. Wapella A. T. 
League, Sec., Dr. D. P. Miller. Weyburn A. T. League, Sec., 
W. J. Bullis. Whitewood A. T. League, Sec. Dr. Cameron- 
Smith. Wolseley A. T. League, Sec., A. D Ferguson. 

Medical Inspection of Schools, according to articles re 
cently published in " The Public Health Journal," was begun 
in Canada in 1906, in the far-apart cities of Montreal and 
Vancouver. In 1907 the city medical officer began inspection 
in the schools of Sydney, N.S. In the same year Canada s 
first school nurse, Miss Emma J. Deyman, was appointed at 

It is still a matter of controversy whether medical inspec 
tion of schools should be carried out by the Boards of Health 
or Boards of Education. In Montreal, Westmount, and La- 
chine, in Quebec, the schools are inspected by the same 
medical officers who investigate health conditions in the work 
shops and departmental stores, but, of the special school 
nurses in Montreal some are employed by the Health Depart 
ment and some by the School Commissioners. " A committee 
of the Department of Public Instruction has been working 
on suggestions for the amendment of the school law so as to 
make medical inspection of schools compulsory. 

British Columbia is the only province " having Provincial 
legislation governing and controlling medical inspection of 
schools." Its " School Health Inspection Act " was passed 
in 1910, and, as Mr. A. Robinson, the Superintendent of Edu 
cation, has kindly stated, " Every child attending either a 
public school or a high school in this province must be 
medically examined. In the cities this medical officer is 
appointed and paid by the respective boards of trustees, but 
in rural school districts the various physicians throughout 


our province perform this duty, charging a per capita fee for 
doing so. The cost of this medical inspection in the rural 
school districts is generally met by the Provincial Govern 
ment. School nurses are employed in the two larger cities, 
namely, Victoria and Vancouver." 

By the School Law of New Brunswick (2 Geo. V., c. 37), 
" any board of trustees may make such provision as will be 
sanctioned by the Board of Education for the care of the 
health, cleanliness and physical well-being of the pupils 
attending the public schools under their jurisdiction, and 
may employ at their own charges such medical officers as 
shall be necessary to give effect to the same." To meet the 
expense boards of trustees may make additional assessments, 
but at present little advantage has been taken of these per 
missive clauses. 

Regarding Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, the fol 
lowing information has been courteously supplied by the 
Deputy Ministers of Education. In Alberta, the schools em 
ploying doctors and nurses are " Edmonton, Wetaskiwin, Cam- 
rose, Calgary, Medicine Hat and Lethbridge. There are a 
number of other schools that have a doctor make an exam 
ination of the students. In all towns and cities, with the 
exception of Calgary, the school doctors are employed by the 
board of trustees for the district." 

In Saskatchewan, school doctors and nurses are employed 
by the school board at Regina, Saskatoon and Moose Jaw. 

In Manitoba " School nurses and doctors are employed by 
the local school boards in the cities, towns and villages. 
Rural municipalities are empowered to appoint medical 
health officers to provide for medical inspection of the chil 
dren in the schools in their municipalities." 

Winnipeg employs two medical inspectors "on equal 
terms " a man to examine the boys, and a woman, Dr. Mary 
Crawford, to examine the girls and also several nurses. 

In Nova Scotia, Amherst has a school nurse, and Halifax 
two medical inspectors, on part time, and a school nurse. 

In Ontario, Kingston, London, Brantford, Hamilton, Peter- 
boro and several other places have medical inspection, and 
Women s Institutes are urging "health supervision of school 
children in lural districts as well as urban." In Toronto 
inspection began in April, 1910, when Miss Lina L. Rogers 
(now Mrs. Struthers), was appointed Superintendent of 
School Nurses. Now the 89 schools of Toronto are grouped 
for inspection in 20 districts; and, exclusive of dental sur 
geons, the staff consists of the Chief Medical Inspector, Dr. 
W. E. Struthers, 20 medical inspectors on part time, including 
a tuberculosis specialist, and 38 school nurses. 

School Dentistry. One result of medical inspection of 


school children in town or country has been the discovery 
that an extraordinarily high proportion have diseased teeth. 
In Toronto, in 1910, the Oral Hygiene Committee of the 
Toronto Dental Society found that of 894 children examined 
96 per cent, needed dental treatment. 

" With a mouthful of diseased or aching teeth a child can 
not fix his attention on his lessons, and in all probability 
his general health will be bad. Indeed, an unclean mouth 
is a great breeding place for disease germs." In sev 
eral places where medical inspection has been begun, free 
dental clinics have soon followed. In Regina, such a clinic 
was opened in 1913 in the Alexandra School, the dentists of 
the city agreeing to treat a limited number of poor cases 
every Saturday afternoon. In British Columbia a pamphlet 
on the teeth is distributed to the parents of school children. 

In school dentistry Toronto leads the way, however. In 
1911 the first Dental Inspector, W. H. Doherty, D.D.S., was 
appointed, and the Canadian Public School Nurses Associa 
tion offered a complete dental equipment if the Board of 
Education would instal it in one of the schools. Meanwhile 
the Toronto Dental Society induced the Board of Control to 
consent to the instalment of a Municipal Dental Clinic, but 
it was found inconvenient to bring children from a distance, 
so clinics were established in the schools. There are now 
thirteen clinics, giving a half-day service, and Dr. Doherty 
has thirteen assistants on half time. In 1913, 3,050 children 
had their teeth filled, and 746 had teeth extracted. 

The Forest School. 

" Nothing in the modern development of the public school 
has given more satisfaction than the Forest School," says 
Dr. Struthers, of Toronto. The experiment was made in the 
summer of 1912, the school remaining open from June 20th 
to September 20th. Seventy children, chosen on account of 
delicacy, attended, but the average daily attendance fell some 
what below fifty. During fair weather the children spent ten 
hours in the open, arriving at the grounds about 8.30 a.m. 
Half of the ordinary lesson periods was given " to nature 
study, play, gymnastic exercises, and drill." The children had 
" three wholesome meals a day, plenty of milk, and two hours 
absolute rest and sleep." Such regularity " in work, play, 
meals, and rest produced remarkable results," and " during 
the first week all but three children gained in weight. More 
over, children who came to the school dull, stupid, unrespon 
sive, with but little evidence of developing mentality," soon 
began to accomplish in " half the school lesson hours as much 
as their stronger fellows in the regular school." At first the 
children thought the mid-day rest was " a horrible imposi 
tion," but protests and murmurs soon ceased. Besides the 


school work, talks on cleanliness, care of the body, ventila 
tion, wholesome food, manners and deportment, breathing 
exercises and nature talks during rambles in the woods or on 
the beach were given by the nurse. This year a second Forest 
School was carried on in a " real pine forest " in Howard 

The Feeble-Minded. 

" For the last twenty years," says Dr. MacMurchy, " public 
interest has been gradually aroused as to the care and con 
trol of the feeble-minded. This applies more or less to all 
the Provinces of Canada. In Victoria, Vancouver, Hamilton, 
Winnipeg, Toronto and other places there are special classes 
for the benefit of backward and mentally defective children. 

" The Nova Scotia League for the care and protection of 
the feeble-minded, which was founded at Halifax in 1908, and 
the Provincial Association for the care of the feeble-minded 
in Ontario, which was founded at Toronto in November, 1912, 
have both done good work. The National Council of Women 
and its Branches have done much to awaken public opinion 
on this subject. 

" The number of mental defectives in Canada is small, but 
it is increasing somewhat rapidly both by the immigration of 
the mentally defective and the natural increase of those 
already resident in Canada." 

The Honorable W. J. Hanna ordered a Special Report to 
be made on this subject to the Ontario Government by Dr. 
Helen MacMurchy in 1905, and annual reports have been 
issued in Ontario since that date. 

Number and Classification of Mental Defectives. Accord 
ing to the census reports there were, in 1911, 14,702 insane 
persons in Canada, and 5,387 recognized as idiotic. Outside 
these classes are many persons deficient mentally in lesser 
degrees than the idiotic. " The American Association for the 
Study of the Feeble-Minded " (quoted in the " Public Health 
Journal " March, 1914) classifies the feeble-minded as (1) 
Idiots, those whose "mental development never exceeds that 
of a normal child of about two years." (2) Imbeciles, those 
" whose intelligence does not exceed that of a normal child 
of about seven years." (3) Morons, those " whose mental 
development does not exceed that of a normal child of about 
twelve years." All these classes are again subdivided into 
" high, medium and low grades." 

The higher grades of defectives, because less easily recog 
nized, are a greater menace to the community than the abso 
lute idiots and imbeciles, but where there are Special Classes 
for backward children, the condition of the mentally defective 
is readily diagnosed. Such children, says Dr. MacMurchy, 


should be cared for and helped in a permanent parental home 
where they may be trained, taught useful employments, their 
powers made the most of and their earning capacity utilized 
for their own support and happiness. Thus we shall cut off 
the supply of probably 80 per cent, of the mentally defective 
for the next generation, and we shall save all the time and 
money we now waste by classifying them as paupers, pros 
titutes, criminals, tramps, when they are not anything but 

" In other words, we pay more in cash now for the main 
tenance of the feeble-minded than their permanent care in 
industrial and farm colonies would cost us." 

(For an interesting article by Dr. Richard C. Cabot on 
what can be done by " Sub-Standard Workers," see The Sur 
vey, October 3rd, 1914.) 

At present there is little provision for the care of the 
feeble-minded in Canada. Ontario has one institution set 
apart for this class The Hospital for the Feeble-Minded, at 
Orillia, Supt., J. P. Downey; but even in Ontario many 
feeble-minded women spend their days in the County Refuges. 

Hospital for Epileptics for use of Province Woodstock, 
Ont. Object to secure the curative and economical care and 
treatment of epileptics (not insane). 

We regret that this year we have not space to list any of 
the very excellent and necessary Hospitals for Incurable 
Patients, or Convalescent Homes. 

Women s College Hospital and Dispensary, 18 Seaton St., 
Toronto; Supt, Miss Martin; Chairman of Board, Mrs. A. O. 
Rutherford, 1383 King St. West. Special work" The medical 
and surgical care of women by women physicians." The 
outdoor clinics, conducted by women physicians " have done 
a world of good in relieving the distress of sickness peculiar 
to women." 

Dispensary, opened February, 1898, in Sackville Mission 
Hall, soon removed to basement of the Women s Medical Col 
lege on Sumach Street. In 1908, when Toronto University 
was opened to women medical students, the Women s Medical 
College was sold, and the Dispensary had to move. The hos 
pital, now in a building of its own, is deserving of greatly 
increased support. 

The Victorian Order of Nurses. 

Patronesses, H.M. Queen Mary and H.M. Queen Alexandra. 
Hon. Pres., H.R.H. the Duchess of Connaught. Founder, The 
Countess of Aberdeen. President, J. M. Courtney, C.M.G., 


I.S.O. Chief Supt. and Inspector, Mary Ard Mackenzie, B.A., 
R.N. Assistant Supt., Miss Lucy Thomas Drake, R.N. Assist 
ant Inspector, Miss Elizabeth Hall, R.N. Central Office (to 
which all correspondence should be addressed), 578 Somerset 
St., Ottawa. 

1897, Victorian Order founded, under Royal Charter; 1901, 
Lady Minto Cottage Hospital Fund raised ($26,300); 1903, 
Lady Minto raised Endowment Fund ($106,475); 1909, Lady 
Grey Country District Nursing Scheme inaugurated; 1912, 
appeal of H.R.H. Duchess of Connaught for Extension Fund- 
result, 1913, $223,250. In 1898, nurses numbered 16; visits, 
8,080; patients, 673. 1913, nurses, 270; visits, 281,006; 
patients, 38,322. Of the nurses are 172 in districts; 47 in 
hospitals; 24 taking postgraduate courses in the Training 
Homes of the Order; 27 nurses-in-training in hospitals. 

The Training Homes are at Ottawa, Montreal, Toronto and 
Vancouver. At first district nursing was " a very simple 
affair," but it is now realized " that time and opportunity 
should be given the post-graduate students to observe work in 
the following departments: Child Welfare, Milk Stations, 
School Nursing, Associated Charities, Tuberculosis Work and 
Settlement Work; that the Lecture Course be extended and 
that the nurses libraries at Training Centres be kept supplied 
with up-to-date books of reference on Visiting Nursing, and all 
Social Service Work." Many committees have arranged, dur 
ing the year, " for pre-natal visits, and for the following up 
of the babies to the end of the first year, but it is imperative 
that this be done in every branch . . . Those are the two 
principal factors in reducing infant mortality, . . . and 
the importance of having well-managed Milk Stations for the 
educating of the mothers, wherever our nurses are working, 
should not be forgotten. . . . The Victorian Order nurses 
do jmch a large part of the maternity nursing of the Do 
minion." (Report Chief Supt.) 

District Superintendents. Miss Alice Touche, Toronto, 
Ont. ; Miss Agnes Lynch, Montreal, Que.; Miss Christina M. 
Hall, R.N., Ottawa, Ont.; Miss Alice Deacon, Vancouver, B.C. 

Hospitals and Matrons. Almonte, Ont., Miss Grace Hodg 
son; Ashcroft, B.C., Miss Bertha Crompton; Barkerville, B.C., 
Miss Minnie Lovering; Chapleau, Ont., Miss McKinnon; 
Chase, B.C., Miss E. M. E. Smith; Copper Cliff, Ont, Miss A. 
Hunt; Harrington Harbor, Labrador, Miss Martha Dickson; 
High River, Alta., Miss Gumming; Indian Head, Sask., Miss 
Grace Cooper, R.N.; Islay, Alta., Miss Kervin; Kaslo, B.C., 
Miss K. Hewetson; Melfort, Sask., Miss Gertrude Sarney; 
Minnedosa, Man., Miss Gemmell; New Liskeard, Ont., Miss 
Lowes, North Bay, Ont., Miss M. Park; Quesnel, B.C., Miss 
A. Russell; Revelstoke, B.C., Miss Jean Mathieson; Shoal 


Lake, Man., Miss Young; Swan River, Man., Miss D. Higgins; 
Yorkton, Sask., Miss H. Walker. 

Local Associations. Almonte, Ont. ; Arnprior, Ont. ; Berlin, 
Ont. ; Brantford, Ont. ; Brockville, Ont. ; Calgary, Alta. ; Cobalt, 
Ont; Cornwall, Ont; Dartmouth, N.S.; Dundas, Ont; Edmon 
ton, Alta.; Gait, Ont.; Halifax, N.S.; Hamilton, Ont; Hespeler, 
Ont.; Kingston, Ont; Lachine, Que.; London, Ont.; Montreal; 
New Westminster, B.C.; North Bay, Ont.; Ottawa, Ont.; Pres 
ton, Ont.; Ste. Agathe des Monts, Que.; Ste. Anne de Bellevue, 
Que.; St. John, N.B.; St. Johns and Iberville, Que.; Saska 
toon, Sask.; Sherbrooke, Que.; Stratford, Ont; Sydney, N.S.; 
Toronto; Truro, N.S.; Vancouver; Victoria; Westmount, Que.; 
Whitby, Ont; Winnipeg; Yarmouth, N.S. 

District Committees. Bobcaygeon, Ont.; Burnaby, B.C.; 
Canso, N.S.; Gaspe, Que.; Grand-Mre, Que.; Grand River 
Indian Reserve; Gravenhurst, Ont.; Hawkesbury, Ont.; 
Innisfail, Alta.; North Vancouver, B.C.; Roblin, Man; South 
Vancouver, B.C.; Steveston, B.C. 

Association des Gardes-Malades de Yille Marie, Montreal. 
A nursing association formed last year to " do among the 
French-speaking population what the Victorian Order of 
Nurses has been accomplishing so admirably in English- 
speaking circles." 

"Central Registry Extension Fund." Sec., Miss Wardell, 
290% Dundas St. A fund contributed or collected by the 
seven Nurses Alumnae Ass ns of Toronto for the benefit of 
patients who really need a trained nurse s care, but who can 
not pay full fees. 

* Golden Rule Guild " (Nurses and Lay women) . Sec., Miss 
Locke, Toronto Gen. Hosp., " to help unmarried mothers." 

The St. John Ambulance Association, Canadian Branch. 
An organization for the teaching of First Aid to the Injured, 
Home Nursing, Home Hygiene, and Military Sanitation, also 
for the manufacture and distribution of ambulance and nurs 
ing material. Patron, H.R.H. The Governor-General; Patron 
ess, H.R.H. The Duchess of Connaught; Pres., Sir L. M. Davies, 
K.C.M.G.; Gen. Sec., Major R. J. Bird whistle; Head Office, 
Castle Building, Queen St., Ottawa; Provincial Offices in the 
capital cities of each Province. 

The St. John Ambulance Brigade Overseas within the 
Dominion of Canada. An organization for the purpose of ren 
dering assistance and succor to those receiving injury, or 
being taken suddenly ill, up to the time such individuals are 
placed in charge of medical attention. All members (both 
men and women) must be certificate holders of the St. John 
Ambulance Association, be prepared to attend annually twelve 
practices or drills; and to do public duties when called upon 
by their officers. Deputy Commissioner, Colonel Sir Henry 


M. Pellatt, C.V.O., Toronto; Assistant Commissioner, Manitoba 
District, Major F. L. Vaux, P.A.M.C., Toronto; Assistant Com 
missioner, Ontario District, Dr. C. J. Copp, Toronto. Canadian 
Headquarters, 554% Yonge St., Toronto. 

Ladies of Justice of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem . 
H.R.H. The Duchess of Connaught; H.R.H. Princess Patricia; 
and others. 

Ladies of Grace. Mrs. Rivers Bulkeley, and Lady Drum- 
mond, Montreal; Madame Caroline Angelina Beique, Quebec; 
Lady Tilley, St. John, N.B. ; Mrs. C. W. Wilson, and Mrs. A. E. 
Gooderham, Toronto; Mrs. Boomer, London; Mrs. Murphy, 


" Some day the world will accept as vital a truth scarce 
owned and the dignity and healing value of play will be recog 
nized. Recreation therefore is not solely a matter of frivolity 
and lightness, airy trifling, inconsequent foolery. Take the 
word and break it in two. An earnestness is at once devel 
oped. It is re-creation re-nascence, reformation." (J. E. 

Active Sports. The interesting feature of the present day 
is that women generally have grown broader-minded as to 
sports, for themselves and their daughters; and girls as well 
as boys are encouraged to (pursue active out-door amusements. 

With its hot summers, its crisp winters, its lakes, its woods, 
its great national parks, its mountains, Canada offers endless 
opportunities for out-door sports of the larger type, if one 
may so describe them; and women are as enthusiastic as men 
when it comes to camping, yachting, canoeing, mountaineering. 
Of the 700 members of the Alpine Club of Canada (Sec., S. H. 
Mitchell, tSidney, B.C.) many are women. Mrs. Eliza Parker, 
of the Manitoba Free Press, was one of the founders of the 
Club; and Mrs. Henshaw, author, botanist and lecturer, Mrs. 
Shaefer, who has written a book on the mountains, and Miss 
Vaux, who has done excellent scientific work, are amongst 
its most noted members. The objects of the Club are, indeed, 
the promotion of scientific study and exploration and of art 
related to mountain scenery, as well as recreation. 

For those who have money to spend on sport there are 
golf links in every city and good-sized town. In most of the 
clubs ladies are admitted to membership, usually paying less 
and having fewer privileges than the men. 

The Canadian Ladies Golf Tournament is held each autumn. 
Usually in June is held, at Hamilton, the Ontario Ladies 


Championship Tournament. Recently the English handicap 
system has been introduced in the leading golf clubs of 

Ladies Curling Clubs. This sport is increasing in favor 
with ladies, and there are clubs here and there from the 
Atlantic to the mountains. Edmonton. " The Ladies Edmon 
ton Curling Club" Pres., Mrs. R. Percy Barnes; Sec., Mrs. 
Hislop for the last two seasons has sent rinks to the Banff 
Bonspiel. Kingston is the oldest ladies club using granites. 
Montreal. " The Ladies Montreal Curling Association " uses 
irons, except in a Bonspiel, when they " put up granites " to 
meet competitors using granites. Ottawa and Quebec clubs 
play with irons. St. John has two clubs, " Ladies St. An 
drew s Curling Club " Pres., Mrs. J. Pope Barnes, 100 Orange 
St.; Sec., Miss Edna L. Austin, 195 Princess St. and " Ladies 
Thistle Curling Club "Pres., Miss Gertrude Campbell, 159 
King St. East; Sec., Mrs. H. W. Wetmore, 94 Waterloo St. 
Toronto. The Ladies Toronto Curling Club Pres., Mrs. W. 
H. Burns; Sec., Mrs. Morgan Jellett. There has also been 
formed very recently a Ladies Granite Curling Club Pres., 
Mrs. Austin Suckling; Sec., Mrs. E. B. Nettlefield.. 

The Ladies Ontario Curling Association. Pres., Miss 
Mable Dalton, Kingston; Sec., Miss Maule, Avenue Road, To 
ronto. It is made up of Peterborough, Kingston, Belleville 
and Toronto players. 

There are a number of Ladies Rifle Clubs in Canada, 
including Ladies Canadian Rifle Club of Toronto Pres., Mrs. 
Geo. C. Royce; Sec., Mrs W. E. Groves, 36 Albany Ave. The 
practice affords excellent training for eye and nerve. At this 
time there is a long waiting list of ladies anxious to join the 
Toronto Club. 

Amusements, Active and Passive, for Girls. College girls 
find refreshment and health in basket-ball, tennis, paper- 
chases, and at least one large school in Toronto is devoted to 
that rather strenuous English game, " ground hockey." But 
many city girls, even those who have a so-called " good time," 
depend too largely on recreation which requires only pas 
sivity on their part, such as attending theatres and moving 
picture shows. Diversion of some sort, however, the normal 
girl (or boy) must have, and to gain it the underpaid factory 
girl sometimes stints herself of proper food, gets into trouble 
by buying clothing on the instalment plan, or ventures into 
perilous places with dangerous companions. 

Provision of Safe Recreation. One reason of the demand 
for policewomen is the safeguarding of girls in their hours of 
relaxation, and the natural craving for recreation gives the 
" settlements " one of their great opportunities. Last winter 


dance halls in Toronto were licensed but not supervised, so 
the Central Neighborhood House rented a hall on Saturday 
evenings, where three workers acted as hostesses, got the 
names, and introduced the guests, reserving the right to refuse 
admission. In Winnipeg the Salvation Army has consented 
to allow one of its members in uniform to act as matron at 
the largest dance hall, for the protection of the girls. 

The University Settlement, of Toronto, has organized dra 
matic clubs, the Evangelia Settlement has encouraged folk 
dances, and most settlements believe in self-governing clubs 
of boys, of girls and of adults. They believe, too, in family 
amusements, and seeing that the hard-worked mothers taste 
some of the social pleasures of life. 

The Churches, in many cases, are also undertaking recrea 
tional activities for the young people, adding to the old-time 
socials and Sunday-school entertainments informal teas or 
suppers, tennis for summer, skating and snow-shoe tramps 
for winter. 

Jane Addams says, " Recreation is stronger than crime," 
and many a social worker, particularly in dealing with boys, 
has found this true. 

" One of the first duties of a city is to provide for the 
recreation of its Citizens. . . . The city should provide play 
grounds, skating and hockey rinks, tennis courts, ball grounds, 
golf links, concerts, motion pictures, club-rooms for winter 
evenings," etc. (" The London Survey," p. 14.) 

Supervised Playgrounds. 

A great need in connection with many playgrounds is the 
provision of suitable shelters for use in bad weather. Cal 
gary. Playgrounds Committee City Council. Halifax. Play 
grounds Ass n (incorp. 1914). Pres., Mrs. Dennis; an out 
come of the work carried on for nine years by the " Women s 
Council," three members of which " must always be members 
of Board of Directors." Montreal Ass n for the Welfare of 
Youth (" du Bien-Etre de la Jeunesse ") organizes healthful 
recreation. Parks and Playgrounds Ass n; recreation under 
general direction of Superintendent of Parks. One of Mont 
real s playgrounds, " The Dyke," is an encampment on the 
bank of the river. Regina Parks Committee has made grants 
for equipping playgrounds in one city park and in nearly all 
school grounds. St. John, N.B., Free Playground Ass n. Sec., 
Mr. A. M. Belding. Toronto Playgrounds Ass n, Sec., T. R. 
Riggs, Traders Bank Bldg. Parks Dept. Recreation Super 
visor, E. H. Armstrong; supervisors, 14 men, 24 women; 8 
playgrounds and 5 special playgrounds, attached to homes, 
etc.; attendance, 354,147, exclusive of 24,184 at special play 
grounds. The Board of Education also has supervised play- 


grounds in connection with the schools. Vancouver. The 
School Board has equipped 6 grounds, 4 of which are kept 
running during the summer months under 10 supervisors 
5 men and 5 women. Under the Park Board is one equipped 
playground, with 1 man and 1 woman in charge. " During 
the summer, the children are taken to the bathing beaches 
and given instruction in swimming, and suits are provided 
for them free." Winnipeg 1 Playground Commission, Chairman, 
R. Fletcher, Esq., B.A.; Sec., Miss M. K. Knowles. In 1913 
18 well-equiped playgrounds, each supervised by one man 
and one or more women, were in use; total attendance, 
205,108. About 3,000 children took part in the annual Play 
ground Exhibition on Civic Holiday. Most interesting fea 
tures of the (programme were the folk dances and massed flag 

Holiday Homes and Camps. Among the organizations 
doing this most excellent work may be mentioned the Boy 
Scouts and Boys Clubs, the Girl Guides, King s Daughters, 
Jewish Societies, the missions of the various churches, the 
Settlements, the Young Men s Christian Association and the 
Young Women s Christian Association. 

Boy Scouts. Dom. Council, Sec., Gerald Y. Brown, Ottawa. 
Alberta Mr. Baxtar, Calgary; British Columbia Hon. Mr. 
Henage, Victoria; Quebec H. A. Lordly, Montreal; Ontario 
H. D. Hammond, Toronto. 

Toronto Boys Dominion, 123 Shuter St., founded by C. J. 
Atkinson. Winnipeg Boys Club, 925 Sherbrooke St; Pres., 
Mr. R. T. Riley; Supt, Mr. J. H. R. Fineghan; Sec., J. A. 
Coleman. Both of these are self-governing, under municipal 
and parliamentary systems, and stand for the " cultivation of 
mind, muscles, and morals, and all that tends to true, clean 


Temperance. " We have Prince Edward Island under Pro 
vincial prohibition. Nova Scotia has a new Provincial law 
under which in all probability the whole Province will be 
brought in the near future. In any event, we have all except 
the city of Halifax, and there are only 55 licenses in that 
city. ... In New Brunswick, 10 out of the 15 counties are 
under prohibition, and there are only 137 liquor licenses in 
the wnole province. Coming to the Province of Quebec, we 
find that the Catholic clergy are shoulder to shoulder with 
their Protestant brethren in this fight, and out of 1,168 par 
ishes prohibition has been carried in 859, leaving only 309 


where liquor licenses are still the rule. . . . Then we 
come to Ontario, where we have 368 municipalities under local 
option, and we ought to have at least 100 more, for in them 
the principle was carried by a majority vote that did not 
come up to the three^fifths required. There are 149 more 
municipalities where public opinion against the liquor traffic 
is so strong that no licenses are granted. The efforts of the 
liquor traffic to repeal local option have succeeded only in one 
little municipality in five years. It is not so very long since 
the licenses in Ontario numbered 6,185, and now they are less 
than 1,500. . . . 

" There is a vast extent of evil yet to be overcome. Having 
told you of progress, let me tell you of the need. During the 
last twelve months in my own home city of Toronto, the police 
arrested no less than 16,000 persons for drunkenness. . 
Something of the same conditions prevailing in Toronto pre 
vails also in Ottawa, Montreal and other cities throughout 
the Dominion. There is plenty of room for more preaching 
of the gospel of temperance." Alderman F. S. Spence, Toronto 
(Social Service Congress, 1914). 

Notes on Liquor Laws. 

The Canada Temperance Act, enacted 1878, " adopting the 
principle of local option, gave counties and cities the right to 
prohibit the retail sale of liquor within their territorial limits. 
This law was adopted in almost all counties and cities in the 
Maritime Provinces, several counties in Quebec, and in twenty- 
five counties and two cities in Ontario. It was subsequently 
repealed in all the places adopting it in Quebec and Ontario," 
but has remained in force in six counties of Nova Scotia. " In 
Ontario the Canada Temperance Act has been recently adopted 
in the District of Manitoulin, while a number of other counties 
and districts have inaugurated campaigns for the purpose of 
bringing the Act into force. In the Western Provinces the 
Act is not in force, although there have been several cam 
paigns in British Columbia in recent years." (See Report, 
1912-13, Temperance and Moral Reform Dept, Methodist 
Church; see also above.) 

In Saskatchewan, " Local Option By-laws " are " embodied 
in the Liquor License Act," 1913 (Sections 137 to 154 
inclusively) . 

By the Ontario Liquor License Act (Ontario Statutes, 215) 
it is enacted, amongst other provisions, that " the Minister 
may at any time prohibit the granting of a tavern or shop 
license ... a wholesale license or a brewer s or dis 
tiller s warehouse license, if he deems such refusal expedient 
in the public interest." " Any ten electors in the polling sub 
division may object to the granting of a license in the sub 
division." " Bartenders licenses will not be issued to any 


woman or to any man under twenty-one years of age." "It 
is an offence to supply liquor to any drunken person or to 
permit quarrelsome or disorderly conduct on the premises." 

Sec. 78 prohibits any person from giving or selling liquor 
to any one under twenty-one years of age, with the exception 
of liquor supplied by a parent or physician. " Licensed per 
sons are prohibited from permitting young persons to enter 
or loiter about a bar-room." 

" Magistrates may prohibit the sale of liquor to a habitual 
drunkard " ; and " any near relative can have any licensed 
house prohibited from selling liquor to a drunkard, by giving 
notice in writing on a form prescribed in the Act." 

" Under Sec. 141 the council of a township, city, town or 
incorporated village may pass by-laws prohibiting the sale of 
liquors, provided the by-law is duly approved by the elec 
tors as provided for in the Act. Three-fifths of the electors 
voting being necessary to carry the by-law. 

We have made use of Mr. J. J. Kelso s summary of the 
above Act. 

The Woman s Christian Temperance Union. 

[These notes were very kindly contributed by Mrs. Gordon 
Wright, President, Dominion W.C.T.U.] 

Out of the ashes of that wondrous spiritual movement 
known as the " Woman s Crusade," the Woman s Christian 
Temperance Union was evolved. With meteor-like swiftness 
and brightness the Woman s Crusade flamed into being. It 
accomplished the phenomenal work of closing 17,075 dram 
shops in the United States, and these principally in the State 
of Ohio, in a few months. Then this movement as quickly 
faded, but it accomplished great and lasting good not only 
in the wiping out of over 17,000 prolific sources of iniquity, 
but in furnishing the germ principle for what is now recog 
nized as one of the greatest woman s organizations in the 
world, the Woman s Christian Temperance Union. In Novem 
ber, 1874, in the Second Presbyterian Church in Cleveland, 
Ohio, the National Woman s Christian Temperance Union of 
the United States was organized, seventeen States being repre 
sented, at this gathering. 

The years 1882 and 1883 were distinguished for the number 
of State organizations which came into being largely through 
the instrumentality of the indefatigable efforts of Frances 
Willard, the beloved National President at that time. In 1876 
the British Woman s Christian Temperance Union was organ 
ized at Newcastle-on-Tyne; in 1882, New South Wales. Canada 
followed a year later, and New Zealand, Queensland, South 
Australia, Victoria and Tasmania in 1885. In 3886, Japan, 
China and Bulgaria. Two years later India, Cape Colony, the 
Straits Settlements and Siam; 1888, France, Denmark and 


Madagascar; 1889, Chili; 1890, Korea, Bahamas and New 
foundland; 1891, Egypt, Spain, Italy, Greece and the Trans 
vaal; in 1892, Norway, Jamaica and Western Australia; 1893, 
the Netherlands; 1894, Austria and Mexico; 1895, Finland; 
1896, Germany, Iceland, Belgium, Ireland, Turkey, Panama 
and Sweden; 1897, Syria and Armenia; 1898, Ceylon; 1899, 
Bermuda and British Honduras; 1900, Porto Rico; 1901, Cuba 
and the Philippine Islands; 1903, Switzerland, and in 1906 the 
foundations of White Ribbon work were laid in the Fiji 
Islands. Today the Woman s Christian Temperance Union is 
represented in over fifty countries and has a membership of 
479,113. These national organizations are federated in a 
World s Union, of which Rosalind, Countess of Carlisle, is the 
honored head. 

It took ten years, after the formation of the National Union 
of the United States, for the Canadian wo^ to fnii - f ~> 
line," for it was not until 1883 that the Dominion Union was 
organized, holding its first Biennial Convention in the capital 
city, Ottawa, in 1885. Every Province in Canada is represented 
in this federation of White Ribboners (now numbering nearly 
17,000), each Provincial President being, ex officio, a Vice- 
President of the Dominion Union. 

Thirty-two departments of effort are conducted, each 
department having its own special Superintendent, who by 
virtue of her ofllce becomes a member of the Dominion 

Mrs. Letitia Youmans, who so faithfully and eloquently 
disseminated temperance truths throughout Canada, was the 
first Dominion President. Mrs. Youmans was succeeded by 
Mrs. Foster, of Quebec. Then followed Mrs. Fawcett, of 
Toronto, Mrs. Steadman, of Fredericton, Mrs. E. Williams, 
Montreal, Mrs. A. A. Rutherford, Toronto, and the present 
President, Mrs. S. R. Wright, of London, who was elected 
President in 1905. 

Of the many lines of activity conducted by this organiza 
tion, it would be difficult to speak in the confines of as brief 
an article as this must necessarily be. Among its outstand 
ing departments may be found Evangelistic, Equal Franchise, 
Anti-Narcotics, Scientific Temperance Instruction, Moral Edu 
cation, The Press, Medical Temperance, Peace and Arbitra 
tion. But indeed every department is so important, each in 
turn deserves classification did space admit. 

We, however, realize that no feature of our work is more 
important than that among the young people, and so we 
have our Young Woman s Branch and our Loyal Temperance 
Legions, the latter mustering about ten thousand of our Cana 
dian boys and girls. 

The Dominion Union owns and publishes its official organ, 


The White Ribbon Bulletin, also has a Head Literature Deposi 
tory in Toronto, with branches in Alberta and British 
Columbia. Through these channels yearly flow thousands of 
temperance and departmental leaflets and circulars. The 
Sunday School Temperance Quarterly is likewise owned and 
published by this organization, and finds its way into many 
countries besides our own, wide-awake Sunday-school super 
intendents attesting to its great value in forming and main 
taining a high temperance sentiment among the young people. 

Much has been done along legislative lines through the 
Union. Perhaps no great moral measure has been crystallized 
into law in recent years, which does not bear the impress of 
the efforts of our White Ribboners. For some years past an 
educational as well as a legislative campaign has been con 
ducted by the Dominion Union, whose objective point is the 
outlawry of the cigarette in Canada. To such purpose has 
this campaign been conducted that last year the Federal Gov 
ernment appointed a Commission to investigate the harmful- 
ness and prevalence of cigarette-using among the youth of 
Canada, and many startling and sad revelations were made 
which we trust will later bear fruit through prohibitory 

But no more beneficent work is undertaken by this organ 
ization than its " Mission to Foreigners " in the Western Pro 
vinces inaugurated two years ago, and which already has 
achieved much. The aim is to uplift all, through the mothers 
and children, among whom the effort is principally conducted. 
This work is largely, if not entirely, supported through volun 
tary contributions. With the outbreak of this terrible war 
these almost ceased for a time, but its promoters felt it 
must go on, as through the war a great and unrivalled oppor 
tunity is offered to demonstrate practically what has been 
taught theoretically to these " strangers within our gates." 
Nearly fifty per cent, of the foreigners among whom the 
" White Ribbon " missioner labors are Austrians. What a 
transcendent opportunity to teach, through practical demon 
stration, Christ-like forgiveness and the " love that never 

(See also under " Travellers Aids," Section II.) 


World s and British Unions. Pres., Rosalind, Countess of 
Carlisle, Castle Howard, York, England; Hon. Sec., Miss Agnes 
Stock, Ripley, Derbyshire, England. 

National Union, U.S.. Miss Anna Gordon (Acting Pres.), 
Evanston, 111., U.S.A. 

Scotland. The President, Miss Forrester Paton, died 

Ireland. Pres., Mrs. Richard Booth, Victoria House, Dublin. 


Australia. Pres., Lady Holder, Norwood, South Australia. 

New Zealand. Pres., Mrs. Don, Canongate, Dunedin. 

Newfoundland. Pres., Mrs. Cora Benedict, St. John s, Nfld. 

Canada. Pres., Mrs. Gordon Wright, London. Provincial 
Officers: New Brunswick and P. E. Island Pres,, Mrs. Mar 
garet McWha, St. Stephens; Cor. Sec., Miss Nellie Asker, 
Campbellton. Nova Scotia Pres., Mrs. A. L. Powers, Lunen- 
burg; Cor. Sec., Mrs. M. K. Chesley, Lunenburg. Quebec 
Pres., Mrs. (Rev.) J. G. Sanderson, Danville, Que.; Cor. Sec., 
Mrs. R. W. McLachlin, 310 Lansdowne Ave., Westmount, Que. 
Ontario Pres., Mrs. A. E. Stevens, 94 Cowan Ave, Toronto; 
Cor. Sec., Mrs. Helen M. Detloe, North Bay. Manitoba Pres., 
Mrs. Duff Smith, 805 Jessie Ave., Winnipeg; Cor. Sec., Mrs. 
A. H. Oakes, 217 Scotia St., Winnipeg. Saskatchewan Pres., 
Mrs. W. W. Andrews, 2213 Cornwall St., Regina; Cor. Sec., 
Miss L. M. P. Handy, 2301 Osier St., Regina. Alberta Pres., 
Mrs. Louise McKinney, Claresholm; Cor. Sec., Mrs. J. G. D. 
Burbeck, 827 24th St., Edmonton. British Columbia Pres., 
Mrs. C. Spofford, 1642 Pembroke St., Victoria; Cor. Sec., Mrs. 

F. Boyden, 2654 Fernwood Road, Victoria. All conventions 
are held either in September or October, save British Columbia 
and Manitoba; these convene in June. 

For "Dominion Alliance for Suppression of the Liquor 
Traffic," see Section XXI. 

The Social Eyil. " Its ravages are so frightful, visiting 
with disease and death the innocent with the guilty, the wife 
with the husband, the child with the parent, that Christian 
patriotism, no less than Christian piety, demands that right- 
minded persons the world over combine to stamp it out. 
This can be done readily, effectively, by obedience to the 
primal law of chastity. The laws of health and propagation, 
of transmission and heredity, know no double standard. 
These laws are inviolable for men equally with women." 
Report 1912-13; Temp, and Moral Reform Dept., Meth. Church. 

Canadian Purity-Education Association. " My strength is 
as the strength of ten because my heart is pure." Pres., Dr. 

G. B. Smith, Toronto; Vice-Presidents, Dr. Jennie Gray Wild- 
man and Dr. E. Burt Sherratt, Toronto; Sec., Dr. Susan L. 
Fothermgham; Treas., J. F. Wildman. Address, The Secre 
tary, Can. Purity-Education Ass n, Box 385, General Delivery, 
Toronto. The Association was organized in 1906; its object 
is " embodied in its name." Last year 56 lectures were given 
by accredited lecturers of the Association (one by the Honor 
ary President, Dr. Peter Bryce, of Ottawa, was on "The 
Ethical Problems Underlying the Social Evil ") ; literature 
has been distributed to points in all the provinces and in the 
United States. Speakers " are being much sought for, for all 
sorts of mothers and girls and women s meetings generally." 



Laws for Protection of Women and Children. According 
to the Criminal Code (Sec. 292), Everyone is guilty of an in 
dictable offence and liable to two years imprisonment and to 
be whipped who indecently assaults any female. (Sec. 299.) 
Everyone who commits the crime of rape is guilty of an 
indictable offence and liable to suffer death or to imprison 
ment for life. (Sec. 294.) It is no defence to a charge for an 
indecent assault on a young person under the age of fourteen 
to prove that he or she consented to the act of indecency. 
(Sec. 301) Anyone is liable to imprisonment for life and to be 
whipped who carnally knows any girl under the age of four 
teen years, not being his wife, whether he believes her to be 
of or above that age or not. (Sec. 302) For attempting the 
penalty is two years and whipping. Under Section 315, every 
one who takes away any unmarried girl under sixteen from 
her parents or anyone having the lawful care or charge of 
her is liable to five years imprisonment, and it is immaterial 
whether the girl is taken with her own consent or not, and 
whether the offender believed her to be of or over the age 
of sixteen or not. 

White Slaye Traffic. In 1913, the old Section 216, dealing 
with procuring or living on the avails of prostitution was 
replaced, at the instance of the Social Service Council of 
Canada, acting in co-operation with the National Committee 
for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic (See below), by 
the following: 

Section 216: 1. "Every one is guilty of an indictable offence 
and shall be liable to five years imprisonment and on any second 
or subsequent conviction shall also be liable to be whipped in 
addition to such imprisonment, who (a) procures, or attempts 
to procure, or solicits any girl or woman to have unlawful car 
nal connection, either within or without Canada, with any other 
person or persons; or (b) inveigles or entices any woman or girl, 
not being a common prostitute or of known immoral character, 
to a common bawdy or assignation house for the purpose of 
illicit intercourse or prostitution; or (c) knowingly conceals any 
woman or girl in any common bawdy house or assignation house; 
or (d) procures or attempts to procure any woman or girl to be 
come, either within or without Canada, a common prostitute; or 
(e) procures or attempts to procure any woman or girl to leave 
her usual place of abode in Canada, such place not being a com 
mon bawdy house, with the intent that she may become an inmate 
or frequenter of a common bawdy house within or without 
Canada; or (f) on the arrival of any woman or girl in Canada, 
directs or causes her to be directed, takes or causes her to be 
taken, to any common bawdy house or house of assignation; or, 
(g) procures any woman or girl to come to Canada, or to leave 
Canada, for the purpose of prostitution; or, (h) by threats or 
intimidation procures or attempts to procure any woman or girl 
to have any unlawful carnal connection, either within or without 
Canada: or, (i) for the purposes of gain, exercises control, direc 
tion or influence over the movements of any woman or girl in 
such manner as to show that he is aiding, abetting or compelling 
her prostitution with any person, or generally; or, (j) by false 


pretences or false representation procures any girl or woman to 
have any unlawful carnal connection, either within or without 
Canada; or, (k> applies, administeis to, or causes to be taken 
by any woman or girl any drug, intoxicating liquor, matter, or 
thing with intent to stupefy or overpower so as thereby to enable 
any person to have unlawful carnal connection with such woman 
or girl; or, (1) being a male person, lives wholly or in part on 
the earnings of prostitution. 2. Where a male person is proved 
to live with or to be habitually in the company of a prostitute 
or prostitutes, and has no visible means of support, or to live in 
a house of prostitution, he shall, unless he can satisfy the court 
to the contrary, be deemed to be living on the earnings of pros 

" Formerly, procuring was limited to victims under 21 
and not of known immoral character. These limitations are 
swept away. Soliciting any woman for prostitution is also 
made a crime. So also is concealing any woman or girl in 
a house of ill-fame. The penalty for all these. offences (a) to 
(1) is five years, and, in addition, for a second offence, 
whipping." (Minutes, Annual Meeting, 1913 Social Service 

" Sections 228 and 229 and other sections have been 
amended (1913) so that: Anyone who appears, acts or be 
haves as master or mistress, or as the person having the care, 
government or management of any disorderly house, or as 
assisting in such care, etc., shall be deemed to be the keeper 
thereof and shall be liable to be prosecuted and punished as 
such, although in fact he or she is- not the real owner or 
keeper thereof. " 

The landlord, owner, lessor, tenant, occupier, or agent is 
liable as keeper if he or she knowingly permits premises to be 
used as a disorderly house, or if after notification of tenant s 
conviction for such offence he or she does not terminate the 
lease, if possessed of the power so to do. (In Ontario and 
Quebec this power is possessed, and application has been 
made for similar legislation in all the other provinces.) 

" Everyone who, without lawful excuse, is found in any 
disorderly house, is liable to $200.00 or two months. Thus 
in the case of men found in such a house when it is raided 
it is not necessary to prove them frequenters, as formerly. 
They must establish their innocence." Rev. J. G. Shearer, 
B.A., D.D. 

Certain amendments to the Criminal Code asked for were 
not granted. " The more important of these were : (a) Rais 
ing the age of consent; (b) Prohibiting the business of race 
track gambling; (c) Making punishable all employers who 
seduce female employees, not simply those in shops, work 
shops, stores, mills or factories. It is remarkable that this 
last-named amendment, introduced by the Government and 
carried by the Commons, was rejected by the Senate; (d) Mak 
ing adultery and lewd cohabitation offences." 


The Social Seryice Council of Canada. 

(Formerly "The Moral and Social Reform Council of Canada.") 
Hon. Pres., Most Rev. S. P. Matheson, D.D., LL.D., Primate, 
Church of England in Canada; Pres., Rev. A. Carman, D.D., 
LL.D., General Superintendent, Methodist Church; Vice-Pres., 
Allen Studholme, M.P.P., Representative, Trades and Labor 
Congress of Canada; Secretaries, Rev. J. G. Shearer, B.A., D.D., 
and Rev. T. Albert Moore, D.D.; Treasurer, Prof. E. M. Keir- 
stead, D.D. 

Executive Committee. The Officers, and Rev. J. H. Hazle- 
wood, D.D., Rep. Methodist Church; Ven. Archdeacon Ingles, 
M.A., Rep. Anglican Church; W. E. Raney, K.C., Rep. Presby 
terian Church; Rev. S. Edward Grigg, B.A., Rep. Baptist 
Church; Chas. J. Copp, M.D., Rep. Congregational Church; 
Rev. George D. Damm, B.D., Rep. Evangelical Association; 
James Simpson, Esq., Rep. Trades and Labor Congress of 
Canada; E. C. Drury, Esq., Rep. Dominion Grange and 
Farmers Association; Lieut.-Col. S. T. Rees, Rep. Salvation 
Army; A. D. Watson, M.D., Rep. Canadian Purity-Education 

The following members, ex-officio, or their successors: Rt. 
Rev. Bishop Sweeny, D.D., President, Council of Ontario; Rev. 
T. F. Fullerton, President, Council of Prince Edward Island; 
President, Council of New Brunswick; President, Council of 
Manitoba; Rt. Rev. Bishop Newnham, D.D., President, Council 
of Saskatchewan; Rev. Prof. Geo. C. Pigeon, D.D., President, 
Council of British Columbia; Rev. A. R. Aldridge, President, 
Temperance and Moral Reform League, Alberta; Rev. C. W. 
Vernon, President, Council of Nova Scotia, 

Rev. W. F. Gold is Secretary of the Alberta Temperance 
and Moral Reform League; office, 712 First St., Edmonton. 

The work of the Manitoba Social Service Council, Sec., Mr. 
W. W. Buchanan, is well organized, and there are many 
societies in affiliation. From Mr. B. Zeglinski (in the office 
of the Associated Charities, Winnipeg), comes the interesting 
information that an agent of the Manitoba Council, Mr. Rad- 
kowski, is doing temperance work " among the Polish people 
in the >city and out in the country as well." He desires to 
form a temperance organization amongst the Poles in Winni 
peg, but nothing can be done at present, " as they only talk 
of the war, whenever they get together." From Saskatchewan, 
Mr. C. B. Keenleyside, B.A., Regina, first Vice-Chairman of the 
"Social and Moral Reform" or "Social Service Council," 
writes: "We have in connection with this the Banish the Bar 
movement, controlled by the committee of One Hundred. This 
is a branch of the Social Service Council, and we have local 
committees in a couple of hundred places in the Province." 

One of the Standing Committees of the Social Service 


Council is the National Committee for the Suppression of the 
White Slaye Traffic. Chairman, Rev. J. G. Shearer, D.D.; Sec., 
Rev. T. Albert Moore, D.D. Organization: The 1912 Annual 
Meeting of the Social and Moral Reform Council adopted the 
following resolution: "That in the judgment of this Com 
mittee, there should be formed a National Committee for the 
Suppression of the White Slave Traffic, and that this National 
Committee should be Canada s representative body in connec 
tion with the International Bureau or Congress; that the said 
Committee should be a Committee of the Moral and Social 
Reform Council of Canada, and that . . . national organiza 
tions in sympathy with the object shall be entitled to repre 
sentation thereon. . . . The Committee is now composed 
of representatives from the following bodies: The Roman 
Catholic Church, the Church of England, the Methodist Church, 
the Presbyterian Church, the Baptist Church, the Congrega 
tional Church, the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada, the 
Dominion Grange and Farmers Association, the Salvation 
Army, the Canadian Purity-Education Association, the Evan 
gelical Association of North America, the National Young 
Men s ^Christian Association, the National Young Women s 
Christian Association, the National Council of Women, and 
the Women s Christian Temperance Union. 

The Committee, upon request of the International Com 
mittee for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic, ap 
pointed sixteen delegates to the International Congress held 
in London, England. The Canadian Government also appointed 
Mrs. Willoughby Cummings, D.C.L., and Rev. T. Hunter Boyd. 
Most of the delegates were present, and the Congress was of 
far-reaching importance. Delegates were present from over 
fifty countries, and many phases of international relationship 
of the hideous traffic in girls were discussed. 

Amongst many recommendations with a view to suppress 
ing this traffic, desire was expressed that " the National Com 
mittees of all countries should try to exclude the idea of con 
sent, at least with regard to the abduction of minors to foreign 
countries. Legislation should be reformed in that direction." 
Also, that " the assistance of women is desirable in the 
administrative measures concerning the social evil, including 
in proper cases the appointment of police women, and that 
the National Committees be requested to press this question 
on the attention of their respective governments." 

There are also Standing Committees on Indian Affairs, 
Political Purity, Marriage, Divorce, and Mormonism. 

Homes and Hospitals. 

(S.A.=Salvation Army in this list.) 

Calgary S.A. Hosp. and Home, 211 llth Ave. ; Social Ser 
vice House, 1108 7th Ave. W. ; Matron, Grace Sage. Halifax 


Indust. and Reform School, Monastery of the Good Shepherd; 
S.A. Maternity Hosp. and Home, 282 Tower Rd. Hamilton 
S.A. Home and Maternity Hosp., 27 Mountain Ave. Kildonan, 
Man. Girls Industrial Home. Montreal Home of Good 
Shepherd, 64 E. Sherbrooke St.; Ste. Darie Asylum of Good 
Shepherd, 350 Fallum St.; S.A. Maternity Hosp. and Rescue 
Home, 520 Outremont Ave. Ottawa Home of Good Shepherd, 
411 St. Andrew St.; Misericordia Maternity Hosp., 42 Cam 
bridge St. (Sisters); Rescue Home and Children s Shelter; 
S.A. Maternity Hosp. and Home, 348-350 Daly Ave. Quebec 
House of Good Shepherd, 74 Lachevrotiere St. St. John- 
Monastery of the Good Shepherd, Waterloo St.; S.A. Evangel- 
ine Hosp. and Home, 36 St. James St. St. John s, Nfld. S.A. 
Home and Hosp., 28 Cook St. Toronto Haven and Prison 
Gate Mission, Seaton St.; Home for Girls (Meth.) 341 Jarvis 
St. (Supt, Miss Annie J. Gawley; Sec., Miss Florence With- 
row) ; Industrial Refuge for Girls, Cor. of Belmont and Mc- 
Murrich Sts.; Monastery of Our Lady of Charity, Female 
Refuge, 14 West Lodge Ave.; Redemption Home, 192 Augusta 
Ave.; S.A. Home, 95 Bellevue Ave.; Vancouver- S.A. Hosp., 
1280 8th Ave. W.; Social Service House (Pres.). Winnipeg- 
Grace Hosp. and Home, Preston Ave. and Arlington St. A 
hospital of which the Army is justly proud. Accepts both 
paying and free patients. See also Section XX. 


Crime Statistics. According to the Report of the Minister 
of Justice for the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1913, there 
were on that date 1,970 convicts in custody in the peniten 
tiaries of Canada, of whom 27 were females. 

The crimes for which these women were undergoing 
punishment were, murder, 2; manslaughter, 5; doing griev 
ous bodily harm, 1; procuring, 3; non-support of child, 1; 
and for false pretences, theft, receiving stolen goods, etc., 14. 
The duration of sentences imposed was: 9, two years; 5, 
three years; 6, five years; 3, seven years; 1, ten years; 1, 
fifteen years; 2, life imprisonment. The report does not 
show what sentences were imposed for the crimes enumer 
ated. During the year four women were released from the 
penitentiaries on parole. 

In addition to the persons condemned to terms in the 
penitentiaries, a large number of persons were committed 
for shorter periods to the county or city gaols, or to 
reformatories. With regard to these, we have only full 
reports for Ontario, in which province, during the year end- 


ing September 30th, 1913, 11,039 male and 858 female prison 
ers were sentenced to gaol. Of the total number, 5,409 men 
and 352 women were committed for being drunk and dis 
orderly; 241 women for vagrancy, 50 for larceny, 61 for fre 
quenting or being inmates of houses of ill-fame, and 83 for 
keeping such houses. As a rule the number of males con 
victed for any offence is far greater than the number of 
females; but only 55 males were convicted as frequenters, 
and only 62 as keepers of houses of ill-fame. 

Penitentiaries. Of the seven penitentiaries of the Domin 
ion, only three contain wards for women prisoners. These 
are: Kingston Penitentiary, where a building has been 
erected recently for female prisoners, and where 11 of the 27 
women convicts were confined; Dorchester, where there were 
5 women; and Edmonton, where there were 11, 7 having 
been brought thither from Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Brit 
ish Columbia. 

Reformatories for Women. In Ontario, " prisoners com 
mitted for a period of two years or less are the wards of the 
province, while the prisoners who have two years or more 
to serve are the wards of the Dominion." Women may be 
sent from the common gaols to the " Andrew Mercer Reform 
atory," or committed to it direct, and " all females sentenced 
to or confined from time to time in any of the common gaols " 
of Ontario under sentence by a police magistrate may be com 
mitted to a " refuge " instead of the gaol. There are similar 
provisions in other provinces for committing women to 
reformatories instead of to gaols. 

Short Sentences. In the report of the " Andrew Mercer 
Reformatory for Females " for the year ending October 31st, 
1913, the number of terms served by each of its 163 inmates 
is as follows: First term, 107; second term, 26; third term, 
7; fourth term, 6; fifth term, 5; sixth term, 4; seventh term, 
2; eighth term, 1; twelfth term, 1; thirteenth term, 1; six 
teenth term, 1; eighteenth term, 1; nineteenth term, 1; but, 
says Mrs. O Sullivan, the Superintendent, referring to an 
amendment passed, 1913, to " The Prisons and Reformatories 
Act," " If advantage is taken of the new legislation permit 
ting the sentencing to the Reformatory for an indefinite 
period not exceeding two years of any female (who) is 
convicted of an offence against the laws of Canada punish 
able by imprisonment in the common gaol for a term of two 
months or for any longer term/ then will soon be eliminated 
from the Annual Reports the record of women serving terms 
for the seventh, eighth yes, and for the nineteenth term." 

Need of Policewomen. Mrs Willoughby Cummings, D.C.L., 
recently stated that the delegates to the Fifth International 
Congress for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic were 


urged, although they " did not need it, to advocate the employ 
ment of policewomen." 

Recently in Toronto, after investigations made by one of 
the Committees of the Local Council of Women, a deputation 
of ladies " waited upon the Board of Police Commissioners 
and asked for a separate Court for women to which the male 
outside public should not be admitted unless they could show 
just cause for being there. This deputation also asked that 
policewomen should be appointed. Both these requests were 
granted. Two policewomen were appointed, and a Woman s 
Court* was opened. While this court is not what we wish 
it might be, it is a step in the right direction, and an earnest 
of the time when we shall have a night court for women with 
a woman on the Bench. In order to keep the Woman s 
Court an open court it has been necessary for women who 
are not connected with the court, but who are interested in 
the welfare of women and girls, to be present at each sitting. 
. The presence of ladies in the court not only fulfils 
the requirements of the law against private trial, but gives 
to the accused woman the moral support of a good woman s 
presence, and very often one has the opportunity of befriend 
ing the unfortunate. . . . Let me give a single example. 
One day a girl with a baby in her arms was called to answer 
a charge of vagrancy. One of the ladies present offered to 
take her and give her the opportunity of earning an honest 
living. The girl gratefully accepted, and to use a modern 
phrase, made good. She is now married to the father of 
her child, and they are getting along very well, and living 
together most happily. Had there not been a sympathetic 
woman in court to give her this chance, one dreads to think 
of how different life might have been for that girl to-day. . . . 

" So many girls have appeared in the court charged with 
shoplifting from the department stores that it seemed well 
to interview the managers of the largest firms to see if there 
was not some way of preventing these thefts, which often 
are punished with imprisonment. The limited accommoda 
tion at the Gaol does not allow of segregation of prisoners 
according to crime, so these girls are compelled to mix with 
the prostitutes and keepers of houses of ill-fame, and often 
it means the absolute moral ruin of the girl, whose only 
offence has been shoplifting. In all the stores we were 
courteously received and assured that the matter was already 
receiving and would receive every attention. We were very 
pleased to find out how thoroughly one large firm had pro 
vided for dealing with the shoplifter. A record is kept of 
all offenders. If it is their first offence, they are warned, 
required to sign a promise not to repeat the act, but never 
handed over to the police for the first offence. 


" We have found our policewomen a great help in pre 
ventive work. They visit the dance halls and other places 
of public amusement, thus making them safer places for our 
boys and girls to attend."- -Dr. Margaret Patterson (in Report 
of Toronto Local Council, 1914). 

Policewomen and Matrons Employed. With regard to the 
employment of policewomen elsewhere in Canada, we have 
been supplied most courteously with information by the 
gentlemen from whose letters we take the following notes. 
The Chief Commissioner of Police, Canada, writes: "I have 
no policewomen in my employ, as such, though I have some 
in my service in connection with White Slave Traffic at sea 

Alberta. The Chief Constable of Edmonton states that his 
department employs " one lady matron " and " two lady con 
stables (in Delinquent Children s Department)," whilst the 
Chief Constable of Calgary says there are no policewomen 
" employed in connection with this Force," adding, " We have 
a matron, who looks after the female prisoners." 

British Columbia. The Superintendent of the Provincial 
Police Department says, " We have no policewomen employed 
in our service," but matrons are employed regularly in the 
Provincial Gaols at Kamloops and New Westminster, and at 
the Boys and Girls Industrial Schools near Vancouver." The 
Chief of Police, Victoria, says, " We employ one policewoman 
in this city, and her principal duties are to look after the 
moral welfare of the young girls and women of the city." 
The Chief Constable, Vancouver, says, two women are em 
ployed " as matrons, who look after all women prisoners. 
There is also a Lady Police Constable employed here, who 
investigates all cases where females are concerned." 

New Brunswick. The Chief of Police, St. John, says, " No 
policewomen are employed in the Police Department," but 
adds, " Two young ladies," daughters of an ex-deputy-sheriff, 
" have charge of the common gaol under the sheriff, and it 
is most satisfactory." 

Manitoba. The Chief of the Provincial Police says, "No 
women are employed as policewomen or otherwise by this 

Ontario. Toronto (see above). Ottawa also has police 

Quebec. The Superintendent of Police, Montreal, says, 
" Although we have no policewomen, this Department employs 
three women as matrons to look after the female prisoners, 
who are all brought to headquarters." 

Saskatchewan. The Chief Constable, Regina, employs no 
policewomen, but has " found a woman useful as a matron 
for female prisoners." In this case the women s cells are in 


the third story, while the men s are in the basement. Moose 
Jaw and Saskatoon also have matrons.. 

Industrial Farms for Delinquents. Ontario has led the 
way, so far as the Dominion is concerned, in the establish 
ment of Industrial Farms for Delinquents. At the Conference 
of Charities and Corrections, held in Winnipeg, September, 
1913, Hon. W. J. Hanna told how the experiment had been 
made at Guelph in April, 1910, with 30 men from the Central 
Prison at Toronto. By the fall of 1911, continued Mr. Hanna, 
we had 250 men, and by the fall of 1912 we had 300 men, 
and to-day, out of the 600 men who would be behind locked 
doors, practically without sunlight and without fresh air, 
feeding on the orthodox prison food; out of these 600 men 
350 are to-day at the prison farm at Guelph, with all the 
sunlight and fresh air, without lock and key, without striped 
suits, without cropped hair, and working as men would work 
at $2.00 per day if we were paying them that price." 

Similar experiments at Fort William, at Mimico, and on 
" the Toronto Industrial Farm " at Thornhill have yielded 
equally satisfactory results; and now the same plan is being 
tried for women. The Toronto Women s Industrial Farm is 
situated also at Thornhill, and is under the superintendence 
of Rev. W. B. Findlay, who has made so great a success of 
the management of the men s farm. Mrs. A. M. Huestis, the 
President, and other members of the Toronto Local Council 
of Women, have worked indefatigably to induce the authori 
ties to establish this farm, and they entertain great hopes 
that the healthful life and work on the farm (which is to be 
cultivated almost entirely by the women), under the control 
(as it has been put) " of sociologists rather than prison turn 
keys," will result in the uplift of many an unfortunate woman. 
The male prisoners, when put upon their honor, have, in a 
great majority of cases, shown themselves trustworthy; and 
doubtless there is no reason to anticipate anything different 
with the women. 

The Parole System. Mr. W. P. Archibald, Dominion Parole 
Officer, says of the parole system in general: 

" The total number released on parole during the past four 
teen years, ending March 31, 1913, is 5,495, divided as follows: 
From the penitentiaries, 2,967; from the provincial prisons, 
jails and reformatories, 2,058. The number of sentences com 
pleted on parole during the fourteen years was 4,513; that is, 
82 per cent, of the entire number released have finished their 
paroles and are now absolutely free from the oversight of 
the system, and, so far as we know, enjoying good citizenship. 
The total number of prisoners now on parole and reporting 
is 668, revealing that another 12 per cent, of the entire number 


have still the prospect of finishing their parole during the 
coming years. 

" On the other hand, during the fourteen years operation 
of the parole system, the total number of forfeitures for sub 
sequent conviction was 145, or 2.6 per cent. The number of 
cancellations for non-compliance with conditions of license 
for the past fourteen ygars was 169, or 3 per cent., bringing 
up the total number of failures in the system to date, to 314, or 
5.7 per cent, on the entire system." 

" The parole system has another great advantage," con 
tinues Mr. Archibald, " in its economic value to the com 
munity. It is seldom spoken of, yet when we consider that 
these prisoners average an earning capacity as wage earners 
of $8 per week, supporting themselves and, in some cases, 
their wives and families, while under supervision, that were 
they still in custody in our prisons they would not be pro 
ducers but wards of the state, costing the country more than 
$300 per capita per annum." 

It is impossible here even to refer to the work of the 
W.C.T.U., the Salvation Army, and many other religious organ 
izations, Protestant and Roman Catholic, which labor to 
reclaim the prisoners and relieve their distressed families, but 
the society below is, as its name implies, devoted solely to this 

The Prisoners Aid Association of Canada, Charles Press 
Building, 114 Jarvis Street, Toronto. Pres., Hamilton Gas- 
sells, K.C.. Mr. Finlay Spencer, Agent and Secretary, reports : 
" For the year ending September 30, 1914, we gave temporal 
aid to 902 discharged men, 37 mothers and 91 children, from 
the office of the secretary. The 37 women were the wives of 
prisoners, who had been left in distress. In addition, the 
Superintendent of the Bellamy Memorial Home for Girls 
aided 535 women and girls, from the Ontario Reformatory 
for Women, the Jail, Police Court and the street." Bellamy 
Home, Supt., Miss L. Russell; Assistant, Miss Lillian Courtney. 



We regret that lack of space has obliged us to omit a very 
interesting note on the history of the Settlement movement 
from the following article, which has been written for us most 
kindly by Miss Sarah Libby Carson, General Supt. of Settle 
ment Work, Presbyterian Church in Canada. (For University 
Work, see Section XIX.) 


Social Settlements in Canada. 

In 1901 I had the pleasure of organizing the first settle 
ment in Canada, known as Evangelia House. Four years 
ago, University Settlement and Iverley House were organized 
in Montreal. These were followed by University Settlement, 
Central Neighborhood House, Riverdale Settlement and St. 
Christopher House in Toronto; Settlement House, Ottawa, 
and Chalmers House, Montreal. 

Professor Graham Taylor, of Chicago Commons, has de 
fined a Settlement as " a group of Christian people who choose 
to live where they seem most needed, for the purpose of being 
all they can to the people with whom they identify themselves." 

As I have thought over some of the Settlements that I 
know, I realize that some are doing a strong, helpful work 
in the community, in placing themselves in touch with the 
various civic bodies of the city, and using the time principally 
in solving the housing problem and working for the clean 
political life of the neighborhood. Other Settlements are 
doing all this work and in addition are tying the educational 
and social centres of the neighborhood to the Settlement 
centre and aiming to raise the standard of these centres 
already organized. Other Settlement centres aim to have the 
Settlement not only the clearing house for the organized 
social, industrial and educational activities of the neighbor 
hood, but to supplement them in the Settlement centres, 
co-operating as strongly as possible. This plan has brought 
about the systematic, well-organized social, educational and 
industrial departments of the Settlements known as Com 
munity Welfare Centres, such as Evangelia House, St. Chris 
topher s, of Toronto, and others, also the medical centres 
co-operating with the city hospitals, interpreting to the neigh 
borhood the things provided for their use, and of which they 
are many times ignorant, or, through ignorance, fearful. 

One Settlement with which I aim in touch, organized in 
July, 1912, is housed in an ordinary old-fashioned residence, 
situated in a back street. It has neither sign nor name upon 
it; it has never used any printed matter to attract people 
to it. Yet in the two years that it has been open to the neigh 
borhood the aggregate monthly attendance at Play School, 
Social Clubs, Educational and Industrial Classes and other 
gatherings has steadily mounted from fifteen hundred to over 
six thousand, and eighteen nationalities are represented in its 
neighborhood families. This large membership has grown 
entirely from one neighbor telling the other about the place. 
The neighborhood is surrounded by dark lanes and alleys, 
filled with specimens of the regulation street gang a menace 
to the place. Why has the Settlement placed itself in such a 


position? It is helping the street gang to see that a well- 
organized club, with fair play for everybody and a clean place 
to come to, is better than a hunck behind a shed or a pool 
room. It is helping the foreign boys and girls, men and 
women, to understand the ways of this new country to which 
they have come. It is co-operating with whatever opportu 
nities the city has, and bringing its neighborhood in touch 
with them. It is making a neighborly Social Centre for the 
big cosmopolitan neighborhood in which it is placed. No one 
could listen to one club of men and women, all of whom, dur 
ing the last year, have learned to speak English in the Settle 
ment classes, and hear them open their club meeting as do 
all the clubs in this particular Settlement with the pledge 
of allegiance to the British Flag, or look into a Sunday 
service, where Jew and Gentile and Greek come to hear a 
message from the Book of all books without realizing that 
a Settlement does meet the city need of the English-speaking 
person and foreigner alike, and helps the city to solve its 
problems by being the interpreter and Clearing-house for all 
the helps that the city offers, and by standing for all that 
makes for wholesome recreation, good citizenship and civic 

The Canadian Welfare League. Sec., J. S. Woodsworth. 
Office, Room 10, Industrial Bureau, Winnipeg. Purpose: to 
promote a general interest in all forms of social welfare; to 
make a practical study of Canada s social problems; to organ 
ize existing social institutions for co-operative work ; to enlist 
our citizens in personal service for the common welfare, and 
to provide trained leadership for social work. The League 
was organized in September, 1913, when the Canadian Con 
ference of Charities and Correction met in Winnipeg. 

One of its departments is a Social Service Clearing-House 
(for supplying information), in connection with which is a 
" confidential exchange " for the bringing of social work and 
workers together. During the first year correspondence was 
carried on with social agencies in Great Britain and the United 
States, with nearly all Canadian Universities re placing social 
studies on the curriculum, with journalists, college profes 
sors, social workers. Weekly bulletins and special articles 
were prepared for the newspapers, numerous meetings 
were addressed by the secretary at different centres from 
Halifax to Vancouver, and assistance was given in organizing 
the Winnipeg Training Class for Social Workers, and various 
associations for social study or service. This year Mr. Woods- 
worth is giving short courses on " Immigration and Commun 
ity Problems," at the Saskatchewan and Alberta Universities. 


Social Work of Business Organizations. Probably the gen 
eral public hardly realizes how much work of the kind called 
social is done by business organizations. The welfare work 
in certain stores and factories has been already referred to 
(See Section IX). The Associated Advertising Clubs of 
America are placing great emphasis on the suppression of 
fraudulent advertisements. Any one believing himself to be 
defrauded by false advertising may apply to the Vigilance 
Committee, and, if it <seems a case for prosecution, the com 
mittee will prosecute. The Ad. Clubs are also introducing 
a " Truth Emblem," to be granted only to firms whose goods 
are as represented, and the Club will make good the loss if 
goods bearing the Emblem are not as represented. 

The participation of Insurance Companies in the anti- 
tuberculosis campaign was mentioned in Section XIV, but 
their work in health education is constantly broadening. 
Some years ago the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company 
engaged a well-known social worker to organize its welfare 
work. It accomplishes much educational work by its distri 
bution of literature in several languages, through the agents 
who collect weekly premiums from its industrial policy 
holders. It has also a visiting nurse service. In Canada 
(where about one-twelfth of its nine million policy holders 
live) this service is rendered by arrangement with the Vic 
torian Order of Nurses and Sisters of Hope. (See Section VII.) 
Through its agents, the Company endeavors to secure regis 
trations of births, and has organized its child policy holders 
into a league, pledging them to follow rules of health and to 
assist in public health work, such as keeping the streets clean. 

The Organization of Charity. 

The recognized need for " efficiency, non-duplication and 
co-operation " has resulted, in some of our Canadian cities, 
in the forming of a body to determine standards of efficiency 
for charitable organizations receiving municipal assistance. 
As Mr. Howard Strong suggested at the Canadian Conference 
of Charities and Correction, 1913, an important function of 
such a committee is the education of the community to its 
full responsibility for the support of corrective and remedial 
agencies, but " a function of vastly greater significance " is 
the education of the citizens to their responsibility for the 
" removal of the uneconomic and unsocial conditions." True 
charity must aim ultimately to eliminate the need for charity, 
but in cases in which it has been proved necessary it must be 
adequate. The uncertainty of ill-planned effort causes useless 
nervous strain to the applicant. 

Modern charity is cutting out wasteful methods, such as 
the practice of passing on dependents from one city to another 


before it has been ascertained whether there is responsibility 
or provision for the applicant at the contemplated destination. 
A committee of the National Conference of Charities and Cor 
rection (U.S.) has drawn up a Transportation Agreement to 
which there are now over 500 signatures, including those of 
the Charity Organization Society of Montreal and the Asso 
ciated Charities of Winnipeg. Information may be obtained 
from Fred S. Hall, Russell Sage Foundation, Room 708, 130 

East 22nd St., N.Y. 


Notes and Addresses. 

Calgary Associated Charities, 340 7th Ave. E. Pres., M. D. 
Geddes; Sec., Kenneth W. McNicoll. Fredericton. Thomas 
Niles, Poor Commissioner. Edmonton Welfare Ass n, 313 Teg- 
ler Blk. Pres., A. T. Gushing; Sec., W. Davidson; Social Ser 
vice Dept. organizes relief work of city, conducts financial cam 
paign on behalf of endorsed societies, Registration Bureau, etc.; 
Welfare Work Dept. ; Loan & Savings Dept. ; Research Bureau. 
Hebrew Ladies Aid. Pres., Mrs. Boyaner, 750 19th St. 
Edmonton. Halifax: Greater Halifax Conference. Pres., 
Prof. E. Mackay; Sec., R. M. Hattie, 27 Coburg St.; Aim (1) 
The co-ordination of all the efforts of all citizens associa 
tions; (2) Social Welfare. Kingston Poor Relief. Pres., Mrs. 
Muchleston, 15 Union St. W. ; Sec., Miss Machar; Provides 
food and fuel. London Social Service Federation, London Life 
Building. Sec. H. W. Lyons. Management vested in a central 
committee, composed of three delegates from each of the 
religious, educational, industrial and philanthropic organiza 
tions co-operating. " In organizations made up of both men 
and women, the representatives shall not be exclusively of one 
sex." Thirty-four religious organizations represented. 

Montreal Municipal Assistance Dept. Commissioner, Dr. E. 
P. Lachapelle; refers applications for relief to Charity Organ 
ization Society. Cases reported 1913, 648, increase 105% over 
1912. Charity Organization Soc. Pres., Lady Drummond; 
Sec., Rufus D. Smith. Baron de Hirsch Institute, 410 Bleury 
St. Pres., S. W. Jacobs, K.C.; Acting Sinpt, A. L. Raplansky; 
Clerk to the Board, David Dainow. The Institute has a 
library, containing books in three languages ; attendance dur 
ing past year, 3,920. Ladies Committee, Royal Edward Insti 
tute. Pres., Mrs. Macdonald McCarthy, 45 Crescent St. 
Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society, c-o Baron de Hirsch Inst. ; 
Pres., Mrs. C. A. Workman. Montreal Ladies Benevolent 
Society, 247 Ontario St. Pres., Mrs. Alister F. Mitchell; Hon. 
Sec., Mrs. I. H. Dunlap. Needlework Guild of Canada. Mrs. 
Huntly R. Drummond; Sec., Mrs. W. B. Skinner, 855 Oxen- 
den Ave., distributes garments to hospitals, etc. 


Moose jaw, Central Bureau of Belief. Sec., Dr. B. M. Bayly, 

Ottawa, Friends of the Poor, 274 Daly Ave. Sec., Mrs. F. 
Brownell, 307 Wilbrod St. Ottawa Ladies Aid Society.- 

Pres., Mrs. Max B. Margosches, 96 Wurtemburg St.; Sec., Mrs. 
Maurice Diamond, 17 Sweetland Ave.; work includes free loans 
to worthy cases, fresh-air work, etc. Quebec. Hon. C. P. 
Delage is acting with subordinates as chief general relief 
officer. Port Arthur, Relief Society. Pros., Mrs. Cummins, 
112 Prospect Ave. 

Reg-ina* Bureau of Public Welfare. Sec., E. C. Fletcher; 
organizes relief, administers city relief, assists discharged 
prisoners, etc. Hebrew Men s Aid Soc. Hebrew Ladies Bene 
volent Soc. Pres., Mrs. H. M. Hillman, 2333 Cornwall; Sec., 
Mrs. S. Israel, 1686 Toronto; to help Hebrew women, in cases 
of sickness, and lend to poor Jews, without interest. 

St. John, Associated Charities, 23 Germain St. Pres., \V. S. 
Fisher; Sec., Grace O. Robertson, 182 King St. E. " To assist 
the needy and prevent imposture." The Daughters of Israel, 
-Pres., Mrs. L. Green. The Ladies Charitable Society (He 
brew) St. Monica s Catholic Ladies Benefit Society. Pres., 
Mrs. Jas. Dever, Chipman Hill; Sec., Miss Amelia J. Haley, 
Rockland Rd.; to help sick and poor, including Catholic im 
migrants. Saskatoon, Associated Charities, Old City Hall. 
-Pres., James R. Wilson, 334 4th Ave. N.; Sec., T. P. McLean. 

Toronto. Social Service Commission, 18 Toronto St. Sec., 
E. Dickey. Neighborhood Workers Assn. Central Commit 
tee, Sec., A. H. Burnett; Divisional Offices: Eastern, at Evan- 
gelia Settlement Sec., Miss Howe; Western, at University 
Settlement Sec., Miss McLaughlin; Northern, at Public 
Library, Yorkville Ave. (See below). 

Abbreviated account of Recommendation for the distribution of 
Out-Door Relief adopted Nov. 3rd, 1914, by the City Council: 

That the House of Industry be distributing 1 agency for grocer 
ies, milk, bread, fuel and (when necessary) soup. That Neighbor 
hood Workers Associations be formed of representatives from 
churches of all denominations, from all charitable, benevolent and 
philanthropic organizations and institutions, from the Divisions 
of Public Health Nurses, Public Service, Sanitary Inspection, 
School Nurses, the Juvenile Court and the Social Service Com 
mission. That temporary relief be provided on recommendation 
of organizations having definite membership in such Neighbor 
hood Workers Associations, or of a duly appointed visitor of the 
House of Industry, and that all such cases be reported to the 
district Neighborhood Workers Association. The recommenda 
tion to be made on a card provided for this purpose, a duplicate 
to be retained by Secretary of the division. Information neces 
sary for the Confidential Exchange of the Social Service Commis 
sion shall be forwarded to the Registrar of that Exchange. That 
rent, clothing 1 , friendly visiting 1 and other personal services be 
provided for by voluntary organizations. That the House of 
Industry retain a paid investigator to investigate applications 
for relief made direct to House of Industry and cases sent by 


City Relief Officer. That the Neighborhool Workers Associations 
livide the city into three districts a competent social worker 
to be appointed by the Social Service Commission as Secretary 
of each district. The N.W.A. may subdivide each district, but the 
becretary appointed for the undivided district shall act as Secre 
tary of the subdivisions at meetings. That charitable organiza 
tions and institutions receiving- financial assistance from City or 
general public, be requested to affiliate with a Neighborhood 
Workers Association and to use the Confidential Exchange as a 
clearing house for all cases requiring relief. That the distribu 
tion of out-door relief be supervised by the Social Service 

Neighborhood Workers Associations. Object of the local 
association: constructive social work for district by the co 
operation of the social workers in respect to: individual and 
family relief and ultimate rehabilitation; the acquiring of 
information regarding the social needs of the community; the 
promotion of means to meet those needs. These Assoiations 
have a Central Council made up of representatives from each 
district Association and from City-wide social organizations. 
Object: to develop co-operation and united action among 
Neighborhood Workers in Toronto and districts. 

Toronto City Relief Soc. Pres., Mrs. Forsyth Grant; Sec., 
Miss Hume. Was organized 40 years ago, and has never 
ceased its good work amongst the poor and needy of the city. 
Meets at House of Industry, 87 Elm St. No paid officials. 

Catholic Charities, 202 Church St. Supt., Rev. Father 

Toronto Jewish Pen.eyolmt Society, ftefer to Rev S. 
Jacobs; or Pres., S. Lorie, 48 Clarendon St.; or Sec., Elly 
Marks. Deals with cases of single men and transients. 
Ladies Montefiore Society. Pres., Mrs. H. N. Loeser, 129 Bal 
moral Ave. ; Sec., Mrs. Harry Marks. Women representatives 
from this society frequently meet with the T.J.B.S. Co-opera 
tive Board of Jewish Charities. Pres., Mrs. H. N. Loeser; 
Vice-Pres., Mrs. D. Levinne; Sec., Mrs. J. W. Cohen. Made 
up of representatives from the 4 Jewish congregations of 

Needlework Guild of Canada. Pres., Mrs. Alfred Hoskin, 
438 Avenue Rd.; Sec., Mrs. John Boyd, 293 Russell Hill Rd. 
To collect and distribute articles of clothing to Hosnitals, etc. 

Antarctic Heroes Onild (Brit. & Foreign Sailors Soc., 
named in memory of Capt. Scott and his companions), 510 
Ontario St., Toronto. Pres., Lady Willison. " To express the 
sympathy of ladies for the Sailors Homes," and to render any 
help possible to " our brave men at sea." 231 members. 

Vancouver. General Relief Office. 530 Cambie St.; Sec.. 

Rev. D. Ireland. Central City Mission, 233 Abbott St. Women s 

Auxiliary of Central City Mission. Pres., Mrs. P. G. Drost; 

Bee., Mrg. A. Mitchell. Hebrew Aid Society. Mrs. H. Freund, 



1544 7th Ave. W. Winnipeg. Civic Charities Bureau, Olafsson 
Blk. Chairman, R. D. Waugh; Sec., Percy Puget. "To en 
dorse charities seeking municipal grants." Many of the 
women of Winnipeg have felt that there ought to be a woman 
representative on the " Charities Endorsation Bureau." The 
appointment is expected without further delay. Associated 
Charities, 301 Edwin St. Pres., N. Bawlf ; Sec., J. H. T. Palk. 
" A Central Bureau to make social work effective and to sup 
ply necessary material relief." Winnipeg 1 Telegram Sunshine 
Soc. Pres., Mrs. Genevieve Lipsett-Skinner; Sec., Audrey 

The Roman Catholic Societies are seldom given, as it is 
customary for the work to be done by St. Vincent de Paul 
Societies and ladies societies connected with the individual 

Homes Chiefly for Adults. 

[The homes listed below are of very different types, but 
are put together for convenience.] 

British Columbia. Vancouver Old People s Home, Hast 
ings Town Site; Old People s Home, 530 Cambie St.; Seamen s 
Inst, 117 Main St.; Aged Women s Home, 857 McClure St. 
Victoria Home for Aged and Infirm, 2251 Cadboro Bay Rd.; 
Old Men s Home, 2251 Cadboro Bay Rd. 

Manitoba. Middlechurch Old Folks Home, under man 
agement Women s Christian Union, Pres., Mrs. F. W. Taylor; 
458 Bannatyne Ave. Portage la Prairie Old Folks Home 
(Prov.). Winnipeg Home of the Friendless, Main St., N. 
Kildonan, Winnipeg; Supt., Mrs. L. B. S. Crouch; Sec., Miss 
Good, Rescue, Old Ladies and Children s Homes. Never 

New Brunswick. Moncton, 91 Main St. St. John Home 
for Aged Females, 139 Broad St.; Hosp. and Home for Aged, 
Sydney St., Sisters of Charity. 

Nova Scotia. Halifax Home for Aged Men, 297 Gottingen 
St.; Home for Old Ladies, 222 Gottingen St.; Infirmary and 
Old People s Home (S.C.) 

Ontario. Belleville Home for the Friendless. Bowman - 
ville Home for the Aged and Infirm. Brant-ford Jane Lay- 
lock Children s Home, 42 Col-borne St.; The Widows Home. 
Chatham Home for the Friendless. Cobourg Home of the 
Aged and Infirm. Cornwall St. Paul s Home for the Aged. 
Bundas House of Providence and Sanitarium for Ladies. 
Guelph Elliott Home; House of Providence. Hamilton- 
Aged Women s Home (Semi-private) ; Home of the Friendless 
and Infants Home; House of Refuge; St. Mary s br. House 
of Providence; St. Peter s Infirmary and Home. Kingston- 
Home for Friendless Women, 75 Union St., Pres., Mrs. Macnee, 


Sec., Mrs. E. J. B. Pense; House of Industry; House of Pro 
vidence. Lindsay Home for the Aged, 116 Burrie St., Sec., J. 
Macdonald, Esq., Sydenham St. London Aged People s 
Home, S. Richmond; House of Providence; House of Refuge 
(R.C.) ; Women s Refuge and Infants Home. Ottawa Home 
for Friendless Women, 204 O Connor St., Pres., Mrs. Ells; Old 
Men s Home, 954 Bank St.; Protestant Home for the Aged, 
954 Bank St.; Refuge of Our Lady of Charity; Refuge br. 
Orphans Home; St. Charles Home for the Aged, 159 Water 
St.; St. Patrick s Refuge. Peterborough House of Provi 
dence; Peterborough Prot. Home. Port Arthur Royal Ar 
thur Sailors Inst. (Upper Canada Tract Soc.). St. Thomas- 
Thomas Williams Home. Toronto Aged Men s and Aged 
Women s Homes, Belmont St., Sec., Mrs. Tibb, 31 Bernard 
Ave. (Payment of board required) ; Church Home for the 
Aged, 78 Oxford St. (Aged couples; part of Home private); 
House of Industry; House of Providence; Old Folks Home, 
178 University Ave., (elderly ladies only, who pay board). 

Quebec. Beauharnois St. Joseph s Hospital. Coteau du 
Lac House of Providence. Montebello House of Refuge 
(Dominican Sisters). Montreal Church Home, 413 Guy St; 
Gamelin Asylum, Hervey Inst. ; " Hospice Auclair," Orphan 
age and Old People, 768 Henri Julien Ave.; "Hospice Bour- 
get," E. Ontario St., orphans and old people; House of Little 
Sisters of the Poor, old people, 625 des Seigneurs St.; House 
of Providence and Kindergarten, 1909 St. Dominique; Provi 
dence Asylum, 1271 St. Catherine St.; St. Bridget s Home for 
Aged; Sheltering Home, 152 St. Urbain St., Pres., Mrs. F. W. 
Fairman; Sec., Mrs. D. F. Gurd; " To shelter and guide women 
and girls"; Women s Metropole, 398 St. Antoine St. Rimoii- 
ski Home for Aged Poor; Ursule House of Providence. 
Three Rivers St. Joseph Asylum for the Poor. 



A movement for the training of Social Service workers 
has been begun, in most cases very recently, in connection 
with the Universities. 

Calgary University. 

" Last year an Extension Course in Social Service was 
provided in connection with Calgary University. Committee 
Prof. C. JF. Ward, M.A., Ph.D. (Director), Rev. Robert Pearson, 
and Sec., Alex. Calhoun (106 Anderson Apartments, Calgary). 
To Mr. Calhoun we are indebted for the following note, 
written in October, 1914: "I might explain that at the con 
clusion of our extension course (the first ever given by a 


Canadian college) in Social Service, given by leading phil 
anthropic workers in Calgary, these met and elected the com 
mittee mentioned to preserve the results of suggestions made 
therein. This committee was also to confer with the City 
Planning Commission. We are proposing to give another 
more detailed course this year, with the idea of training our 
students (on broad non-denominational lines we have Pro 
testants and Roman Catholics associated for this) in avenues 
of usefulness to their community." 

McOill Uniyersity, Montreal. 

This University (see Section VIII.) offers courses in Public 
Health and Sanitary Science. Also in the School of Physical 
Education, it offers an Undergraduate Course, a Diploma 
Course, with the object of training teachers (men and women) 
for " public school work, recreational and social work," and 
a Playground Course. In the Diploma Course great stress is 
laid on the practice of teaching, and every student is given 
" the opportunity to conduct classes, games and dances, with 
helpful supervision from expert teachers"; while the Play 
ground Course has been arranged, " with the co-operation of 
the Parks and Playgrounds Association," for " any who wish 
to make themselves competent in this increasingly important 

Courses of Instruction. Physiology and Histology, Prof. J. 
C. Simpson; Anatomy and Applied Anatomy, Ethel M. Cart- 
wright, Dr. F.,W. Harvey; Personal and School Hygiene, Ruth 
Clark, Dr. F. W. Harvey, Dr. F. B. Jones; Social and Public 
Hygiene, Dr. F. B. Jones; First Aid to the Injured, Dr. F. J. 
Tees; Physiology of Exercise, Anthropometry, Physical Diag 
nosis, Corrective Gymnastics, Dr. F. W. Harvey; Orthopaedics, 
Dr. F. W. Harvey, Dr. MacKenzie Forbes, Dr. W. G. Turner; 
History of Physical Education, Prof. J. A. Dale, Ethel M. Cart- 
wright; Kinesiology, Ethel M. Cartwright, R. Clark; Class 
Management and Teaching, Ethel M. Cartwright; Pedagogv, 
Prof. Dale; Gymnastics, Ethel M. Cartwright, R. Clark, C. B. 
Powter; Dancing, Ethel M. Cartwright, R. Clark; Games and 
Athletics, S. Roberts, E. M. Cartwright, A. S. Lamb; Theory 
and Practice of Play, A. S. Lamb, T. McC. Black; Educational 
Psychology, Prof. Dale; Heredity and Evolution, Prof. J. C. 
Simpson; Manual Work, F. S. Seeley; Kindergarten Games and 
Songs, F. S. Seeley. 


In the summer of 1914 was organized the Winnipeg Train 
ing Class in Social Work. The management rested with two 
representatives from each of the -following bodies: Local 
Council of Women, represented by Mrs. R. F. McWilliams and 
Mrs. H. P. H. Galloway; Manitoba University, represented by 
Rev. Dr. Sinclair and Dr, J, Halpenny; Winnipeg Develop- 


ment and Industrial Bureau, represented by Win. Pearson and 
Arthur Congdon. 

President MacLean served ex-officio of the Committee for 
the University and acted as Chairman of the Committee. 
Mr. J. S. Woodsworth, Secretary of the Canadian Welfare 
League, acted as Director of the Class, and Mr. J. Howard T. 
Falk, Secretary of the Associated Charities, as Hon. Secretary- 

Fifty-three lectures of one hour s duration were given by 
twenty-eight different lecturers. These were: Dr. J. W. Mac- 
Millan, President J. A. MacLean, R. F. McWilliams, R. W. 
Craig, Dr. W. A. Mclntyre, C. K. Newcombe, C. F. Roland, F. 
J. Billiarde, Dr. A. J. Douglas, S. Clark, J. W. Dafoe, Dr. A. G. 
Sinclair, L. S. Schroeder, Rev. G. H. Broughall, Rev. A. O. 
Rose, Dr. J. Halpenny, T. A. Hunt, K.C., R. McKenzie, J. W. 
Arsenych, Mr. Abraham, Louis Kon, Rev. H. Westwood, Dr. E. 
R. Grieveson, J. S. Woodsworth, J. Howard T. Falk, G. B. 
Clarke, C. R. Austin, R. Fletcher. 

Under the guidance of the Director, visits of inspection 
were made to the North-West Laundry, C.P.R. Shops, Chil 
dren s Home, Children s Aid Society Shelter, City Milk Depot, 
City Police Station, Home of the Good Shepherd, Men s Own, 
St. James Hotel, Winnipeg Lodging and Coffee House, Asso 
ciated Charities, General Hospital, Public Library, Case Con 
ference of the Associated Charities, Meeting of Trades and 
Labor Council, Health Department, Motion Picture Censor 
Bureau, North End Institute, Agricultural College. 

Seventy-two students in all attended lectures 58 women 
and 14 men including pupil and trained nurses, professional 
social workers, ministers, private individuals and college 
undergraduates. Twenty-three registered for the full course. 

A reference library was provided for the students, the 
books being sent from the Winnipeg Public Library and the 
office of the Associated Charities to the University building. 

At the close of the course examinations were held to test 
the candidates knowledge of the principles and methods of 
Modern Social work. Rev. J. S. Woodsworth was examiner, 
and Mrs. L. B. Copeland kindly assisted in reading the papers. 

The University of Toronto. 

[The Department of Social Service is in charge of and was 
organized by Dr. Franklin Johnson, Jr., M.A., Ph.D., LL.B., selected 
on account of his high standing as an authority in the field of 
social service, and his wide experience and administrative ability, 
and he has very kindly suppled for the Annual the account of 
the work of the Department given below.] 

Feeling the great and crying need for trained workers in 
the different positions of responsibility in the social work of 
the Dominion, both governmental and private, and the further 
need that these workers shall have the knowledge of Canadian 


conditions which can only be secured from a Canadian insti 
tution of social training, the University of Toronto organized 
in 1914 a Department of Social Service. Heretofore Canadian 
students have been forced to go for such training to the 
United States. Many of these few have been kept there and 
have not returned, thus being lost to Canada. 

The object of the Department of Social Service of the 
University of Toronto is to afford instruction for the following 
classes of persons: (1) Those purposing to enter one of the 
many branches of Social Service as a profession, for their life 
work. (2) Professional Social workers at present engaged in 
active work, who desire the opportunity of fuller and more 
complete competent instruction in their own lines of work. 
(3) Volunteer workers in some branch of Social Service, who 
wish to qualify themselves for efficient work. (4) Members of 
boards of directors and trustees, and so on, of large and im 
portant institutions, who require knowledge as to the field of 
their activity. (5) Those desiring a knowledge of social con 
ditions and social problems, so as to be able to take an intelli 
gent and influential part as citizens in the great social ques 
tions of the day. 

In addition to (1) instruction in the different branches of 
the great field of social work, the Department of Social Ser 
vice embraces the following further branches of social work: 
(2) Social Service Exchange for the Dominion, affording in 
formation as to social activities and general social interests 
of the country. (3) Library. It already has the most valuable 
and largest library of books on Social Service in the Dominion. 
The library will be available as a centre of information for 
the benefit of Canadian Social work, having full reports 
as to American and Canadian work, including both govern 
mental and private institutions. (4) Investigation and Re 
search. It will conduct studies and trained investigation of 
social life and social problems of Canada, and its city and 
rural situation and needs. (5) Bureau of Occupations for the 
Social Workers of Canada. This affords information as to the 
different agencies ajid institutions of social work in Canada, 
a record of workers at present occupying positions, and a Hat 
of those available for filling positions. (6) Social Centre. It 
will act as a point of focus and centre for all concerned in the 
social problems and development of Canada. 

The courses of instruction cover the full field of social 
work. They are divided into two sections courses on the 
principles or theory of social work and of social organization, 
and courses on the administration and practice of social work, 
called discussion courses. The list of courses for this year is 
as follows: Lecture Courses General Introduction; Social 
Economics, Social Ethics, Social Hygiene, The Family and the 


Community. Discussion Courses Charities, Recreation, Medi 
cal Social Service, Child Welfare, Settlement Methods. Special 
Courses Social Settlements, City Problems, Special Courses 
for Nurses. 

In addition to the instruction, the students also are pro 
vided with field work, made possible through the large number 
of most important and excellent institutions in the city of 
Toronto, provincial, municipal and private, carrying on social 
work in its different branches. They actually participate in 
the conduct of different forms of social work, being given an 
opportunity to select what division they prefer. They thus 
will have actual and thorough practical experience previous 
to taking up positions after completing the course. 

Department of Social Service Director, Prof. Franklin 
Johnson, Jr., M.A., Ph.D., LL.B. ; Secretary, Mr. Edward A. 
Bott, B.A.; Lecturers, Prof J. A. Amyot, M.B., Prof. G. S. 
Brett, M.A., Mr. A,. H. Burnett, Prof. G. I. H. Lloyd, M.A., 
Dr. Helen MacMurchy, Prof. T. R. Robinson, Ph.D. 

Leaders of Discussion Courses Mr. A. H. Burnett, Secre 
tary of the Division of Public Service, Department of Health, 
Toronto, Charities; Miss Sarah Libby Carson, General Super 
visor of Settlement Work for the Presbyterian Church in 
Canada, Settlement Work; Miss J. Grant, Head Social Service 
Worker, Toronto General Hospital, Medical Social Service; 
Miss E. B. Neufeld, Head Worker of Central Neighborhood 
House, Toronto, Recreation; Dr. Helen MacMurchy, Inspector 
of Feeble-Minded and Assistant Inspector of Prisons, Child 

The registration in this opening year is over two hundred, 
including members of all five classes named above. A large 
number of the Government officials and active social workers 
of the City of Toronto and Province of Ontario have enrolled 
for the benefit of the instruction, including the Probation 
Officers of the Juvenile Court, the Visiting Staffs of the Boards 
of Health and Education, part of the staff of the Social Service 
Commission, the head workers and staffs of the leading Social 
Settlements in Toronto, and members of responsible boards 
and committees in charge of important interests. 

Canadian institutions and social work, both official and 
private, are looking for great benefit -from the trained advice 
and assistance available from the Department of Social Ser 
vice, and from the competent and well trained workers fur 
nished through it to fill the many responsible positions in the 
work of the Dominion. 

The Institutions for Deaconesses have given training in 
social work, and some theological colleges have given courses 
of lectures in social subjects to their undergraduates. An 


interesting departure was recently made by the Winnipeg 
Health Department, which arranged for a series of noon 
lectures looking to the better understanding of social 
problems. The Y.M.C.A. has an annual summer training 
course; and last spring the Y.W.C.A. provided a short training 
course for its workers. 



Fain would each some service yield, 

Swift to answer Duty s call; 
Thou Who giv st the willing heart, 
In Thy wisdom guide us all." 

From Mrs. A. Plumptre s hymn, 1814. 

Statistics of Denominations. In the Census Report (Bul 
letin XII), the specified religions were 79 in number in 1911 
for a population of 7,173,513 as compared with 57 in 1901 for a 
population of 5,327,224. The number of persons without speci 
fied religion, 1911, was 32,490 as compared with 43,222 in 1901. 

In 1911 the Roman Catholics numbered 2,833,041, an in 
crease of 27.06 per cent, compared with the figures for 1901; 
Presbyterians, 1,115,324, increase, 32.39 per cent.; Methodists, 
1,079,892, increase, 17.78; Anglicans, 1,043,017, increase, 53.05; 
Baptists, 382,666, increase, 20.33; Lutherans 229,864, increase, 
148,43; Salvation Army, 18,834, increase 82.71; Congregation- 
alists, 34,054, increase, 20.36; Greek Church, 88,507, increase, 
466.26; Jews, 74,564, increase, 354.63. 

Proportion of Roman Catholics, 39.31 per cent, to total 
population in 1911; Presbyterians, 15.48; Methodists, 14.98; 
Anglicans, 14.47; Baptists, 5.31; Lutherans, 3.19; Greek 
Church, 1.23; Jews, 1.03. 

The Baptist Churches. 

The Baptist Churches of Canada have no national organ 
ization, but each church is confederated with its neighbors. 
One General Convention has been held, but there are smaller 
conventions for (1) The Maritime Provinces; (2) Eastern On 
tario and Quebec; (3) Western Ontario; (4) The Western 
Provinces. Theoretically " women can hold any office," but 
" custom keeps them back from some positions." There are 
women s missionary societies and " conventions " in each of 
these divisions, which elect members of the Canadian Baptist 
Foreign Mission Board, Sec., Rev. J. C. Brown, D.D., 223 
Church St., Toronto. Thirty-eight lady-missionaries are 
working among the Telugus, in India. Rev. W. E. Norton, 
D.D., Supt. of the Baptist Home Mission Board of Ontario 
and Quebec, kindly supplied the following summary of its 


Work among Foreign Immigrants: "Slavic work, including 
Russians, Ruthenians, Poles, Bulgarians and Macedonians, is 
being carried on in Toronto (3 missions), Montreal (2 mis 
sions), Hamilton, Welland, London, Fort William, Berlin and 
Preston (one mission each) ; Scandinavian, amongst Swedes 
and Norwegians in Deer Lake (near North Bay) , Fort William, 
Port Arthur, Kenora, Bergland (Rainy River District), and 

The recently organized Baptist Committee on Social Ser 
vice and Evangelism, Sec., Rev. M. C. McLean, 664 Shaw St., 
Toronto, is " chiefly educative," and " prefers to emphasize 
the obligation of individual churches." The McDonald Memo 
rial Institute, Elmwood, Manitoba, Supt. and Sec., Rev. J. Sin 
clair, aims " to touch the cosmopolitan community physically, 
mentally and spiritually." 

Presidents of Baptist Women s Missionary Societies: East 
Ontario and Quebec: Foreign, Mrs. H. H. Ayre, 343 Olivier St., 
Westmount, P.Q. Home, Mrs. W. R. Stroud, Ottawa. Ontario 
West: Foreign, Mrs. Firstbrook, 1 St. Edmund s Drive, Toronto. 
Home, Mrs. Chas. Holman, 75 Lowther Ave., Toronto. 
Union of W. Canada, Pres., Mrs. Bulyea, Government House, 
Edmonton; which includes Alberta, Sec., Mrs. A. R. Grigg, 
207 Devenish Apts., Calgary; British Columbia, Sec., Mrs A. A. 
McLeod, 2516 York St, Vancouver; Manitoba, Sec., Mrs. H. H. 
Kurd, Grosvenor Court, Winnipeg; and Saskatchewan, Sec., 
Mrs. G. Wilson, 2133 Smith St., Regina. United Provinces 
Union, Pres., Mrs. David Hutchinson, 41 Douglas Ave., St. 
John, N.B. 

Church of England in Canada. 

Woman s Auxiliary to Missionary Society. 29,037 women 
members in 1,243 parish branches; 5,300 girls in 275 branches. 
Total Senior membership, 34,337 in 1,518 branches; Junior 
members, 11,138. Babies, 8,337. Total expenditure on Dorcas 
work bales and furnishings for churches, schools, hospitals, 
missions, etc. $34,272.39. Total amount raised, $73,123.42. 
Missionaries, Foreign. China, 8; India, 5; Japan, 10. Total, 
23. Also 9 Native agents, 36 Biblewomen and 211 children 
supported in homes. In Canada, 30 Missionaries and workers. 

Officers of General Board. Hon. Pres., Mrs. Tilton, Ottawa; 
Pres., Mrs. Patterson Hall, 494 Lansdowne Ave., Westmount, 
P.Q.; Vice-Pres., Mrs. De Pencier, Vancouver; Mrs. Fortin, 
Winnipeg; Mrs. J. C. Hamilton, Quebec; Mrs. G. F. Smith, St. 
John; Cor. Sec., Miss Bogert, 196 Osgoode St., Ottawa; Rec. 
Sec., Miss Ethel Raynes, 4475 Montrose Ave., Westmount, P.Q. ; 
Treas., Miss Edith Carter, 77 Ste. Anne St., Quebec; Dorcas 
Sec., Miss Halson, 249 Albany Ave., Toronto; Sec. Junior and 
Babies Branches, Miss Amy Gaviller, 240 McNab St. S., Ham- 


ilton; Editor Leaflet, Mrs. Cummings, D.C.L., Toronto; Sec.- 
Treas. Literature, Mrs. Plumptre, St. James Rectory, Toronto; 
Conveners Standing Committees Education of Missionaries 
Children, Mrs. Elliott, Port Hope; Indian Work, Mrs. Robin 
son, Strathroy, Ont. 

Presidents of Diocesan Boards. Algoma, Mrs. Ironside, 
223 McGregor Ave., Sault Ste. Marie; Athabasca, Mrs. Robins, 
Athabasca Landing; Caledonia, Mrs. DuVernet, Prince Rupert; 
Calgary, Mrs. W. A. Geddes, Box 1199; Columbia, Miss Turner, 
1126 Richardson St., Victoria, B.C.; Edmonton, Mrs. W. J. 
Melrose, 606 Hardisty Ave. ; Fredericton, Mrs. T. Walker, 156 
Princess St., St. John; Huron, Mrs. Sage, St. George s Rec 
tory, London. Keewatin, Mrs. Pither, Kenora; Kootenay, Mrs. 
P. Starkey, Nelson, B.C.; Mackenzie River; Montreal, Mrs. 
Holden, 4646 St. Catherine St., Westmount; Moosonee, Mrs. 
Soanes, The Rectory, Chapleau; New Westminster, Mrs. Owen, 
1146 Melville St., Vancouver; Niagara, Mrs. Leather, James 
St. S., Hamilton; Nova Scotia, Mrs. Worrell, 11 Lucknow St., 
Halifax; Ontario, Miss Macauley, 202 King St., Kingston; 
Ottawa, Miss A. Z. Low; Prince Edward Island, Mrs. Simpson, 
21 Fitzroy St., Charlottetown ; Qu Appelle, Mrs. Peverett, 2178 
Angus St., Regina; Quebec, Mrs. C. Colin Sewell, 60 St. Louis 
St.; Kupert s Land, Mrs. Macfarlane, 251 Colony St., Winnipeg; 
Saskatchewan, Mrs. E. K. Matheson, Battleford; Toronto, Miss 
Cartwright, B.A., St. Hilda s College; Yukon, Mrs. Stringer, 

Deaconess and Missionary Training House, 179 Gerrard St. 
E., Toronto. Pres., Rev. Canon O Meara, LL.D.; Sec., Mrs. 
Trees; Head Deaconess, Miss T. A. O Connell. Deaconess 
House Associates. Pres., Mrs. Reeve. Anglican Girls Club. 
Pres., Mrs. Griffith Thomas. 

Archdeacon Ingles, of Toronto, kindly supplied the follow 
ing notes on Social Service. The Committee on Moral and So 
cial Reform of the General Synod co-operates with the Social 
Service Council of Canada (See Section XVI), and voices the 
sentiments of the Church on all matters relating to the social 
welfare of the Dominion. There is now before the Church a 
proposition to form a Social Service Department for the whole 
Church in Canada. Unfortunately we have no information 
for any Diocese except Toronto, where this work was begun 
in a more organized way in 1911, when the writer, with 
a staff now grown to five priests and one deaconess (Miss 
Newbery) was appointed to take charge of work in Public 
Institutions. In addition the Juvenile and Women s Courts 
are regularly visited by Miss Newbery, while Canon Greene 
visits the Men s Court and deals with prisoners on their com 
ing out from gaol, in co-operation with the Prisoners Aid 


Association. Toronto General Hospital and Gaol have long 
had chaplains, but now every hospital and gaol in the Diocese 
is visited by the Brotherhood of St. Andrew, the Daughters of 
the King and other lay organizations. 

In 1913 Rev. R. L. Brydges, M.A., was appointed Secretary 
of the Department of Moral and Social Reform (Office, 162 
Confederation Life Bldg.), and in co-operation with others he 
has been concerned in the organization of relief work, the 
providing of employment, the use of the school-houses after 
school hours as social centres, the Suppression of the White 
Slave Traffic, the Big Brother and Big Sister Movements, the 
Housing question, Child Welfare, the Censorship of the Moving 
Picture Shows, the Immigration Question, etc. In addition, 
Mr. Brydges has been able to interest many congregations in 
social work. 

The Down-Town Church Workers Association. Pres., Miss 
H. D. McCollum, 97 D Arcy St.; Sec., Miss A. H. G. Strathy, 
102 Bedford Rd.; works in six of the down-town parishes, "an 
area in which is segregated the major portion of this great 
city s vice," where " neglect of little children is so manifest," 
and " infant mortality and tuberculosis are especially evident." 

The Anglican Church Camp, Gamebridge, Ont., under the 
charge of Rev. J. E. Gibson, Rector, Church of the Ascension, 
Toronto, in 1914 entertained 250 children and 100 adults, from 
25 city parishes. Humewood House Association cares for 
young women who have been wronged and who need care after 
having given birth to a child. The home, in charge of a com 
mittee of women from St. Thomas Church, accommodates 
about 20 inmates. 

The "W.A." of Huron Diocese has a strong Committee on 
Social Service, and that of Niagara has conducted an inter 
esting and valuable survey of the conditions of the district. 

The Church of England Inst., 34 Barrington St., Halifax, 
is a Social Service centre. Sec., Rev. Canon Vernon, who is 
also Pres. of Social Service Council of IVoya Scotia. 

King Edward Mission, Winnipeg. Pres., Mrs. J. W. Astley; 
Sec., Mrs. E. A. Woodward, 116 Wellington Cres.; "To give 
social service to the poor and sick and to bring them both 
help and -pleasure." 

Congregational Union of Canada. 

Woman s Board of Missions. Pres., Mrs. Thos. Moodie, 66 
Hutchison St., Montreal; Sec., Miss L. M. Silcox, 4 Sussex Ave., 
Toronto; membership, 1,550. All women can vote at meetings 
and hold offices. Total receipts, $10,143.51. Branches Guelph, 
London, Ottawa, Paris, Toronto, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick, Manitoba and Alberta, British Columbia. 


Three missionaries in Africa; assist missions in Turkey. 
Mission Bands, Circles and Young People s Soc.Mrs. B. A. 
Cole, 312 Wellesley St., Toronto. 

Jewish Societies. 

About 130 years ago Jews began to settle in Montreal and 
Quebec. Many are now going to the West, and far more than 
is usually supposed settle on farms. Toronto has six Jewish 
places of worship, including the " Holy Blossom Synagogue," 
in charge of Rabbi Solomon Jacobs, to whom we are greatly 
indebted for information. Amongst the others, one is Aus 
trian, another Roumanian. 

Anglo-Jewish Association, Toronto. Pres., Mr. Edmund 
Scheuer, Yonge St. This is the only Canadian branch of the 
English society. Object: to raise funds to assist Jews in 
countries where they are oppressed, especially in the way of 
education. It has also invoked the good offices of England, 
France, Germany and Austria, when oppression was expected, 
to prevent outbreaks of violence. 

Council of Jewish Women (only one in Canada), affiliated 
with American Council of Jewish Women and Local Council 
of Women, Toronto. Pres., Mrs. F. Karn. Objects, religious 
and philanthropic. Mrs. A. Levy, 82 Forest Hill Road, is in 
charge of the Immigration Aid work. There is also a Junior 
Council of Jewish Women Pres., Miss Violet Davis. It raises 
funds to send delicate children for holidays to Jewish farmg 
where they can get " Kosher food." In connection with, the 
Council of Jewish Women is a " Jewish Working 1 Girls Club " 
Pres., Miss Josephy intended particularly to help immi 
grant girls, and also a " Sewing School," which is attended 
chiefly by foreign children. 

Ladies Montefiore Society, Toronto, "Baron de Hirsch 
Society," etc. (See Section XVIII.) 

Methodist Church. 

Woman s Missionary Society (organized 1881). Headquar 
ters, Wesley Bldgs., Toronto. Officers of Board Pres., Mrs. 
W. E. Ross, 52 Markland St., Hamilton; Vice-Pres., Mrs. A. 
Carman, 42 Murray St., Toronto; By virtue of office Mrs. 
Gordon Wright, Pres. London Br., 133 Elmwood Ave. ; Mrs. 
J. B. Willmott, Pres. Toronto Br., 96 College St.; Mrs. T. G. 
Williams, Pres., Montreal Br., 430 Mt. Stephen Ave.; Mrs C. F. 
Sanford, Pres. New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island 
Br., 40 Orange St., St. John, N.B.; Mrs. G. N. Jackson, Pres. 
Manitoba Br., 1115 Armstrong s Point, Winnipeg; Mrs. J. E. 
Baker, Pres. Hamilton Br., 94 Nelson St., Brantford, Ont; 
Mrs. A. W. Grange, Pres. Bay of Quinte Br., Napanee, Ont; 
Mrs. W. P. Chittick, Pres. Nova Scotia and Newfoundland Br., 
Canso, N.S.; Mrs. J. F. Betts, Pres. British Columbia Br., 


Columbia College, New Westminster; Mrs. M. M. Bennett, 
Pres. Saskatchewan Br., Regina; Mrs. W. W. Chown, Pres. 
Alberta Br. Edmonton; Foreign Sec., Mrs. E. S. Strachan, 
52 Markland St., Hamilton; Asst. Sec. for Chinese Work, Mrs. 
J. D. Chipman, 60 Prince Arthur Ave., Toronto; Asst. Sec. for 
Japanese Work, Mrs. W. B. Coulthard, Lonsdale Apts., To 
ronto; Rec. Sec., Mrs. A. M. Phillips, 48 St. Glair Ave. E., 
Toronto; Home Sec., Mrs. George Kerr, 80 Spadina Road, 
Toronto; Asst. Sec. for European Immigrant Work, Mrs. 
James Harrison. 118 Aberdeen Ave., Hamilton; Sec. of Statis 
tics, Mrs. N. A. Powell, 167 College St., Toronto; Treas., Miss 
Marcella Wilkes, 23 De Lisle Ave., Toronto; Rest Fund Treas., 
Mrs. E. A. McCulloch, B.A., 165 St. Glair Ave. W., Toronto. 
The total membership of the Society in the 1,229 auxiliaries of 
the 11 Conference branches is 43,2.21; of the 343 Mission 
Circles, 9,239; of the 562 Mission Bands, 19,131; and the 
receipts sent to the Gen. Treasurer, $160,521.29. 

Homes supported in Canada French Protestant, Montreal ; 
Oriental, Victoria; Ruthenian, Edmonton, besides 2 Indian 
Homes; also 13 nurses in Austrian and Indian hospitals, 
3 deaconesses in All Peoples Mission, Winnipeg (See below) ; 
teachers and missionaries to Austrians in Alberta, to Italians 
in Montreal and Toronto, and to foreigners in Fernie, Fort 
William, Hamilton, Sault Ste. Marie and Vancouver. Mission 
aries, Foreign 82 and 12 on furlough, working in China (7 
cities) and in Japan (95 stations) ; Home Workers, 22. 

Deaconess Society of Methodist Church, under control of 
General Conference. Board of Management Chairman, Rev. 
S. D. Chown, D.D.. National Training School, Toronto Supt., 
Rev. G. J. Bishop, D.D. Training in deaconess, social service 
and other Christian work; about 80 enrolled graduate Dea 

Methodist Temperance and Moral Reform Society. Rescue 
homes, etc., in different parts of Canada. For information 
apply to Gen. Sec., Rev. T. Albert Moore, D.D., Wesley Bldgs., 
Richmond St., Toronto. 

Toronto, Fred Victor Mission. Directress of Settlement, 
Miss. A. Sherwood. 

Winnipeg, All Peoples Mission. General Secretary, Rev. 
W. A. Cooke, who says: "Both Mr. Chambers and Mr. Rose 
have been over in Austria studying Polish and getting in 
touch with conditions there. At this time their interest and 
sympathy is worth a good deal to the people in the North 
End." During its 25 years existence the Mission introduced 
night schools, kindergartens, Fresh-Air camps, and meetings 
in the Grand Theatrp on Sundays, " where topics of the day 
have been freely discussed." 


North End House, 376 Pritehard Ave. Head Worker, Miss 
Bella Hall; "a privately organized and supported residence 
for social workers who carry on their work through existing 

Deaconess Aid Societies in various cities. Winnipeg, Pres, 
Mrs. Garvin; .Sec., Mrs. Brick, 799 Dorchester Ave. 

Presbyterian Church in Canada. 

Woman s Missionary Society (Eastern Branch). Pres., 
Mrs. A. W. Thomson, Pictou; Treas., Mrs. D. Blackwood, Hali 
fax; Cor. Sec., Miss Elizabeth Stewart, 28 South St., Halifax; 
Rec. Sec., Miss Bessie Wallis, 35 Willow St., Halifax; Foreign 
Sec., Mrs. Robert Dawson, Bridgewater; Home Sec., Mrs. 
Jamieson, St. John; Sec. Supplies, Miss Brims; Sec. Young 
People s Work, Miss Gertrude Smith, Truro; Sec. Young 
Ladies Branches, Miss I. McCulloch, Truro; Sec. Inter 
national Conf., Miss Annie Murray, New Glasgow. Presby- 
terial Presidents Mrs. Owen Campbell, Inverness; Mrs. 
Rogers, P.E. Island; Mrs. C. M. Dawson, Truro; Mrs. George 
Roome, Halifax; Mrs. McLean, Sydney; Mrs. Fitzpatrick, 
Wallace; Mrs. Hill, Lunenburg and Yarmouth; Mrs. Purdy, 
St. John; Mrs. Jobb, Miramichi; Mrs. R. P. Fraser, Pictou. 
10 Presbyterials with 364 Auxiliaries, 46 Young People s 
Societies and 214 Mission Bands, making a total of 624 socie 
ties. Members, 9,788; Average attendance, 3,576; New mem 
bers, 960; Scattered helpers, 1,197; New life-members, 150; 
Copies of Message taken, 6,324; Boxes, bales or bbls. sent, 268; 
Value bales or bbls. sent, $6,097.45 

Woman s Missionary Society (Western Branch). Officers 
of the General Council Pres., Mrs. J. J. Steele, 65 Rowanwood 
Ave., Toronto; Vice-Pres., Mrs. Sharp, Mrs. Sornerville, Mrs. 
Robinson; Rec. Sec., Mrs. D. Macdonald; Cor. Sec., Miss B. 
MacMurchy, 133 Bloor St. E., Toronto; Treas., Miss Helen 
Macdonald; Hospital Sec., Mrs. Kipp; Deaconess Sec., Mrs. 
Farquharson; Educational Sec., Mrs. Cockburn; Strangers 
Sec., Mrs. J. M. West; Jewish Sec., Mrs. McCurdy; Inter 
national Sec., Mrs. J. A. Macdonald; Sec. for India, Mrs. 
Gray; Sec. for Honan and the Chinese in Canada, Mrs. Hen 
derson; Sec. for Formosa and Corea, Mrs. R. J. Maclennan; 
Sec. for North-West and British Columbia, Mrs. C. Clark; 
Sec. for Frencji, Miss J. K. C. Davidson; Sec. for South China, 
Mrs. J. G. Potter; Supply Sec., Mrs. F. Sommerville; Publica 
tion Sec., Miss Parsons, 628 Confed. Life Bldg, Toronto; Edi 
tors of Magazine, Mrs. J. MacGillivray, Miss Houston; Assist 
ant, Miss Fraser. 

Provincial Boards. Quebec, Pres., Mrs. J. C. Sharrpe, Mont 
real; Sec., Miss Brodie, 3200 St. James St., Montreal. Ontario, 
Pres., Mrs. Chas. Robertson, Audley Apts., Kendal Ave., To- 


ronto; Sec., Mrs. J. D. Robertson, 9 Rathnally Ave, Toronto; 
Mission Band, Miss A. Rennie, New Hamburg, Ont. Manitoba, 
Pres., Mrs. A. D. McKay, 150 Sherbrooke St., Winnipeg; Sec., 
Mrs. C. W. Gordon, Armstrong Ft, Winnipeg; Mission Band, 
Mrs. Smellie, Russell, Man. Saskatchewan, Pres., Mrs. Mc- 
Kechnie, Stewart St., Regina; Sec., Mrs. W. Anderson, Smith 
St., Regina; Mission Band, Mrs. Motherell, Abernethy. 
Alberta, Pres., Mrs. McKillop, 10th St. S., Lethbridge; Sec., 
Mrs. J. S. Stewart, 10th St. S., Lethbridge. British Columbia, 
Pres., Mrs. A. Lamb, 221 Third Ave., New Westminster; Sec., 
Mrs. J. M. Centre, 1243 Thurlow Ave., Vancouver; Mission 
Band, Mrs. E. G. Logie, Pt. Grey, Vancouver. 

The thirty-eighth annual meeting of the Woman s Foreign 
Missionary Society, its last, was held in Bloor St. Church, 
Toronto, ending with an impressive union service in Knox 
Church, May 15th, 1914. On that memorable day the Montreal 
Woman s Missionary Society, the Women s Home Missionary 
Society, and the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society united 
to become the Woman s Missionary Society. To quote from 
the address of the President, Mrs. Steele, " The amalgamated 
society is to be responsible for carrying on two of the main 
lines of mission work in our Church, work in Canada and 
work in foreign fields. The former includes hospitals, homes 
for boys and girls of foreign families attending public schools, 
deaconesses in various parts of the Dominion, Jewish missions 
in Toronto and Winnipeg, Indian boarding and day schools, 
missionary work on Indian reserves, Chinese work in Toronto, 
Vancouver and Cumberland, French work in Quebec Province, 
and Home Mission Stations in various sections. The latter 
includes hospitals, boarding, day and industrial schools, and 
orphanages in Central India, North Honan, South China, North 
Formosa and North Korea," while permeating the whole " is 
the work of our evangelistic missionaries, the only element 
that will tell in the permanent uplift of any people." 

In the Home Dept., 46 Presbyterials, with 1,119 Auxiliaries 
and an active membership of 25,077, had raised $89,979.20. 

In the Foreign Dept. the Auxiliaries numbered 1,038; the 
membership was 36,367; the income, $104,000. Missionaries 
(since union) In China, 26; Formosa, 5; India, 28; Korea, 
11; Trinidad 3. 

Deaconess and Missionary Train ing Home, 60 Grosvenor 
St., Toronto. Chairman Bd. of Management, Mr. C. S. McDon 
ald, Toronto; Sec.-Treas. Maintenance Fund, Miss M. A. 
Crombie, 48 Dalton Rd.; Supt, Miss M. A. Grant. Annual 
meeting, March. 

Westminster Hall Women s Auxiliary, Vancouver. Com 
prised of representatives of each church in " Presbytery," 


responsible for furnishing of college. Pres., Mrs. Peter Mc- 
Naughton, 1934 Barclay St.; Mrs. G. L. Centre, 1243, Thurlow 

Board of Social Service and Evangelism. Sec., Rev. J. G. 
Shearer, B.A., D.D., Confed. Life Bldg., Toronto. (See Sec 
tions XVI and XXI.) Social Service Houses. Calgary, 821 
5th Ave. W; Montreal, 305 Wilson Ave, Notre Dame de Grace; 
Sydney, N.S., 188 Union St.; Toronto, 123 Yorkville Ave.; 

St. Andrew s League of Service, Halifax, N.S. Pres., Mrs. 
Archibald; Sec., Mrs. L. Taylor, 11 Church St. 

Robertson Memorial Institute, Winnipeg. Recently recon 
structed on Settlement lines (See Section XVIII), under the 
Board of So Cial Service. Supervisor, Miss S. L. Carson; Head 
worker, Miss Ruth M. Goldie. 

Roman Catholic Church. 
The Catholic Church Extension Society of Canada was 

"established under the authority of Pope Pius X," to aid the 
Catholic missions in the new parts of Canada. A Women s 
Auxiliary was formed to help in all the missionary 
works which are better attended to by women, to make 
vestments and altar linens for poor priests in mission parts 
and pack the cases for shipment. Nineteen sets of new 
vestments have been made during the year, 1,041 articles of 
altar linen, 45 albs and surplices, and 122 smaller articles 
used about the altar. The Auxiliary has a Toy Committee 
which sends between 4,000 and 5,000 toys annually to the 
missions, within the Arctic Circle, in Labrador, north of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, and in British Columbia. 

Every year the Auxiliary collects $500 necessary to build, 
furnish and equip completely one small mission chapel, and 
has a small bazaar, called a Christmas Fair, to raise money. 
Last year over $2,000 was expended. There are about 500 
members; fee, $1 annually. "The Society consists of a 
Supreme Council and 6 Sub-Councils, 5 in Toronto and 1 in 
Calgary. Motto, Thy Kingdom Come " Pres., Miss Hoskin, 
113 St. Joseph St., Toronto, who kindly supplied us with the 
above information; Vice-Pres., Miss Dwyer, 734 Spadina Ave.; 
Sec., Miss Breen, 108 Strachan Ave: Treas., Miss J. Collins, 
202 Spadina Ave. (See also Section II, " St. Philip Neri 

Catholic Truth Society of Canada, 202 Church St., Toronto 
-Sec., J. J. O Sullivan. Society for the Propaganda of the 
Faith. A conference was held in November in New York " to 
discuss a scheme of confederation of Alumnae of different 
communities throughout Canada and the United States." A 
number of delegates went from Canada. 


In connection with the different congregations are " Sodali 
ties," and societies for amusement or improvement which are 
not nationally organized, such as the Catholic Women s 
League, Edmonton Pres., Mrs. S. J. Gorman, 636 12th St.; 
Catholic Young Ladies Literary Society, Toronto Pres., Miss 
Hart, 40 Shannon St.; and in connection with academies, such 
as: Loretto Alumnae Ass n, Toronto Pres., Mrs. Malony; St. 
Joseph s Alumnae A 88*11 Pres., Mrs. Ambrose Small, Toronto; 
St. Vincent s Alumnae, 166 Waterloo St., St. John Pres., Mrs. 
J. McMurray, Lancaster Heights; Sec., Marie A. Dolan. Ob 
ject: "intellectual and social advancement of its (150) mem 
bers." (For "Social Service," Homes, Charities, etc., see 
Sections VII, IX, XVI, XVIII.) 

Salvation Army. 

Territorial Headquarters, Albert St., Toronto. General, 
Win. Bramwell Booth. Women s Social Dept., Sec., Major L. 
Des Brisay. Men s Social Dept., 22 Albert St., Toronto, Sec., 
Lieut-Col. Sam. Rees. Metropoles (M), Industrial (I), and 
Employment Offices (E): Calgary, M, 214 9th Ave. E.; 
Edmonton, M, 534 Frazer Ave.; Halifax, M, 218 Argyle St.; 
M, 228 Hollis St. ; Hamilton, M & I, 94 Merrick St. ; Montreal, 
M & E, 24 Alexander St.; I, 119 Chatham St.; Ottawa, M & I, 
63 William St.; Quebec, M, 16 Palace Hill; St. John, N.B., 
M, I and Woodyard, 253 Prince William St.; St. John s, Nfld., 
M, cor. George St. and Scott Lane. Toronto, M, 27 Wilton 
Ave.; I & E, 496 Richmond St. W.; Vancouver, M, 332 Gore 
Ave.; I, 24 Lansdowne Ave.; Winnipeg, I & E, 256 Fountain 
St.; I, 440 Logan Ave.; Detention Home and Juvenile Court, 
189 Evanson St. (See also Sections VII, XVI, XVIII.) 

Society of Friends (Quakers). 

The Women s Foreign Missionary Society. Headquarters, 
109 Maitland St., Toronto; Pres., Mrs. Phoebe Manny, 56 
Mavety St. Yearly meeting in September. Partly supports 
2 missionaries in Japan. 

Elizabeth Fry Sisterhood,* class for young ladies. 

The Alliance of Unitarian and Other Liberal Christian Women. 

Organized in 1902. Headquarters, 25 Beacon St., Boston, 
U.S.A. Vice-Pres. for Canada, Mrs. John W. Loud, Montreal; 
Directors, Mrs. Robert Glasgow, 17 Whitney Ave., Toronto; 
Mrs. Florence G. Bale, 69 Maryland St. Winnipeg; Branch 
Alliances at Montreal, Pres., Mrs. John Trotter, 28 Fort St.; 
Ottawa, Pres., Mrs. Geo. C. Wright, 345 Waverly St.; Toronto, 
Pres., Mrs. Robert Glasgow, 17 Whitney Ave.; Hamilton, Pres., 
Mrs. W. Sexton, cor. Park & Vine Sts.; Icelandic Church, 
Winnipeg, Pres., Mrs. Swanson, 626 Alverstone St.: All Souls 
Church, Winnipeg, Pres., Mrs. Frances Steinthal, 703 Strath- 
cona St.; Calgary, Pres., Mrs. E. P. Fletcher, 308 5th St. W.; 


Edmonton, Pres., Mrs. J. H. Desilets, 204 Carey St.; Vancou 
ver, Pres., Mrs. Elizabeth Bailey, 1261 Beach Ave. ; Victoria, 
Pres., Mrs. Arthur Lovekin. In affiliation also with The Inter 
national Union of Unitarian Women. 

Church of Christ Scientist (Christian Scientist). Mother- 
church, Boston, U.S.A. No distinctively women s organiza 
tions, nationally organized in Canada. 

Girls Societies. 

Daughters of the King. C. of E., International. Origin 
ated in 1885 in S.S. Class in New York. Canadian Chapter, 
1895. Pres., Mrs. R. A. Williams, 126 Kendal Ave., Toronto; 
Sec., Miss Sadlier, 139 McNab St., Hamilton. " Rule of Prayer 
and Service." 

The Girls Friendly Society in Canada. C. of E.; Hon. 
Pres., Mrs. S. G. Wood; Pres., Miss Boulton, 15 Grange Road, 
Sec., Miss Robinson, 355 St. Clair Ave. W; Treas., Mrs. F. Win- 
nett, 2 Maple Ave.; Head for Candidates, Miss A. Nordheimer, 
50 Poplar Plains Road, Toronto; Lodges, Mrs. Frith, 513 
McDermot Ave., Winnipeg; Missions, Mrs. Reeves, 544 Huron 
St., Toronto; Rep. on Eng. Central Council, Mrs. Hay, Robin s 
Croft, Chilham. Objects: (1) To band together in one Society 
women and girls ias associates and members, for mutual help 
(religious and secular), for sympathy and prayer. (2) To 
encourage purity of life, dutifulness to parents, faithfulness 
to employers, temperance and thrift. (3) To provide the 
privileges of the Society for its members wherever they may 
be, by giving them an introduction from one Branch to another. 
Membership of International Soc., 500,000. In Canada Work 
ing Associates, 379; Hon. Associates, 181; Members, 1,753; 
Candidates, 324; Probationers, 333; Married Helpers, 53; 
No. of Branches, 76. Total membership, 3,033. The G.F.S. 
" endeavors to study and improve social, moral and industrial 
conditions, and to better the surroundings in which the wage- 
earning women live; at the same time it tries to fit the girls 
to meet the special temptations to which they are exposed." 

The Dominion Council of the Young Women s Christian 
Associations Interdenominational which meets triennially, 
is the national body federating the branches (earliest formed 
1873). The Student work, affiliated with the World s Student 
Christian Federation in colleges and universities, has a total 
membership of 2,496. The Ass n has work in 28 cities; board 
ing-houses in 25; in the remainder club work. In 1913-14 
87,510 boarders and transients were accommodated. Impor 
tant work is also done through the Educational Dept., reli 
gious meetings, clubs, Immigration and Travellers Aid Dept. 
The Foreign Dept. maintains a secretary in Japan, and is 


sending one to India. The Dominion Council s summer school 
at Elgin House, Muskoka, is attended by about 200 student 
and other members. Schoolgirls Camps are also part of its 
work. Headquarters, 332 Bloor St. W., Toronto. Pres., Mrs. 
N. W. Rowell; Gen. Sec., Miss Una Saunders (to whom we 
are indebted for the above information and the following note). 

The World s Young Women s Christian Association held 
its quadrennial conference in Stockholm, Sweden, in June, 
1914. Delegates from 26 countries, among those forming the 
World s Association, were present, representing a total mem 
bership of 670,000. The theme for the Conference was " The 
Unfolding of the True Plan for Woman in God s Purpose for 
the World." Subjects of much practical interest were dis 
cussed, among them being " Emigration and Immigration," 
" Intercourse between Young Men and Women," " The Train 
ing of Women Association Secretaries," " The Women s Move 
ment," etc. 

The question of emigration was treated by those repre 
senting countries from which the emigrants go out. They 
outlined the preparations already made in those lands to pre 
pare emigrants for the new conditions to which they go. 
The countries receiving immigrants next spoke of the dangers, 
but also the possibilities, for the incoming arrivals, and 
together a scheme was outlined by which far greater co-opera 
tion would be ensured between the lands sending emigrants 
and those receiving them. 

One of the most important results of this Conference was 
probably a new understanding of the respect due to those 
who come to these shores from other lands, for although 
immigrants may often be ignorant of the language of their 
new home they may be women with educational or other 
acquirements behind them who can contribute much to the 
lands to which they come. 

The International Order of the King s Daughters and Sons 
(Canadian Branch). 1st Vice-Pres. of International and Do 
minion Pres., Miss A. M. Brown, 51 Wood St., Toronto (who 
has kindly written the following account) ; Rec. Sec., Miss E. 
L. Thome, 434 Charlotte St., Predericton, N.B.; Treas. and 
Central Council Member, Mrs. J. E. Austen, 58 Leuty Ave., 
Toronto. Its aims are to develop spiritual life and to 
quicken Christian activities "; its watchword " In His Name "; 
its motto "Not to be ministered unto, but to minister"; and 
its badge is a silver Maltese Cross with the letters " I. H. N." 
Branches in 46 Canadian towns; about 4,000 members. Pres 
ent activities: Convalescent Home and Emergency Hospital; 
Rest and Lunch Rooms for business girls; Young Women s 
Christian Guilds; Hospital rooms furnished; cots in Tuber- 


culosis Hospitals; Meeting immigrant ships and looking after 
the girls; Food and Fuel Clubs; Mother s Day, Creche; sup 
port of Mission workers, Girls clubs, philanthropic work 
among the poor; church work; helping in Red Cross work 
and for Belgian refugees, etc., etc. Provincial Pres.: Brit 
ish Columbia, Miss A. M. Leitch, 821 Linden Ave., Victoria; 
Manitoba and Alberta, Miss May Bird, 226 Crescent Ave., Por 
tage la Prairie; New Brunswick, Miss E. L. Thome, 434 Char 
lotte St., Fredericton; Nora Scotia, Miss Edith Elliott, Dart 
mouth; Ontario, Mrs. M. S. Savage, 355 Crawford St., Toronto; 
Prince Edward Island, Mrs. G. E. Full, 69 Upper Prince St., 
Charlottetown ; Quebec, Miss E. M. Gomery, 80 Roberval Ave., 
Montreal; Saskatchewan, Mrs. (Rev.) E. Matheson, Battleford. 

International and Interdenominational Missions. 

China Inland Mission, 507 Church St., Toronto. Henry W. 
Frost, Home Director; J. S. Helmer, Sec. Founded in 1865 
by Rev. J. Hudson Taylor, _M.R.C.S., to carry the Gospel into 
the interior of China; is evangelical; supported by the free 
will offerings of God s people, no personal solicitation and col 
lections being authorized; 1,076 foreign missionaries (includ 
ing wives); over 2,000 Chinese helpers, and over 30,000 com 

Mission to Lepers, 409 Confed. Life Bldg, Toronto. Sec., 
Miss Lila Watt, B.A. 

Can. Aux. to the McAH Mission. Founded 1871 by Dr. and 
Mrs. Robert McAll. "A gospel of love and forgiveness, not 
a propaganda against any church." Now looking after war 
relief for the French. Pres., Miss Mary Caven, ]0 Lowther 
Ave., Toronto; Sec., Mrs. W. Hamilton. 

Women s Christian Medical College, Lhudiana, India.- 
Union training college for Indian girls; 150 students; gradu 
ates working under 34 different societies. Pres. of Can. Aux., 
Dr. Jennie Gray Wildman; Sec.-Treas., Dr. Margaret Patter 
son (for many years Prof, in the Coll., 1st Can. woman to 
receive Kaiser-i-Hind medal), 97 Walmer Rd., Toronto 

Note. Dr. Margaret McKellar has similar medal (for fam 
ine work in Central India.) 

Zenana Bible and Med. Mission, Mission House, 14 Selby 
St., Toronto. " The oldest society to the women of India. . . . 
Maintains hospitals, orphanages, schools and churches." Pres., 
Mrs. R. B. Fleming, Bathurst Street; Secretaries, the Misses 
Turner, Campbell, M. A. Campbell; Sec. for India, Mi&s Mar- 
ston, Lucknow. 

For lack of space we can only mention Dr. Grenfell s 
famous Mission to. Deep-Sea Fishermen "on the Labrador," 
and cannot even mention many a congregational or local mis 
sion or society doing splendid work on land or water. 


Pocket Testament League, 84 Victoria St., Toronto. Sec., 
Mrs. S. D. Dinnick, 1234 branches; over 105,000 members. 

Upper Canada Bible Society, 14 College St., Toronto. Sec. 
and Rep. of Brit. Bible Soc., Rev. W. B. Cooper. Can. Soc. 
distributed in yr 305,000 (whole or part) copies of Bible, in 
110 languages; Brit. Soc., nearly 9 million copies in 460 

Upper Canada Tract Society, 2 Richmond St., E., Toronto.- 
Sec., Mr. Geo. Speedie; 10 sailors missionaries and colpor 
teurs distributed 550 Bibles, 7,663 books and tracts; 69 librar 
ies, of 1,242 vols.; Sailors Institutes at Kingston and Port 
Arthur (3,025 free lodgings and 3,547 free meals). 

Organized Bible Class Movement (Information kindly sup 
plied by Mr. Frank Yeigh). About 3,000 classes in Canada, 
probably one-third exclusively women s, and others mixed 
classes. " This movement has enlisted the services of many 
thousand women who find in the organization an ideal channel 
of social service and applied Christianity. The classes that 
conform to a standard of organization obtain a Certificate of 
Recognition through their denominations or Provincial Sun 
day School Associations." 


Canadian Conference of Charities and Correction. Pres., 
Controller McCarthy, Toronto; Sec., Mr. A. H. Burnett, Dept. 
Public Health, Toronto. Objects: "to discuss the problems 
of Public Welfare in all its relations, to secure and disseminate 
information and to promote more effective methods of social 
progress." The annual meeting is usually held in September, 
but was postponed in 1914 on account of the war. 

The Social Service Congress was held at Ottawa, March 
3-5, 1914, under the auspices of the Social Service Council of 
Canada (See Section XVI). Pres., Rev. Albert Carman, D.D., 
LL.D., Gen. Supt. of the Methodist Church; Joint Secretaries, 
Rev. J. G. Shearer, B.A., D.D., and Rev. T. Albert Moore, D.D. 
(See Section XVI). The idea originated with the joint Secre 
taries, and they planned the programme. The Congress put 
itself on record as " favoring the arbitration of all interna 
tional disputes; the prohibition of the importation, manufac 
ture and sale of cigarettes; the securing of total abstinence 
pledges as regards intoxicants, and a national movement for 
the prohibition of the liquor traffic; the organization of labor; 
a Royal Commission to deal with the question of unemploy 
ment; the establishment of a system of Government employ 
ment bureaus, ... an old-age pension system; the crea- 


tion of a Canadian Department of Child Welfare; pensions 
for needy mothers; the extension of the franchise to women; 
that appointments to the outside Civil Service be through the 
Civil Service Commission; the policy of fitting our Indian 
wards for full citizenship as soon as possible; . . . the 
establishment of a bureau of social surveys by the Social 
Service Council of Canada." 

Canadian Defence League. Pres., Lt.-Col Wm. Hamilton 
Merritt, Toronto; Sec., Geo. M. Elliott, 79 Adelaide St. E., 
Toronto; Field Sec., J. G. Shuter. "To carry on a non-poli 
tical, educational campaign looking to the adoption of the 
principle of patriotic, unpaid, or universal naval or military 
training, in the belief that such training conduces to the 
industrial, physical and moral elevation of the whole people 
and is essential to national safety." 

Canadian Peace and Arbitration Society. Pres., Prof. L. E. 
Horning, Ph.D., Victoria College, Toronto; Sec., S. W. Mich- 
ener. The Society has about 200 members, who believe that 
" war ought to be abolished, and that international differences, 
when not adjustable by diplomacy, ought to be settled by 
arbitration." Anyone desiring further information or wishful 
to arrange for addresses on the subject is invited to write to 
the President. 

Can. Public Health Ass n. Pres., Maurice M. Seymour, 
M.D., Regina; Sec., Major Lome Drum, M.D., D.P.H., Ottawa. 

Christian Endeavor Movement, Dominion Union. Pres., 
Mr. W. Stewart, Winnipeg. Ontario. Pres., A. Russell Hewet- 
son, Brampton; Field Sec., Harold A. Waite. 

Direct Legislation Leagues. Saskatchewan, 26 Russel Blk., 
Moose Jaw; Manitoba, S. J. Farmer, 253 Chambers of Com 
merce, Winnipeg, Man. 

Dominion Alliance for Suppression of the Liquor Traffic.- 
Pres., F. S. Spence; Sec., Ben. Spence, Toronto. 

International Polity Club of University of Toronto. Pres., 
Prof. C. R. Young; Sec., Miss Dorothy Ferrier, 32 Admiral Rd. 
Objects: To encourage study of International relations; to 
consider means of settling International disputes without war ; 
to co-operate with organizations of similar aims in other uni 
versities; to stimulate appreciation of character, problems 
and intellectual currents of other nations. 

L Ecole Sociale Populaire, 1075 Rue Rachel, Montreal.- 
Sec.-Treas., M. A. Saint-Pierre; composed of priests and laity 
(men and women) interested in social and labor movements. 

Lord s Day Alliance of Canada, Confed. Life Bldg, Toronto. 
Sec., Rev. W. M. Rochester. 


Ont Ass n for Promotion of Technical Education. Pres., 

Hhys D. Falrbairn; Sec., Thos. Bengough, 107 Gloucester St., 
Toronto. Ladies on Council, Mrs. A. C. Courtice (rep. Nat. 
Council of Women), Miss Emily Guest, Belleville (rep. 
Women s Inst.). 

Ontario Horticultural Ass n. Pres., J. H. Bennett, Barrie; 
Sec., J. Lockie Wilson, Toronto. 

Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Canadian Society for. 
Sec., J. R. Innes, 286 St. James St., Montreal. Societies in 
British Columbia, Sec., Mr. Hammond Go-wen, North Bend; 
]Vew Brunswick, Sec., S. Merritt Wetmore, Water St., St. John; 
Xova Scotia, Sec., R. H. Murray, 16 Herald Bldg, Halifax; 
Ottawa, Sec., E. H. Speering, 305 Metcalf St; Toronto, Humane 
Soc., 197 McCaul St., Sec. S.P.C.A. Pres., Mrs. Durie, 306 St. 
George St.; Vancouver, 709 Dunsmuir St., Sec., G. B. Coulin; 
Victoria, Thos. W. Palmer. 

Hose Soc. of Ontario. Pres., E. T. Cook, Esq.; Sec., Miss 
Marion Armour, 103 Avenue Rd. 

Eoyal Canadian Inst., College St., Toronto. Pres., Frank 
Arnold! ; Hon. Sec., John Patterson; Acting Sec., Miss Logan; 
Librarian, Prof. Keyes, Reading-room. 

Royal Soc. of Canada. Pres., Sir Adolphe Routhier, Que 
bec; Sec., Dr. Duncan Scott, Ottawa. At the instance of Dr. 
Adami, of Montreal, and Prof. J. J. Mackenzie, of Toronto, 
women are now eligible as " Fellows." 

Single Tax Associations. Land Values Taxation League, 
253 Chambers of Commerce, Winnipeg, Man.; Tax Reform 
Ass n of Nova Scotia, Halifax, N.S.; Montreal Single Tax Ass n, 
Sec., 109 Ash Ave., Montreal; Moncton Tax Reform Ass n, 
Moncton, N.B.; Tax Reform Ass n, Peterboro, Mr. H. B. Cowan, 
Farm and Dairy, Peterboro, Ont. 

Union of Canadian Municipalities. Pres., C.M.R. Graham, 
Esq., Mayor of London, Ont.; Hon. Sec.-Treas., W. D. Light- 
hall, K.C., Westmount, P.Q.; Asst. Sec., G. S. Wilson, Bureau 
of Information, 402 Coristine Bldg., Montreal. 

Young Men s Christian Ass n. National Council, 15 Toronto 
St., Toronto; Chairman, J. J. Gartshore; Sec., Chas. W. 
Bishop (Boys Depts. in some cities, also Women s Auxiliaries). 




" For I dipt into the future, far as human eye could see, 
Heard the heavens fill with shouting, and there rained a 

ghastly dew 
From the nations airy navies grappling in the central 

blue; . . . 
Till the war-drum throbbed no longer, and the battle-flags were 

furl d, 
In the Parliament of man, the Federation of the world." 


May we hope, in the midst of the black misery of this war, 
that the poet who years ago saw visions of conflicts " in the 
central blue " was as true a seer when he predicted the final 
triumph of peace. Yet long after the return of peace, when 
ever it comes, we shall still for many a year be reaping the 
evil harvest of the war. The harvest is not only evil, how 
ever. Already we are learning to distinguish between the 
false and the true. " Christianity has not broken down, but the 
substitutes have," says Archdeacon Cody, while another keen 
observer, Rabbi Wise, looking at Christianity from the outside, 
goes even further and declares " Christianity has never been 
tried.". Truly, war is " demolishing shams," shocking the 
light-hearted and light-headed into earnestness, and bringing 
out in many " the heroic that slumbers in every heart." 

" I think," wrote Admiral Jellicoe to his clerical brother, 
" the war may do good in making people less luxurious and 
selfish and leading their thoughts to higher things." 

" It has its right, its glory, its good," says Bishop Moule, 
of Durham, more emphatically, and he goes on to speak of 
" the grand, heroic cheerfulness of our men our men indeed 
officers and ranks, one body and one soul, patient of innu 
merable distresses, indomitable under wounds and death, and 
kind, supremely kind, the moment the battle pauses and a 
stricken enemy can be helped. They are far beyond my 
praise. The spirit stands at a perpetual salute before the 
thought of them." 

Within the nations at strife, the war is acting as a unify 
ing force. In Canada the wonderful " Hospital Ship Cam 
paign," suggested by Miss Plummer, " brought together, for the 
first time, members of all the philanthropic, artistic and poli 
tical societies, through whose channels the wonderful pro 
gress which women have made within the last few years has 
been making its impress .upon the life of the community." 

From this campaign developed throughout Canada the 
many Women s Patriotic Leagues. Of these Toronto was first 
formed (Aug. 20th, 1914), and the following details of its 


plan of working are suggestive of what all the other Leagues 
are doing: Chairman, Mrs. Willoughby Cummings; Vice- 
Chairmen, Mrs. A. M. Huestis and Miss Joan Arnoldi; Rec. 
Sec., Mrs. F. B. Fetherstonhaugh ; Cor. Sec., Mrs. J. W. Daniel 
(to whom we are indebted for the particulars here given) ; 
Treas., Mrs. H. C. Rae; Red Cross Supplies, Convener, Dr. 
Margaret Patterson; Soldiers Comforts, Mrs. A. Vankoughnet; 
Work Committee, Mrs. A. M. McClelland; Civic Relief Dept., 
Mrs. L. A. Hamilton; House Committee, Mrs Stearns Hicks; 
Offers of Service, Mrs. A. Pepler; Press Committee, Mrs. J. E. 
Elliot; Headquarters, 559 Sherbourne St. In connection with 
the Civic Relief Department an Employment Bureau was 
opened under Mrs. H. D. Warren s direction; also a workroom, 
under the direction of Miss H. M. Hill, where seamstresses 
were employed on supplies for the soldiers and on clothes for 
school children provided by the generosity of the Public School 

The United Suffragists of Toronto also became a Branch of 
the League, with the object of attending to the needs of 
expectant and nursing mothers, and for this purpose many 
doctors and nurses offered their services gratis. Dr. Mar 
garet Patterson and Mrs. McClelland organized numerous 
circles for knitting and sewing, and large quantities of sup 
plies both for field and hospital use were the result. 

Work for the relief of the dispossessed Belgians was taken 
up with vigor under the direction of Mrs. Arthur Pepler, and 
appeals for money and clothing were generously responded to. 

Patriotic Work in Other Cities. 

Quebec. Hon. C. F. Delage, Chairman of the Quebec 
Branch, Canadian Patriotic Fund, " is actually acting, with 
subordinates, as chief general relief officer, and supervises the 
work of providing for the families of soldiers who have gone 
to the front." Lady President, superintending the women s 
patriotic work, Mrs. Colin M. Sewell, 60 St. Louis St. 

Headquarters of Saskatchewan Branch, Belgian Relief 
Fund at residence of the Viee-President, E. Pootman, Belgian 
Consular Agent, 1570 Cameron St., Regina. Ladies Commit 
tee, Local Branch, Canadian Patriotic Fund, Mrs. A. Ross, 

Vancouver. Executive Committee for work of providing 
for wives and families of soldiers gone to front: Mayor T. S. 
Baxter, Chairman; C. H. Bonnor, Executive Secretary; Ex 
ecutive Office, Mayor s Office, City Hall. The Ladies Com 
mittee undertaking the clothing of the above families is known 
as the "Women s Patriotic Guild," Offices, 911 Hastings St. 


Victoria has a " Patriotic Aid Society for providing for 
wives and families of soldiers. Women s Patriotic Work, 
Headquarters I.O.D.E., Alexandra Club. 

Winnipeg. Committee Patriotic Fund, Sec., Mr. Chas. F. 
Roland, Industrial Bureau.. 

The National Service Committee was formed recently of 
the Presidents of all nationally-organized societies for patri 
otic, religious and charitable purposes, the objects of which 
are: Point of contact and bureau of information for patriotic 
work. These are officially recognized by the National Council 
and Central Relief Committee, which is composed of represen 
tatives from the St. John s Ambulance Association, Red Cross 
Society, St. John s Ambulance Brigade, with the Department 
of Militia and Defence. Hon. Pres., Mrs. Hendrie; Pres., 
Mrs. Albert Gooderham; 1st Vice-Pres., Mrs. Torrington; 
Representatives: Lady Gibson, Mrs. Cummings, National 
Council of Women; Mrs. Falconer, Dominion Y.W.C.A.; Mrs. 
Frederick Mercer, Women s Art Association; Mrs. Starr, 
W.C.T.U., Whitby; Mrs. L. A. Hamilton, Women s Institutes; 
Miss Brown, King s Daughters; Mrs. Plumptre, Secretary; 
Mrs. John Bruce, Treasurer. 

The first work undertaken is the forwarding of field com 
forts for the troops going on active service, and articles may 
be sent to the secretary, Mrs. Plumptre, 77 King St. E., or to 
No. 1 Campbell Rd., Halifax, N.S., to be forwarded to the 
Canadian War Contingent Association in London, of which 
Miss Plummer and Miss Arnoldi are members of the Executive 
Committee. Mrs. (Starr, of Whitby, is Dominion Supt. of the 
W.C.T.U. Dept. of Militia, and has studied the needs of camps, 
garrison towns, etc., " with the view of aiding our Defence 
to reach the high ideal for the soldier so faithfully placed 
before the Forces by the late Lord Roberts." The W.C.T.U. 
is supporting one of the seven secretaries of the Young Men s 
Christian Association who are on their way with the Canadian 
Contingent to the front and are doing such splendid work 
amongst our soldiers. 

The Canadian Red Cross Society (in affiliation with the 
British Red Cross Society), organized 1896; Pres., Col. G. 
Sterling Ryerson, R.M.O.; Gen. Sec., H. E. Harcourt Vernon, 
Esq., 77 King East, Toronto. The following ladies are asso 
ciate members: Mrs. A. E. Gooderham, Mrs. K. J. Dunstan 
and Mrs. Plumptre, who is Supt. of Supplies. Subscriptions 
are urgently required. The objects of the Society are to 
collect funds and material and provide assistance in time of 
war. The Red Cross Society is an International Society, with 
branches or committees in every civilized country, working 
under the authority of the Geneva Convention, 1864. A fun- 


damental part of the arrangement is the " exchange of ser 
vices between nations, without violating neutrality." Amongst 
the contributions to the Canadian Red Cross Society in the 
first three months of the war the Women s Institutes of 
Ontario sent in $18,000 in cash, besides many packages of 
goods. Nearly 100 graduate nurses have gone to the front 
with the First Contingent as Nursing Sisters. They have the 
rank and privileges of lieutenants. 

National Committee of Canadian Branch Queen Mary s. 
Needlework Guild. Headquarters, Banks of Montreal; Pres., 
Lady Williams Taylor, Montreal; Sec., Miss Catherine Helen 

American Aid Society of Canada, 4 Queen St. W., Toronto. 
Pres., Carlos Warfield; Sec., R. B. Stewart. Sec. Ladies Aux., 
Mrs. R. B. Stewart, 102 Balmoral Ave. 

As a final word we should like to ad_d the following mes 
sage from the Society of Friends: 

" We recognize that our Government has made most stren 
uous efforts to preserve peace, and has entered into the war 
under a grave sense of duty to a smaller State towards which 
we had moral and treaty obligations. While, as a Society, we 
stand firmly to the belief that the method of force is no solu 
tion of any question, we hold that the present moment is not 
one for criticism, but for devoted service to our nation. . . . 
In time of peace all the nations have been preparing for war. 
In the time of war let all men of goodwill prepare for peace. 
The Christian conscience must be awakened to the magnitude 
of the issues. The great friendly democracies in each country 
must be ready to make their influence felt. Now is the time 
to speak of this thing, to work for it, to pray for it." 



The Peace Centenary. 

On Dec. 24th, 1914, the Executive of the Canadian Peace Centenary 
Committee, through Sir B. E. Walker, President, and Lieut.-Col. 0. F. 
Hamilton, Secretary, issued an open letter to the people of Canada, from 
which we quote some sentences: 

This Christmas Eve marks the completion of a full century since 
the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which put an end to the warfare 
between the British Empire and the United States of America. 
No such happy fortune has befallen the continent of Europe. Periodic 
wars have ravaged it; the weight of intolerable armaments has oppressed 
it, and we write in the midst of an awful struggle, terrible not merely 
from the enormous numbers involved, and the dreadful slaughter and 
devastation wrought, but for the outburst of evil passions, of hatreds, 
of cruelties, of which it had been hoped war had been stripped by 
advancing civilization. Our Empire is the principal object of an attack 
in an earth-shaking war, and it behooves the subjects of King George 
to play the man and vindicate the title of their Empire to freedom and 
to greatness 

"Firmly as we British peoples have grasped the sword, resolved 
as we are not to sheathe it, except with honor and with a new security, 
we are convinced that the dealings of the great Empire and the great 
Republic afford a noble example to the rest of the world. Coming as 
the centenary does at so troubled and absorbing a time, we urge the 
Canadian people to celebrate it with devout thankfulness and as a pledge 
of happier times to come." 

Average Weights and Heights of Normal Children. 

At birth: Boys, 7.55 Ibs., 20.6 in.; Girls, 7.16 Ibs. 20.5 in. 

6 Months: Boys, 16 Ibs., 25.4 in.; Girls, 15.5 Ibs., 25 in. 
12 Months: Boys, 20.5 Ibs., 29 in.; Girls, 19.8 Ibs., 28.7 in. 
18 Months: Boys, 22.8 Ibs., 30 in.; Girls, 22 Ibs., 29,7 in. 

2 Years: Boys, 26.5 Ibs., 32.5 in.; Girls, 25.5 Ibs., 32.5 in. 

3 Years: Boys, 31.2 Ibs., 35.0 in. 

4 Years: Boys, 35 Ibs., 38 in.; G rls, 34 Ibs., 38 in. 

5 Years: Boys, 41.2 Ibs., 41.7 in. 

Girls, 30 Ibs., 35 in. 

Girls, 39.8 Ibs., 41.4 in. 

6 Years: Boys, 45.1 Ibs., 44.1 in.; Girls, 43.8 Ibs., 43.6 in. 

7 Years: Boys, 49.5 Ibs. 46.2 in.; Girls, 48 Ibs., 45.9 in. 

8 Years: Boys, 54.5 Ibs., 48.2 in.; Girls, 52.9 Ibs., 48 in. 

9 Years: Boys, 60 Ibs., 50.1 in.; Girls, 57.5 Ibs.. 49.6 in. 

10 Years: Boys, 66.6 Ibs., 52-2 in.; Girls, 64.1 Ibs., 51.8 in. 

11 Years: Boys, 72.4 Ibs., 54 in.; Girls, 70.3 Ibs., 53.8 in. 

12 Years: Boys, 79.8 Ibs., 55.8 in.; Girls, 81.4 Ibs., 57.1 in. 

13 Years: Boys, 88.3 Ibs, 58.2 in.; Girls, 91.2 Ibs., 58.7 in. 

14 Years: Boys, 99.3 Ibs., 61 in.; Girls, 100.3 Ibs., 60.3 in. 

15 Years: Boys, 110.8 Ibs., 63 in.; Girls, 108.4 Ibs., 61.4 in. 

16 Years: Boys, 123.7 Ibs., 65.6 in.; Girls. 113 Ibs., 61.7 in. 
(Taken from Holt s "Diseases of Infancy and Childhood.") 

Young Women s Christian Association 


Make us your headquarters when next you visit Brantford. Central. 




For the convenience of those desiring to make enquiry as to the 
methods followed outside of Canada in certain lines of Social "Work, we 
give the lists below. (In these, Nat. National.) 


British Institute of Social Service, 1 Central Buildings, Tothill St., 
Westminster, S.W. ("Practically a new departure in connection with 
the British House of Commons.") Pres., The Speaker; Hon. Librarian, 
Librarian of the House of Commons. The Institute will supply informa 
tion, on request, with regard to practically any line of social work, and 
publishes a quarterly magazine "Progress: Civic, Social, Industrial." 
Price, sixpence. 

Other Societies engaged in Social Work (taken from list in Adult 
School Social Service Handbook, published, 1 Central Buildings, West 
minster), all of which have their headquarters in London, England : 

Charity Organization Soc., Denison House, Vauxhall Bridge Rd., S.W. 
Children, Nat. Soc. for the Prevention of Cruelty to, 40 Leicester Sq., 
W.C. Feeble-minded, Nat. Ass n for Promoting the Welfare of, Denison 
House, Vauxhall Bridge Rd., S.W. Girls,, Nat. Soc. for the Protection 
of young, 1 Victoria St., S.W. Health, Soc. Nat., 53 Berners St., Oxford 
St. W. Housing and Town Planning Council, 41 Russell Sq., W.C. 
Infant Mortality, Nat. Ass n for the Prevention of, 4 Tavistock Sq., W.C. 
Labour Legislation, British Ass n for, Queen Anne s Chambers, West 
minster, S.W. Penal Reform League, 68a Park Hill Rd., N.W. Vacant 
Land Cultivation Soc., 39 Wilson St., Finsbury, E.C. 


For information: The Official Secretary, High Commissioner s offices, 
72 Victoria St., Westminster, London, S.W. 


For information: The High Commissioner for New Zealand, West 
minster Chambers, 53 Victoria St., London, S.W. 


Charity Organization Dept. of Russell Sage Foundation, 130 E. 22d 
St., New York. Director, Mary E. Richmond; Asso. Director, Fred. 
S. Hall. Children, Nat. Conference on the Education of Dependent, 
Truant, Backward and Delinquent. Sec., W. L. Kuser, Eldora, Iowa. 
Consumers League, Nat. Sec., Mrs. Florence Kelly, New York City. 
City Planning, Nat. Conference of, 19 Congress St., Boston. Sec. F. 
Shurtleff. Desertion Bureau. Nat., 356 Second Ave., New York, Monroe 
M. Goldstein. Education, Nat. Soc. for the Promotion of Industrial, 
140 W. 42nd St., New York, C. A. Prosser. Feeble-minded, American 
Ass n for the Study of. Sec., A. C. Rogers, M.D., Faribault, Minn. 
Health Ass n, American Public, 155 Boylston St., Boston. Sec-, Prof. 
Sflskar M. Gunn. Housing Ass n. Nat.. 105 E. 22d St., New York. 
Field Sec., John Ihlder. Infant Mortality, American Ass n for Study 
and Prevention of, 1,211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Exec. Sec., Gertrude 
B. Knipp. Jewish Charities, The National Conference of, 411 W. 
Fayette St., Baltimore. Law and Criminology, The American Institute 
of. flee., H, W. Ballantine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 
I>oan Asn ns, National Federation of Remedial- Chairman, C, H. 



Brown, Jr., 223 Ellicott Sq., Buffalo. Loans, Division of Remedial, 
(Russell Sage Foundation), 13 E. 22d St., New York. Director, A. 
H. Ham. Medicine, American Academy of (" Specializing in Medical 
Sociology"), 52 North Fourth St., Easton, Pa. Deputy Sec., Elizabeth 
F. Reed. Municipal League, National, 705 North American Building, 
121 South Broad St.. Philadelphia. Sec., C. R. Woodruff. Play-ground 
and Recreation Ass n of America, Metropolitan Buildings, 1 Madison 
Ave., New York. Sec., H. S. Braucher. Bed Cross^ American, 1624 H 
St., N.W., Washington, D.C- Nat. Director, Ernest P. Bicknell. Social 
Service, American Institute of, Bible House, New York. Pres., Dr. 
Strong. The Survey, 105 E. 22d St., New York. Sec., P. U. Kellogg. 
Women s Clubs, General Federation of. Pres.. Mrs. Percy V. Penny- 
backer, 2606 Whitis Ave., Austin, Texas. Women, Council of Jewish, 
448 Central Park W., New York. Exec. Sec., Sadie American. 

Supplementary Information on Employment Laws. 

There are practically no factories in Alberta, but the question of the 
employment of children," writes Mr. Chadwick, " is covered in our 
Truancy Act and in the Children s Protection Act, it being a contraven 
tion of the Children s Protection Act for any child to work during school 
hours or after 9 in the evening or before seven in the morning. A child 
is denned as anyone under 17." In Saskatchewan, we are informed by 
Mr. T. M. Malloy, Sec. of the Bureau of Labour, that though there is no 
Provincial Shops Regulation or Early Closing Act, many of the cities of 
the- Province have adopted by-laws, permitted by the Cities Act, regxi- 
lating the hours of closing for various places of business, especially stores. 



. . DAILY . . 



Toronto and 


Through Day Service 





Apply to nearest C.N.R. Agent or City Ticket Agent, Cor. Kinc and Tomni.> 
Streets, Toronto, Ont. for all information. 

Books by Emily P. Weaver 

The Story of the Counties of Ontario 

Price $1.50 

" A remarkable amount of historical information deal 
ing with the foundation and up-building of the counties 
of the Province of Ontario has here been gathered to 
gether. Nor is this book in any way a mere dry com 
pilation. On the contrary, the author has been able to 
make her book eminently readable. She has told the 
story of each of the fortysthree counties and eleven dis 
tricts of the Province. The material she has dealt with 
is always interesting, and frequently picturesque to the 
point of romance. And it has been cleverly handled. 
The book also contains a number of attractive pictures." 
Toronto Saturday Night. 

A Canadian History for Boys and Girls 

William Briggs and The Copp Clark Co., Ltd. 

Price 50 cents. 

" The work is excellently arranged, accurately and 
pleasantly written, and copiously (illustrated."- St. John 

" It tells the story of Canada with much clearness 
and simplicity." Vancouver Province. 

Old Quebec The City of Champlain 

William Briggs. Price, Paper 25c. ; Cloth 35c. 

" Unites historical accuracy with both literary 
and human interest." 

" It is very seldom that text and picture each so 
admirably isrupponts the other." Toronto Evening Ncivs. 

The Trouble Man 

Musson Book Company. Price $1.00 

;< A real Canadian story." Manitoba Free Press. 

" A charming Canadian story. . . . One seems to 
live with the characters so ably presented, and enter 
into the pathos and humour of the scenes in which the 
trouble man is an important a^tor." Bristol Journal 
f Eng.)- 




[Subjects, associations, classified lists, etc. Where from the classifi 
cation it appears that there would be no difficulty in finding a reference 
to a certain society, branch or place, it is not indexed individually. Names 
of officers do not appear in the index but in the body of the book in 
connection with organizations.] 

Advertising Club, Vigilance Com 
mittee, 286. 

Actresses, Canadian, 225. 
Alpine Club of Canada, 265. 
Alumnae Ass ns (universities, etc.) 

154, 155. 

American Aid Soc., 315. 
Amherst, 2. 145, 146, 259. 
Anglo-Jewish Ass n, Toronto, 300. 
Antarctic Heroes Guild, 289. 
Area, Dominion, 11 ; Provinces, 

11, 12. 
Art, 218-221. 
Art Galleries, 219. 
Artists, women, exhibiting (1914), 

219, 220. 

Ass n des Gardes-Malades, 264. 
Ass n opposed to Woman Suffrage, 


Babies Dispensary Guild, 128. 
Baggage & Railway Notes, 6, 7. 
Baptist Societies, 296, 297. 
Baron de Hirsch Inst., 287. 
Belgian Relief, 313. 
Bellamy Home, 283. 
Belleville, 1, 203, 230. 
Bell Telephone Co., 188, 191. 
Berlin, 1, 144, 193, 203. 
Bible Class Movement, 309. 
Bible Soc., Upper Can., 309. 
Bigamy, 91. 
Blind, schools for, 147; library. 


Boarding homes, girls, 192-194. 
Books of year by Canadian Women. 


Boy Scouts. Clubs. r*<-.. ^ 
Brantford, 1, 14, 193, 203, 259. 
Brandon, 2, 10>8, 193. 
British North America Act, 39, 91. 
Brockville, 1, 137. 
Business, Women in, 166, 167. 
Cabinet Ministers., Dom., and 

Wives, 39, 40. 

Cadet Corps, in schools, 145. 
Calgary, 2, 14, 16. 71,. 193. 1P4. 

205, 224. 239, 244, 259, 2R7, 

281, 287. 291. 

Tamp, Anglican Church, 299. 
R, 250. 

Can. Ass n. for Prevention of 
Tuberculosis, 253-258; officers,, 
253; methods, 254; affiliated 
ass ns., 256-258. 

Can. Defence League, 310. 

Can. Folklore Soc., 216, 217. 

Can. Handicrafts Guild, 220-. 

Can. Housing & Town-Planning 
Congress, First, 236. 

Can. Med. Ass n. Milk Commis 
sion, 126. 

Can. National Exhibition, Toronto, 

Can. Pacific Ry. apprentices, 144. 

Can. Peace & Arbitration Soc., 310. 

Can. Public Health Ass n., 310. 

Can. Purity Education Ass n., 273. 

Can. Red Cross Soc., 314. 

Can. Soc. of Applied Art, 221. 

Can. Temperance Act, 269. 

Can. War Contingent Ass n.. 314. 

Canadian Welfare League, 285. 

Catholic Charities, 288. 289, 290. 

Catholic Truth Soc. of Canada, 304. 

Central Neighborhood House, 284, 

Chalmers House. Montreal, 284. 

Charities, Associated, etc.. 287-290. 

Charities & Correction, Can. Con 
ference of, 309. 

Charity Organization Soe., 287. 

fharlottetown, 71, 72, 74. 205. 

Chartered Accountants, Inst. of, 

Chatham, 1, 203. 

Child Hygiene, PSv. Toronto, 125. 

Child Labour, 168, 169, 177, 185, 

Child Welfare, 110-132. 

Children, average we erhts & 
heights of. Appendix B. 

Children, Neglected, Supts. of, 110. 

r-Mldren of Emrnre. HPe I.O.D.E. 

Children, Acts for Protection of, 
116, 117, 118. 122. 

Children s Aid Societies, 118-121, 

r h ma Inland Mission, 308. 

Choirs, Canadian, 223, 224. 


" v * r **Hj"f* 

<mv n* J * c 




Christian Endeavour Movement, 


Church of Christ, Scientist, 306. 
Church of England " Women s 
Auxiliary," 297; social service, 
298, 299. 

Churches and recreation, 267. 
City Beautiful Ass n.," Van 
couver, 239. 

Civic Charities Bureau, 290. 
Civil Service, Women in, 166. 
Classes, Special, in Schools, 145. 
Clubs, Study of Social Science, 83- 

Clubs, Travel, 217; Reading & 

Study. 217. 
Colleges & Conservatories of 

Music, 222. 

Colleges, see Universities. 
Collingwood, 144. 
Combines, 10. 
Commission of Conservation, 235, 

236, 245. 

Conditions of work, 187, 190. 
Congregational Union of Canada, 


Co-operation, 106. 107; Co-opera 
tive Union, 107. 
Copyright, Notes on, 213, 214. 
Cost of Living, 105, 106. 
Council of Women, National, 56- 
68; activities, 61, 62, 183; 
officers, 63, 64; federated socie 
ties, 64; local. 60, 66, 89; quin- 
ouennial. 58, 66-68. 
Crime Statistics, 278. 
Criminal Code, amended, 274, 275. 
Curling Clubs, Ladies , 266. 
Customs, 7-10. 

Day Nurseries. 88, 129, 130. 
Daughters of British Empire, U.S., 


Daughters of the King, 299, 306. 
Deaconess Aid Society, 302. 
Deaconess & Miss. Training. 
House, C. of E., 298; associates, 
Deaconess & Miss. Training Home, 

Presbyt., 303. 

Deaconesses. Social Service Train 
ing of, 295, 296. 
Deaconess Soc., Meth., 30.1. 
Deaf, Schools for, 147, 148. 
Death rate, Reduction of, 245. 
DiMilistry, Admission to practice, 


Desertion. 89, 100, 101. 
Dickens Fellowship, 217. 218. 
Direct Legislation Leagues, 310. 
Dispensaries, Tuberculosis, 255. 


Divorce, 96-99. 
Doctors, women, list, 161. 
Domestic Science, 143. 

Dom. Alliance, Suppression Liquor 
Traffic, 310. 

Dominion Archives, 202. 

Dominion, Statistics, 11. 

Double standard, wages, 186. 

Down-Town Church Workers 
Ass n., 299. 

Duchess of Connaught, 36. 

Duty, Dumping, 10. 

Early Closing Acts, 173, 174. 

Earnings, domestics, 184; factory 
employees, 185; teachers, 186; 
investigation, 187-189, 190. 

L Ecole Sociale Populaire, 310. 

Editors, women, 200-202. 

Edmonton, 2, 14, 16, 71, 73, 122. 
123, 192, 193, 205, 224, 259, 
281, 287. 

Education, 132-157; for country 
life, 227, 228. 

Employers increase wages, 176. 

Employment Agencies, 180; legis 
lation, 181-183; provincial, 183 
municipal, 183; women s, 33, 
185, 191; patriotic, 313, 314. 

Employments, women, 

legislation, factories, 16-172: 
stores, 172-175- (See Wages.) 

Epileptics, Hospital for, 262. 

Evangelia House, 284, 267. 

Extension Course, Social Service, 

Extension Soc., R.C., 304. 

Factories, legislation, 168-172. 

Feeble-Minded 261, 262; classi 
fication, 261; Hospital for, 262. 

Festivals, Musical. 224. 

Forest Schools, 260, 261. 

Fort William, 2, 14, 62, 69, 125. 
203, 237, 241. 282, 287. 

Franchise, Parliamentary, where 
granted, 68; Dominion, 72; 
Prov., 72; married women s, 69. 
71- school franchise and eligi 
bility, 70, 71, 75-77; municipal. 
71 72-75. 

Fredericton, 2, 205, 240, 
charities. 287. 

Friends. Soc. of. 305, 315. 

Gait. 1, 144, 203. 

Girl Guides. Canadian, 55. 56, I 

Girls Friendly Society, 306. 

Glace Bay, 14. 

Golf. Ladies , 265. 

Good Shepherd, Homes of, 278. 

Governor-General, 35; family, 36. 

Grace Hospital, Winnipeg, 278. 

Grand Trunk Ry. apprentices, 144. 

Guelph, 1, 144, 197, 20-3, 207. 

Halifax, 2, 14, 16, 62, 108, 128, 
145, 146, 187, 191, 193, 205, 
221, 224, 239. 240, 259, 261, 
267, 268, 287, 290. 




Established A.D. 1782 

Capital and Assets 
(exceed) $75,000,000 

No. 18 Wellington St. East 


General Agent 
Telephone M 2012 

The Survey 


Social service means woman s service 
in every movement to promote the common 
welfare. The Survey, the only national 
journal in America which reports the news 
of all fields of social service, is a hand 
book for every woman who is leading 
constructive work to make her city a better 
place for working men, homemaking wives 
and growing children. 

The Survey covers the fields of recre 
ation, education, relief, health, industry, 
housing, sanitation, work with children 
and dependents, prison reform and church 

The subscription price including Can 
adian postage, is $3.75 per year, or we will 
send you a six months trial subscription 
f or $1.40, or a thirteen weeks trial sub 
scription for $0.70. 


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Halifax Conference, Greater, 287. 

Hamilton, 1, 14, 108, 127, 128. 
144, 191, 194, 203, 219, 221, 
222, 223, 237, 239, 241, 244, 
258, 259, 261. 
Hands Across the Seas," 54. 

Health and Prov., Boards of, 245. 

Heliconian Club, Toronto, 226. 

Historical Societies, 214-216. 

Holiday Homes, etc., 268. 

Home Economics Societies (em 
ployment), 183. 

Homemakers Clubs. (See Wo 
men s Institutes.) 

Homes & Hospitals, Infants . 130. 

Homes & Hospitals, Salvation 
Army and others, 277, 278. 

Homes. Children s, 130-132, 290, 

Homes for Aged, 290, 291. 

Homes for Friendless, 290. 

Homesteads, 78. 

Hospital Aid Societies, 252, 253. 

Hosp., Gen., Toronto, 299. 

Hospitals and Training Schools, 

Hospitals, Social Service, 251, 252. 

Hospitals, Tuberculosis, 255. 

Hours, factories, 168-172, 176, 179. 

Housewives & Consumers Leagues, 
108, 109. 

Housing Problems, 240-243; legis 
lation, 242. 

Hull. 2, 14. 

Homewood House Assn., 299. 

Ice for poor, 127, 129. 

Immigration, 19-32; Act, 19. 

Imperial Order Daughters of Em 
pire, 49-53; allied organizations, 
49, 53; history, 49; activities, 
50-52; immigrant work, 50; tu 
berculosis, 51; patriotic, 52; Or 
ganization of, 52-53; Nat. 
Chapter, officers, 53. 

Industrial Bureau, Winnipeg, 183. 

Industrial Farms for Delinquents, 

Infant Mortality, 124-126; statis 
tics, 124, 125. 

Insurance Companies, health work, 
253, 286. 

Institutes, Women s, 160, 230-234. 

Internat. Polity Club, 310. 

Iverley House, Montreal, 284. 

Jewish Societies, 300. 

Jewish Charities. (See 287-290.) 

Jewish Women, Council of, 300 ; 
Ladies Montefiore Soc., To 
ronto, 300. 

Juvenile Courts, 114-116, 122, 124. 

Juvenile Delinquents, 111-116. 

Kindergartens, 146. 

King, The, 34. 

King s Daughters & Sons, 307. 

Kingston, 1, 14, 108, 194, 204, 
259; charities, 287, 309. 

Labour. (See Child Labour.") 

Labour Unions, Women in, 186, 
187, 191, 192. 

Ladies of Justice & Grace, 265. 

Ladies Relief Societies, 287-290. 

Land grants and women, 77, 78. 

Laws, protection of girls, 274. 

League of Empire, 54. 

League of School Art, 221. 

Lecturers, Women s Institutes, 
Ont., 234. 

Legislatures, Dom. & Prpv., 37. 

Lethbridge, 2 ; convention, 109, 

Libraries, 202-208; lists of, 203- 
205; Travelling, 206, 207; wo 
men in 209, 212, 213. 

Library Ass ns., 212; Institutes, 
212; schools, 211. 

Lieut. -Governors & Wives, 36, 37. 

Little Mothers Leagues, etc., 146, 

Liquor Laws, Notes on, 269, 270. 

London, 1, 14, 107, 108, 223, 237, 
239, 241, 244, 258, 259, 261. 

London Social Service Federation, 

Lord s Day Alliance, 310. 

Lome Park Hotel, 232. 

Loyal Temperance Legions, 271. 

Ludhiana Medical College, 160. 

McAll Mission, Can. Aux., 308. 

Macdpnald Fund, 139. 

Machinery in home, 109. 

Manual Training, 143. 

Margaret Eaton School of Ex 
pression, 222. 

Margaret Scott Nursing Mission, 

Markets, 108. 

Marriage, of feeble-minded, 90 ; 
statistics, 90, 91; Dominion 
legislation, 91, 92; solemniza 
tion of, 92-96; of minors, 93; 
of children, 94; civil, 95. 

McClary Man. Co., Welfare. 191. 

Medical Ass n., Canadian, 16<2. 

Medical Councils, 160. 

Medicine Hat, 2, 193, 259. 

Med. Inspection, Schools, 258, 259. 

Methodist Women s Miss. Soc., 

Metropolitan Life, social work, 286. 

Milk Act., Ont., 127. 

Minimum wage, 189, 190. 

Missions, All People s, 301: Fred. 
Victor, 301; King Edward, ! 

Missions, Congregationalist, 299. 

Mission to Lepers, 308. 

Moncton, 2, 20*5. 


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Money Orders, 5. 

Montreal, 2, 14, 16, 46, 62, 108, 
114, 115, 116, 127, 144, 178, 
183, 184, 186, 188, 193, 194, 
197, 205, 218, 219, 239, 258, 
267, 269, 281, 284; charities, 
287; 292. 

Montreal Art Ass n., 218. 

Montreal, Municipal Assistance 
Dept., 287, 127, 128. 

Montreal Women s Club, 83. 

Moosejaw, 2, 115, 146, 213, 259, 
282, 288. 

Moral & Social Reform Councils, 
etc., 276, 299. 

Music, 221-225. 

Mothers Unions & Ass ns., 87-89. 

Musical Protective Ass n., 225. 

Nat. Conference, City Planning, 
American, 238. 

National Gallery of Canada, 219. 

National Service Committee, 314. 

Needlework Guild of Canada, 287. 

Neighborhood Workers Ass n., 

Nelson, 179, 193. 

New Brunswick Soc. for Preven 
tion of Cruelty, 111. 

New Westminster, 2, 158, 193. 

Niagara Falls, 195, 203 ; diocese, 

North Bay, 137. 

N. S. Care of Feeble-Minded, 261. 

Nurses, District, 254. 255. 

Nurses, Registration of, 164; Mani 
toba Act respecting, 164; ass ns., 
164-166, 264. 

Nurses "welfare," 128, 129. 

Nursing Mission, 253. 

Nursing Sisters, 315. 

Ont. Ass n. of Architects, 239. 

Ont. Educational Ass n., 145. 

Ont. Horticultural Ass n., 311. 

Ont. Royal College of Art, 221. 

Ont. Soc. of Artists, 218. 
Ont. Women s Liberal Ass n., 85, 

Orchestras, Canadian. 224. 

Orders, money & express, 5. 

Organization of charity, 286-290. 

Origins of people, 15. 

Orillia, 262. 

Ottawa, 1, 14, 16, 46, 111, 114, 
127, 128, 181, 193, 20>2. 203, 
20.8, 219, 221, 222. 223, 239. 
269. 281, 284; relief soc., 288. 

Owen Sound, 183, 193, 203. 

Parks, Municipal, 244. 

Parole System, 282, 283. 
Patriotic Societies, Leagues, etc., 

45; 312-314. 

Peace Centenary, Appendix A. 
Penitentiaries, 279. 

Pensions, Widows , 62, 88, 89. 
Periodicals for Women, 201, 202. 
Peterborough, 1, 14, 194, 203, 224. 


Playgrounds, Ass ns, etc., 267, 268. 
Pocket Testament League, 309. 
Police Women, 180, 266, 279, 282. 
Political Status of Women, 68-86. 
Population statistics, 12-16. 
Port Arthur, 2, 62, 69, 183, 203, 

237, 240, 288, 309. 
Ports, Ocean, 20. 
Postage, 1-5; post cards, 1; Postal 

Notes, 5; P.O. Savings Banks, 5. 
Precedence, 43-45. 
Presbyt. Woman s Miss Soc., 302- 

Press Club, Canadian Women s, 

199, 200. 
Prevention of Cruelty, Soc. for, 


Prince Albert, 2, 108, 194, 224. 
Prisoners Aid Ass n., 283, 298; 

Regina. 288. 
Probation Officers, Women, 122- 

Property, Married Women s, 102- 

Protection, Women & Children, 

Soc., 91, 111. 

Providence, Houses of, 290, 291. 
Public Health Nurses, 252. 
Pure Milk Crusade, 126-129. 
Quakers. (See "Friends".) 
Quebec. 2, 14, 20 V 108, 144, 194, 

205. 224, 313. 
Queen Alexandra, 34. 
Queen Mary, 34, 154. 
Queen Mary s Needlework Guild, 


Recreation, 265-268. 
Reform & Correctional Agencies, 


Reformatories for Women, 279. 
Refuge, Houses of. (See 290- 

Regina, 2, 14, 16, 115, 128, 146, 

221, 224, 237, 244, 259, 267, 

281, 288, 313. 

Relief Societies, Ladies . 287-290. 
Religion, Statistics, 296. 
Residences, Women s (college), 


Retrograde legislation, 178, 179. 
Riverdale Settlement, Toronto, 284 
Robertson Memorial Institute, 304. 
Roman Catholic Societies, 304, 305. 
Rose Soc. of Ont., 311. 
Roy. Can. Academy of Arts, 218. 
Royal Canadian Institute, 311. 
Royal Commission Industrial Train 
ing and Technical Education, 

142, 187, 188. 





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Literary, Social, Political, or about 
any Person, Place, or Organization, 
Current Events, Historical Incidents, 
etc., from the press of 


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Royal family, 34, 35. 
Royal Soc. of Canada, 311. 
Rural conditions, 226, 227; pop., 

12; 6. 

Rural Survey, 227, 230. 
Safety League, and legislation, 243. 
Sailors Institute, Pt. Arthur, 291. 
Salvation Army, 33, 267. 277, 278, 

291 305 
St. Catharines, 2, 69, 137, 183, 


St. Christopher House, 284. 
St. Elizabeth Visiting Nurses 

Ass n., 253. 

St. Hyacinthe, 2, 144, 186. 
St. John, 2, 14, 16, 20, 71, 76, 

108, 20<5, 208, 224, 240, 244, 

267, 281, 288. 

St. John Ambulance Ass n., 264. 
St. Thomas, 2, 144, 194, 203. 
Sanatoria, 255. 

Sault Ste. Marie, 1, 144, 203. 
Saskatoon, 2, 115, 194, 221, 224, 

244, 259, 282, 288. 
Scholarships, "working," 185. 
School attendance; compulsory, 

135. 136; statistics, 136-138. 
Schools, Consolidated, 138-140; 

Normal, 141; Technical, 144; 

for blind and deaf, 147. 
School Dentistry, 259. 
School Fairs, Gardens, etc., 229. 
Schools for Girls, 157, 158. 
Seats in Shops, 172. 177. 
Settlements, Social, 284-285, 266- 


Settlement House, Ottawa, 284. 
Sheltering Home, Montreal, 291. 
Sherbrooke, 2, 14, 144, 194. 205. 
Shops, legislation, 169, 172-175. 
Single Tax Ass ns., 311. 
Slums, 241. 
Social Evil, 273-277. 
Social Service Club, Winnipeg, 88. 
Social Service Commission. 288. 
Social Service Congress, 309. 
Social Service Councils, 276, 277, 


Social Service Organizations, out 
side Canada, Appendix C. 
Social Service, Presbyterian, 304. 
Social Surveys, 237, 240. 
Social Training, 291-296. 
Special Classes, 261. 
Stratford, 2, 144, 203. 
Sudbury, 144. 
Statistics, Dominion, 11, 12; 

Provincial, 11, 12; population. 

12-16; immigration, 16-18; 19- 

21; denominations, 296. 
Suffrage Soc. See "Woman 

Summer Schools, 211, 228, 229. 

Sunshine Soc., Winnipeg Telegram, 


Supts. of Neglected Children, 110. 
Support, compulsory, 100-10 2. 
Sydney, 2, 14, 20., 145, 237, 244, 


Tariff, Brit., 7; Can., 7. 
Traffic Problems, 243. 
Teachers, in country, 228. 
Teachers Institutes, 142. 
Technical education, 142-145; 

directors, 143; schools, 144; 

Ass n, 311. 
Temperance, 268-273. 
Temperance and Moral Reform 

Soc., 301. 

Temperature of factories, 178. 
Three Rivers, 2, 144. 
Title, Canadian women of, 40-43. 
Toronto, 1, 14, 62, 84, 108, 111, 

125, 127, 144, 167, 183, 184. 

185, 186, 188, 191, 192, 193, 

194, 204, 205, 210, 211, 221, 

223, 224, 225, 237, 239, 242, 

245, 259, 260, 261, 262, 267, 

269, 280, 282, 284, 288, 293- 

295 312 

Toronto City Relief Soc., 289. 
Toronto Housing Co., 168, 242. 
Toronto Women s Industrial Farm, 


Town-planning, 236-241. 
Tract Soc., Upper Can., 309. 
Training, need of, 185, 186, 187- 


Training, social workers, 291-296. 
Transportation Agreement, 287. 
Tuberculosis, Can. Soc. for Pre 
vention of, 253. 
Union of Canadian Municipalities, 

Unitarian Women, Alliance of, 305, 


U. E. Loyalists Association, 216. 
Universities and Colleges, 148-154, 

167, 222, 291-295. 
University Settlements, 267, 284. 
University Women s Clubs, 156- 

157; 176, 185, 188. 
Vancouver, 2. 14, 16. 20, 46, 56, 

124, 145, 159, 184, 187, 188, 

191, 193, 197, 20>5, 221, 237, 

239, 244, 258, 261, 267, 281, 

289, 313. 
Victoria, 2, 14, 16. 20-, 71, 114, 

145, 193, 205, 229, 259, 261, 

281, 314. 

Victoria League, 53. 54. 
Victorian Order of Nurses, 262- 

264, 286. 

Vote, women s use of, 77. 
Wages. See Earnings. 
War, taxes, 8. 





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Weights and measures, 11. 

Welfare Ass n., Edmonton, 287. 

Welfare, Bureau of, Regina, 288. 

Welfare Work, 190. 

Well-Baby Clinics, 126. 

Western Art Ass n., 219. 

White Slave Traffic, 274, 277. 

Windsor, 2, 14, 204, 215. 

Winnipeg, 2, 14, 47, 62, 73, 85, 
89, 128, 145 183, 184, 188, 190, 
193, 205, 215, 218, 221, 222, 
224, 236, 240, 241, 259, 261, 
267, 290, 292, 296, 314. 

Woman, municipal inspector, 158: 
on Bd. of Educ., 159; on Uni 
versity Senate, 160. 

Woman Suffrage Ass us, interna 
tional, 78, 79; national, 79; 
prov., 80.; local, 80-82, 105, 313. 

Women professors and lecturers 
(see Universities); also 159; 
med. inspectors of schools, 160; 
physicians, 159, 161; lawyers, 
159; dentists, 163; in civil ser 
vice, 166; in business, 166; fac 
tory inspectors, 180; in domestic 
service, 184. 

Woman s Court, 280. 

Women, distribution of, 13. 

Women correspondents, Labour 
Gazette, 184. 

Womeu Grain Growers Ass n., 234. 

Women, with honorary degrees, 

Women s Art Ass n. of Can., 220. 

Women s Ass ns. (universities, 
etc.), 155, 156. 

Women s Canadian Clubs, 46-49. 

W.C.T.U. history, 270, 271; pub 
lications, 272; mission to for 
eigners, 272; officers, 272, 273. 

Women s College Hosp. and Dis 
pensary, 160, 262. 

Women s Conservative Club, 85. 

Women s Co-operative Guild, 107. 

Women s Welcome Hostels, etc., 
33, 194. 

Women s Work Exchanges, 191. 

Woodstock, 194, 262. 

Writers, women, 195-199. 

Y.M.C.A., 296, 311. 

Y.W.C.A., 306-307; homes, 192. 

Zenana Bible & Med. Mission, 308. 


Who have kindly supplied special articles or information or are quoted. 
A few other names, such as those of the first woman doctor, lawyer, etc., 
are included. See "General Index." 

Aberdeen, Countess of, 58. 

Adams, Thomas, 31. 

Addams, Jane, 267. 

Archibald, W. P., 282, 283. 

Arnoldi, Miss, 314. 

Ball, A. H., Depty. Minister Edu 
cation, Sask., 76. 

Bertrand, Mrs. W., 230. 

Beynon, Lillian K., 109. 

Bishop, Dr. G. J., 301. 

Boulton, Miss, 46, 47. 

Bridle, Augustus, 221. 

Brittain, Horace L., 180. 

Broderick, J. Joyce, 29, 30. 

Bryce, Dr., 20, 21. 

Burke, Inspector (factories), 178, 

Burnett, A. H. (Neighborhood 
Workers Ass n.), 288. 289, 309. 

Campbell, R. H., Supt. Education, 
P.E.I., 75. 

Calhoun, Alex., 291. 

Carnochan, Miss, 195. 

Carson, Miss S. L., 283-285. 

Casson, C. W., 202, 203. 

Chadwick, R. B., 122; Appendix D 

Charlton-Salisbury, Mrs., 233. 

Choquet, Judge, 122. 

Clarke, G. B., 88. 

Colclough, T. A., 94. 

Cooke, Rev. W. A.. 301. 

Copeland. Mrs. L. B., 176, 188. 

Crawford, Dr. Mary, 80, 259. 

Cross, Hon. C. W., 94. 

Cummings, Mrs. Willoiighby, 277. 

Daniel, Mrs. J. W., 313. 

Davidson, Miss M. M., 167. 
Derick, Prof. Carrie, 167, 188. 
Desjardins, Alphonse, 107. 
Dickey, Edwin. 288. 289. 
Dignam, Mrs., 57, 66-68, 220. 
Doyle, Lucy S., 225. 
Edgar, Lady, 56, 57. 
Edwards, Mrs. H. M., 71, 96. 
Ewing. Mr.. 46. 
Fairbairn, R.L., 27. 
Falk, J. H. T., 245 (Social Train 
ing Rep.), 292, 293. 
Fetherstonhaugh, Mrs. 49-54. 
Fitzgibbon, Miss M. Agnes, 33. 
Fletcher, R., Dep y Min. Education, 

Man., 76. 
Goldie, Dr., 251. 

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THE METROPOLITAN is offering to public health 
officers the co-operation of its 11,000 agents who visit 
the homes of 10,000,000 policy holders every week. 

THE PRIME MOTIVE is to hasten the day when the 
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and appreciate the motiveswhich inspire health officers 
in their activities. Then 

THEIR CO-OPERATION can be depended upon for the 
enforcement of laws and ordinances ; 

THEIR HELP can be secured to enable health officers 
to obtain the appropriations necessary for their work. 

NEEDED LEGISLATION can be secured by the moral pressure which 
policyhoiders can bring to bear both through correspondence 
and by person;;! interviews with aldermen, councilmen and 
members of state legislatures. 

THE METROPOLITAN has offered the services of its agents to the 
health officers of cities of 20,000 or more population. These 
men have participated in some notable health campaigns. 

C| A circular distributed to 300,000 industrial policyhoiders 
helped enforce the St. Louis tenement house ordinance. 

<| In 1914, our agents helped in city cleaning campaigns in 
148 cities. 

<! "The Child," our booklet on the care of babies and young 
children, is mailed by some health officers to addresses taken from 
their daily records of births. 

J The booklets Teeth, Tonsils and Adenoids," and 
"Health of the Worker," are being used as text books in the 
public schools. 

<| In certain cities, the children of the "Health and Happiness 
League" have been organized into juvenile municipalities to aid 
the officials in enforcing local ordinances. 

^he Metropolitan stands for and 
Worlds for public health. 

The Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Co. of New York, 1 Madison Ave. 



Gordon, Dr. Margaret, 163. 
Grant, Jane, 251. 
Grenfell, Dr., 308. 
Groves, Mrs. W. E., 266. 
Guyon, Inspector (factories), 178. 
Hanna, Hon. W. J., 282. 
Hamilton, Mrs. L. A., 232 
Hastings, Dr. 0. J. O., 90, 126, 

235, 24.1. 

Henderson, Mrs. Rose, 89. 
Hill, Miss H. M., 60, 217, 313. 
Hind, Miss Cora, 109, 200. 
Hoskin, Miss, 33. 
Hurdon, Dr. Eliz., 160. 
Hustin, W. J., 229. 
Ingles, Archdeacon, 298. 
Jackson, Annie, 123. 
Jacobs, Rabbi Solomon, 300. 
Jamieson, Mrs. R. R., 124. 
Johnson, Dr. Franklin, Jr., 293. 
Johnson, Pauline, 195, 198. 
Kelso, J. J., 110, 111, 270. 
Kennedy, Inspector (factories), 


Kerr, Frank, 183, 184. 
Knowles, Mrs., McG., 218. 
Kyle, Fergus, 218. 
Lee, W. W., 22, 23. 
Loeser, Mrs. H. N., 289. 
Locke, Dr., 209. 

Macdonell, Mr. (immig. officer), 27. 
MacDougall, Rev. John, 14, 226, 


MacEachern, Dr. M. T., 251: 
MacKay. A. H., Supt Education, 

N.S., 76. 
MacKenzie, Dep y Min. Education, 

Alta., 75. 
MacMurchy, Dr. Helen, 124, 196, 

261, 262. 
MacMurchy, Marjory, 184, 188. 


Martin, Clara Brett, 159. 
Mathers, F. F., 74, 94. 
Mathieson, Hon. J. A., 94. 
McCullough, Mr., 47. 
McKay, Dr. A. C., 144. 
McKellar, Dr. Margaret, 308. 
McWilliams, Mrs.. 156. 
Mparns, Mrs. F. G., 109. 
Mills, R. E., 245. 
Minehan, Rev. Fr.. 86. 
Malloy, T. M., Appendix D. 
Monahan, A. C., 138. 
Moore, Dr. Albert, 276, 277, 301. 
Moule, Bishop, 312. 
Neufeld, Miss, 22. 
NUTSPV, W. R., 211. 
O Suliivan, Mrs., 279. 
Owen, A. B., 24. 
Page, S. Spencer, 115. 

Parker, Mrs. Annie, 70. 
Parsons, Mrs. H. W., 231. 
Patterson, Dr. Margaret, 280. 281, 


Pineo, A. V., 94. 
Porter, Dr. G. D., 253. 
Potter, Jessie C., 209, 210. 
Plummer, Miss, 314. 
Plumptre, Mrs., 296, 814. 
Ratte, Miss, 28. 
Ravenhill, Miss Alice, 233. 
Read, Miss Ada, 206. 
Renton and Phillimore, 96. 
Reynolds, Inspector, 181. 
Rice, Miss, 156. 
Ring, Inspector (factories), 178- 


Ringrose, H.. 96. 
Roberts, Miss Ellison, 28. 
Robinson, Alex., Supt., Education, 

B.C., 76. 

Roland, C. F., 183, 184. 
Ryerse, Dr, 163. 
Saul, Mrs. J. C., 157. 
Saunders, Miss Una, 307. 
Scott, W. E., 231. 
Seath, Dr., 142. 
Sexton, Mrs. S. W., 187. 
Shearer, Rev. J. G., 275, 276. 
Sifton. Hon C.. 244. 
Slatter, Lieut., 225. 
Small, Mrs. Sidney, 83, 84. 
Smart, C. Bogae, 25. 
Smith, R, H., 47. 
Spence, Alderman F. S., 268, 269. 
Spencer, Finlay, 283. 
Starr, Mrs. F. N. G., 46. 
Staton, S., 210, 211. 
Stowe, Dr. Emily, 69, 70. 
Stowe-Gullen, Dr. Augusta, 159. 
Strong, Howard, 286. 
Strong, Margaret K., 158. 
Struthers, Dr. W. E., 260. 
Struthers, Mrs., 259. 
Torrington, Mrs., Pres. Nat. 

Council, 61. 

Tory, Mrs. John A., 86. 
Van Koughnet, Mrs. A., 85. 
Walton, Dean, 103, 104, 105. 
Warbasse, Bertha Bradley, 190. 
Wells, Dr. (dentist). 163. 
Wetherell, Alice, 168. 
Wrenshall. Irene B., 163. 
Wright, Mrs. Gordon, 270-273. 
Woodhouse. Dr. Catherine, 160. 
Woodsworth, J. S., 23 t 188, 189, 


Yeomans, Mrs. Mary, 123. 
Youmans, Mrs. Letitia, 271. 
Zeglinski. B., 276. 


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